IPIS Briefing March 2021 – Africa: armed violence and the illicit arms trade

The IPIS briefing offers a selection of articles, news and updates on natural resources, armed conflict, Business & Human Rights and arms trade.  Every month, an editorial and related publications shed a light on a specific topic in IPIS’ areas of research.

In focus: Africa – armed violence and the illicit arms trade

In the news: Guards at Petra Diamonds’ Tanzanian Mine deliberately modified ammunition to inflict greater damage; New CEP Report Reveals that Illicit Trade in East Africa is Funding Extremists, Terrorists, and Warlords; Mozambique’s extremist violence poses threat for neighbours.

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This briefing is produced with the financial assistance of the European Union. The contents of this document are the sole responsibility of IPIS and can under no circumstances be regarded as reflecting the position of the European Union.


The roots of armed conflict and violence in parts of Africa are deep and complex, centered around weak and failing states stemming from the legacy of colonial domination and coming to terms with post-Cold War political, economic, and cultural changes. Generally speaking, Africa’s 54 countries are by far, the least documented region in terms of data collection on crimes, violence and small arms trading. Nonetheless, by analysing quantitative data and reliable case studies with appropriate caution, researchers have attempted to uncover and explain recurring patterns and variations of pervasive armed violence and arms trafficking in many African countries.

Research on armed conflict and violence has focused on the interplay of various factors including widespread extreme poverty and marginalization, patrimonial governance by elites, ethnic, and religious factionalism, the high dependency on natural resource extraction, and the use of excessive force to address dissent. Arms embargo investigation teams from the United Nations as well as researchers from non-governmental organizations and journalists have carried out detailed case studies of illicit trafficking in Africa over the past three decades.

Major structural factors contributing to the illicit trade of small arms and light weapons in Africa are considered in a new chapter in the forthcoming book “Gun Trafficking and Violence. From The Global Network to The Local Security Challenge”. (*) The majority of Africa’s 54 states have struggled to establish effective regulatory systems to control small arms trading activities and ensure their legitimate possession and use.

Citing concrete cases and data, the authors illustrate how demand for such weapons is driven by very high levels of recurring armed conflict as well as pervasive patterns of armed violence and political conflict and repression. Most supplies are originally imported from outside the continent but mismanagement and corruption in procurement and stockpile security, as well as cross border trafficking and political rivalries, contribute to their diversion into a multitude of illicit markets and into the hands of unauthorized users including organised crime and terrorist groups.

It is argued that, in order to contribute to the prevention of serious crime, conflict and abuse with such weapons in Africa, governments will have to at least address the following crucial challenges: on the demand side: (i) dysfunctional governance and ‘the weak state’; and (ii) violent conflicts over natural resources; and on the supply side; (iii) leakages from stock piles; and (iv) the covert arming of opposition groups in neighbouring states.

The authors argue that frameworks of international law and standards could provide African states with a relatively comprehensive basis to develop systems of national regulation and accountability for the trade and use of small arms, but such developments depend on much greater injections of political will and public awareness of the problems and solutions, as well as the provision of appropriate technical and financial assistance by the international community.


(*) Wood B., Danssaert P. (forthcoming May 2021). “Africa – Armed Violence and the Illicit Arms Trade”. In Esparza D., Ricart C., Vargas E. (eds.) Gun Trafficking and Violence. From The Global Network to The Local Security Challenge. Palgrave: London. (



The EU Conflict Minerals Regulation and the Labyrinth of Brexit (pdf) | March 2021 | Squire Patton Boggs

The initial provisions of Regulation (EU) 2017/821 of the European Parliament and of the Council laying down supply chain due diligence obligations for Union importers of tin, tantalum and tungsten, their ores, and gold originating from conflict-affected and high-risk areas (the “EU Conflict Minerals Regulation”) took effect in 2017.

UCLA researchers evaluate efforts to curb trade of conflict minerals | 30 March 2021 | UCLA Newsroom

A new report co-authored by UCLA researchers has found that those so-called due diligence programs have fostered “meaningful progress” in the Democratic Republic of Congo, one of the countries targeted by the initiatives. But child labor and other violations are still taking place.

Human Rights Due Diligence Legislation in Europe – Implications for Supply Chains to India and South Asia| 26 March 2021 | DLA Piper

The tragic collapse of the Rana Plaza factory in Bangladesh in 2013, which claimed the lives of over 1,000 people, confirmed for European lawmakers the need to establish a strict liability regime for corporate supply chains. Accordingly, the concept of mandatory human rights due diligence for companies is gaining momentum in Europe. These legislative initiatives suggest imposing significant challenges and severe liabilities on companies that procure their products through supply chains from India and South Asia and sell them in Europe.

AngloGold Ashanti rolling out in-situ TSF bioremediation at Geita gold mine in Tanzania | 26 March 2021 | International Mining

AngloGold Ashanti in its just released 2020 Sustainability report says it is rolling out a novel in-situ water remediation project at the Geita mine in Tanzania, working with a local Tanzanian/German joint venture partner that will use a process where naturally occurring bacteria directly remediates sulphate in groundwater. The technology – known as in-situ TSF bioremediation – AGA says is groundbreaking.

Guards at Petra Diamonds’ Tanzanian Mine deliberately modified ammunition to inflict greater damage | 25 March 2021 | RAID

Response to report published by RAID (pdf) | 25 March 2021 | Petra Diamonds Ltd

Zenith Security guards employed at Petra Diamonds’ Williamson Mine in Tanzania deliberately swapped rubber projectiles with metal shot in their weapons, causing serious harm to local residents shot on the company’s concession, UK corporate watchdog RAID said today. Guards were also issued with metal projectiles in contrast to what senior management said was its policy.

DRC: They Exposed an Alleged Money Laundering Network. Then They Were Sentenced to Death | 24 March 2021 | VICE

Gradi Koko Lobanga and Navy Malela found out about their sentences on social media, without they or their lawyers ever stepping foot in a court.

Dan Gertler: The man at the centre of DR Congo corruption allegations | 23 March 2021 | BBC

The Biden administration recently re-imposed sanctions on Israeli businessman Dan Gertler over alleged massive corruption in the Democratic Republic of Congo’s lucrative mining business. Journalist Franz Wild reports on his remarkable rise, and his alliance with former President Joseph Kabila which even saw him being appointed a Congolese diplomat.

Beny Steinmetz: The allies working to shield the tycoon’s business empire | 20 March 2021 | The Africa Report

In his international legal battle with George Soros, Beny Steinmetz is assisted by high-profile lawyers and communications advisers, while his loyal allies manage his affairs with discretion. Read on for an in-depth look at the Franco-Israeli businessman’s contacts.

Mossad Chief Campaigned Trump Admin to Ease Sanctions on Israeli Mining Tycoon Dan Gertler | 19 March 2021 | Haaretz

Israel Pushed Trump Officials to Lift Sanctions on Dan Gertler | 19 March 2021 | Bloomberg

Mossad’s Yossi Cohen and Israel’s former U.S. envoy Ron Dermer ‘spoke with top U.S. officials over many months’ on Dan Gertler’s case, Bloomberg reports.

Towards a mandatory EU system of due diligence for supply chains – Realities and consequences (VIDEO 1h 27m) | 17 March 2021 | Euractiv

The Commission is working on a legislative proposal for a European due diligence for supply chains. The proposal intends to oblige companies to analyse and monitor their business partners at all stages of their supply chain and to reveal violations of human rights and activities harmful to the environment or violating working conditions.

Beny Steinmetz’s African business ventures, where he’s good at taking risks | 17 March 2021 | The Africa Report

After being sentenced to five years in prison on a bribery conviction, Beny Steinmetz continues to wage a legal battle of global proportions. Who is this Franco-Israeli businessman who is on first name terms with the world’s most powerful leaders? The Africa Report had access to an exclusive interview with Steinmetz in Geneva.

United Nations Targets Corruption and Illicit Cross-Border Finance | 16 March 2021 | Ballard Spahr LLP | JD Supra

On March 2, 2020 the United Nations released a Report on Financial Integrity For Sustainable Development (the “Report”). Although the Report is lengthy and wide-ranging, we will focus here on the portions of the Report which target the humanitarian toll of Illicit Financial Flows (IFFs) from money laundering, tax abuse, cross-border corruption, and transnational financial crime – all of which can drain resources from sustainable development, worsen inequality, fuel instability, undermine governance, and damage public trust. We also will focus on the portions of the Report which make recommendations designed to expand anti-money laundering (“AML”) compliance.

Mandatory human rights and ESG due diligence in Europe – a race to the top? | 12 March 2021 | Herbert Smith Freehills LLP

New E.U. Measure on Environmental and Human Rights Due Diligence Has Far-Reaching Implications for Companies Operating in Europe and Beyond | 26 March 2021 | Foley Hoag LLP | JD Supra

On 10 March 2021 the European Parliament voted by a large majority to adopt an ambitious report of the Committee for Legal Affairs, calling for the introduction of far reaching mandatory human rights and ESG due diligence requirements for companies domiciled or operating in the EU. One week before, the German government had reached an agreement on a draft human rights due diligence law, albeit one which is significantly less ambitious than the legislative proposal endorsed by the European Parliament.

Additional ESG Obligations to Enter Into Force for German Companies | 10 March 2021 | Latham’s Environment, Land & Resources | Latham & Watkins LLP

Germany to implement supply chain law against exploitation | 3 March 2021 | DW

Gesetz über die unternehmerischen Sorgfaltspflichten in Lieferketten | 3 March 2021 | Bundesministerium für Arbeit und Soziales

Will German Banks Have to Scrutinize Their Customers for ESG Compliance? | 26 March 2021 | Jones Day | JD Supra

German Federal Government Agrees On Act On Human Rights Due Diligence Obligations Of Companies | 29 March 2021 | Morrison & Foerster LLP | JD Supra

On 3 March 2021, the German government adopted the draft Corporate Due Diligence in Supply Chains Act (Gesetz über die unternehmerischen Sorgfaltspflichten in Lieferketten), which is intended to oblige large German companies to better fulfil their responsibilities in the supply chain with regard to internationally recognized human rights by implementing core elements of human rights due diligence. The draft law will now be introduced in the legislative procedure and is expected to be passed this summer. If passed, the new law will enter into force in January 2023.

Sanctions Are Reimposed on Israeli Billionaire Granted Relief Under Trump | 8 March 2021 | NYT

The Biden administration moved on Monday to reimpose financial sanctions on an Israeli mining executive who had turned to a team of lobbyists to have the measures eased during President Donald J. Trump’s final days in office.

«Magnitsky Act» européen: l’inquiétante double-face d’une loi aux accents humanistes | 5 March 2021 | l’Opinion

Le 7 décembre dernier, l’Union européenne s’est dotée d’un nouvel instrument pour sanctionner les violations graves des droits de l’homme. L’information est quasiment passée inaperçu en Europe, où les médias se focalisent depuis un an sur la pandémie de covid-19. Annoncée par la présidente de la Commission européenne, Ursula von der Leyen, la nouvelle loi permet de cibler des personnes physiques ou morales, étatiques ou non, quels que soient leur nationalité ou le pays où ces violations auraient été perpétrées.

Supreme Court confirms UK parent company liability for acts or omissions of a foreign subsidiary: considerations for due diligence, restructurings and compliance | 4 March 2021 | Dechert LLP

In an important judgment relating to the English court’s jurisdiction over an environmental tort claim, the UK Supreme Court has confirmed recent authority that a UK-domiciled parent company can be liable in tort for acts or omissions by a foreign subsidiary. The decision rejects a traditional strict approach to corporate separation with the courts looking instead at how a group of companies are managed and operated in practice.

Let’s Talk About Conflict | 4 March 2021 | Rapaport

The discussion surrounding conflict diamonds has evolved. Frustrated by the failure of the Kimberley Process (KP) to address today’s broader ethical challenges, the trade has developed several programs to compensate. Groups such as the Responsible Jewellery Council (RJC) and private entities have systems in place to assure buyers that their diamonds can be fully accounted for, have done no harm and have, in fact, uplifted communities along the way.

Congolese Whistleblowers, Who Allegedly Exposed Oligarch’s Efforts To Evade US Sanctions, Identify Themselves | 2 March 2021 | The Dissenter

Navy Malela and Grady Koko were behind disclosures about Israeli businessman Dan Gertler and his corrupt dealings to launder money and acquire new mining assets.

Okpabi and others v Royal Dutch Shell plc and another – UK Supreme Court provides further clarification on parent company liability for the actions of its foreign subsidiary | 1 March 2021 | MayerBrown LLP

The UK Supreme Court has handed down its judgment in the case of Okpabi and others v Royal Dutch Shell Plc and another. The judgment makes it clear that courts should not conduct a “mini-trial” when determining a jurisdictional challenge, and that at the interlocutory stage the court should be focussed on what is said in the Particulars of Claim – unless it can be shown that the assertions are demonstrably untrue or unsupportable.


No Viable Future for Conflict-Free, Traceable, Responsible Gold from Democratic Republic of Congo Without Major Shifts in Market Expectations: New Report | 31 March 2021 | Impact

Until the gold industry, donors, and consumers prioritize and support a development and rights-based approach that leverages the market, the future is unpromising for conflict-free, traceable, responsible gold from Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC).

Shell, Nigeria’s Aiteo Locked in Legal Battle Over Loan Default | 28 march 2021 | Bloomberg

Royal Dutch Shell Plc and seven banks accused one of Nigeria’s largest oil producers of defaulting on loan repayments that stand at more than $900 million and are locked in a court battle to reclaim the money, legal documents show.

6 Ugandans to face trial for illegal logging in Nimule | 25 march 2021 | Radio Tamazuj

The police in South Sudan’s Eastern Equatoria State Nimule town say six Ugandan nationals arrested for illegal logging in Mugali 2 Melijo area over the weekend will face trial.

Cleaning the Emirates’ Gold: A Matter of Foreign and Financial Policy | 24 march 2021 | International Policy Digest

While the Middle East is a relatively minor player in the extraction of gold, cash-rich Gulf states ensure that the region remains an essential feature of a multibillion-dollar industry. None more so than the United Arab Emirates, with Dubai among the world’s leading buyers and sellers of gold products. Conversely, a series of media investigations also point to the country’s hand in more questionable transactions of this precious metal.

How Magufuli surprised mining corporates with drastic reforms | 24 march 2021 | Business Daily Africa

The late President Magufuli of Tanzania will be remembered as the leader who was ready to “bulldoze” bureaucracy and status quo to promptly create socio-economic changes. With speed and resoluteness, he specifically changed the legal, regulatory, and fiscal frameworks governing the foreign dominated mining sector, all within two years of his presidency.

New regulations proposed to save alluvial diamond industry | 23 march 2021 |

We’ve got a very special commodity and we need certain exemptions and certain different rules for us’: Lyndon De Meillon – deputy chair, Sadpo.

Dans les mines de cobalt de RDC, des « creuseurs » et leurs enfants | 21 march 2021 | La Croix

Diverses initiatives tentent de juguler le travail des enfants dans les mines de cobalt congolaises, pointé du doigt par les ONG.

China’s Wanbao starts cobalt production in DRC | 15 march 2021 | ArgusMedia

Chinese copper producer Wanbao Mining has produced the first batch of cobalt hydroxide at its Pumpi copper-cobalt mine in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC).

Sudan to develop gold mines once linked to warlord’s family | 15 march 2021 | Mining Weekly

Sudan dispatched a research team to revitalize a network of gold mines in Darfur previously linked to the family of the country’s most powerful militia leader.

Illicit mineral trade | 15 march 2021 | University of Delaware

Even in an era of information overload, where it seems like no piece of information can slip through the cracks without being scrutinized, when it comes to the shipment and supply of illicitly-sourced materials in energy-critical minerals, there are common gaps and issues that emerge across the global supply chain.

Rwanda Police Arrests Two With 630kgs Of Smuggled Minerals | 14 march 2021 | Taarifa

Police in Ngororero District, on Friday March 12, impounded a vehicle–Toyota Land Cruiser plate number RAC 251G–in Ndaro Sector loaded with 630kgs of smuggled coltan and cassiterite minerals.

Trafic illégal d’or : les pays d’Afrique centrale et de l’Est continuent de perdre des milliards de dollars | 12 March 2021 | Agence Ecofin

En Afrique centrale et de l’Est s’est développé ces dernières années un vaste réseau de trafic d’or dans les zones de conflits et à haut risque. Entre groupes armés, commerçants criminels ou encore politiciens malveillants, ils sont nombreux à entretenir (et profiter de) la contrebande qui fait perdre des milliards de dollars chaque année aux pays de la région. Dans un nouveau rapport publié le 22 février, The Sentry dénonce le phénomène pour lequel il préconise comme moyen d’éradication une collaboration de tous les acteurs de la chaine de valeur de l’or.

Zimbabwe: Who wins and who loses in the rush for diamonds? | 11 March 2021 | The Africa Report

Since diamonds were discovered in the Marange fields in 2001, non-governmental organisations have been looking into abuse and dodgy dealings.

Reversing the ‘Resource Curse’ in Africa – What Can Be Done? | 10 March 2021 | Africa in Fact | AllAfrica

The African continent is rich in natural resources like gold, diamonds, oil, bauxite, coltan, and much more. Several countries such as Nigeria, Angola, Democratic Republic of Congo and Chad, among others, have not been able to translate these resources into development for the benefit of its people.

RCA : appel au renforcement de la vigilance vis-à-vis des diamants de conflits | 6 March 2021 | Corbeau News

Une association professionnelle du secteur économique des diamants a appelé à renforcer la vigilance sur la qualité et l’origine des diamants provenant de Centrafrique et des pays limitrophes.

Congo bans mining in South Kivu village after gold rush | 4 March 2021 | Reuters

A gold rush drawing thousands to a village in Congo’s South Kivu province has driven authorities to ban mining there until more oversight is established, the provincial mines minister said on Thursday.

Sudan imposes new controls over gold trade | 1 March 2021 | Middle East Monitor

Sudanese yesterday announced the adoption of a new plan to reform its economy based on imposing controls over smuggling gold, the New Khaleej reported.

Les diamants originaires de Centrafrique sous haute surveillance | 1 March 2021 | Mondafrique

Le Conseil mondial des diamants (World Diamond Council, WDC) et le Centre mondial du diamant d’Anvers (Antwerp World Diamond Center, AWDC) ont appelé les acteurs du commerce mondial de diamants à faire preuve d’une grande prudence lors de la manipulation de diamants bruts qui pourraient provenir de République centrafricaine (RCA).

The role of diamonds in fuelling conflict: breaking the link between the illicit transaction of rough diamonds and armed conflict as a contribution to prevention and settlement of conflicts (pdf) | 23 February 2021 | UN General Assembly


RCA : Vers l’intégration des femmes dans le contrôle des armes légères et de petit calibre | 28 March 2021 | Corbeau News

L’organisation féminine, WILPF-Groupe Centrafrique en partenariat à GENSAC, a échangé avec la COMNAT, pour envisager l’intégration des femmes centrafricaines dans la lutte contre la prolifération, la circulation illicite des armes légères et de petit calibre. Cet atelier d’échange entre les deux parties a eu lieu le vendredi 27 mars 2021 à l’Ecole nationale des Arts de Bangui.

Prolifération et circulation illicite des armes légères et de petit calibre: les États membres de la CEDEAO organisent la riposte contre le fléau | 24 March 2021 |

Les États membres de la Communauté Économique des États de l’Afrique de l’Ouest (CEDEAO) ont pris part ce mardi 23 mars 2021 à l’ouverture de l’atelier régional de gestion des stocks d’armes et munitions (PSSM) et coopération policière et judiciaire contre la prolifération et la circulation illicite des armes légères et de petit calibre.

Trafic de munitions à Beni : des officiers militaires déjà sur le terrain pour appuyer les enquêtes | 22 March 2021 |

Une délégation militaire est arrivée ce lundi 22 mars dans la ville de Beni (Nord-Kivu) après l’arrestation d’une bande de trafiquants de munitions composée de certains éléments des forces armées de la République Démocratique du Congo (FARDC) et de l’Institut congolais de conservation de la nature (ICCN).

Nord-Kivu : démantèlement d’un réseau de trafiquants d’armes entretenu par des officiers FARDC et des conservateurs des Parcs | 16 March 2021 |

Au Nord-Kivu, les services de sécurité de la ville de Béni à l’Est de la République Démocratique du Congo ont démantelé un réseau de trafiquants d’armes ce lundi 15 mars 2021. D’après les sources de la, certains officiers supérieurs et subalternes de l’armée et deux conservateurs des Parc nationaux sont parmi les criminels interceptés avec une cargaison des munitions retrouvée dans une maison dans la ville de Beni.

U.S. blacklists groups in Congo, Mozambique over Islamic State links | 11 March 2021 | Reuters

The United States on Wednesday blacklisted two Islamist extremist groups in the Democratic Republic of Congo and Mozambique as foreign terrorist organizations over accusations of links to Islamic State (ISIS).

Turkey’s Ejder Yalcin combat vehicle makes global mark | 10 March 2021 | Anadolu Agency

4×4 armored vehicle made by Turkish firm being used by many countries in Middle East, Gulf, Asia, Africa, Europe.

NCACC challenged by poor reporting, outdated IT systems | 10 March 2021 | DefenceWeb

Parliament’s Joint Standing Committee on Defence (JSCD) has raised a number of concerns over the National Conventional Arms Control Committee (NCACC), including outdated IT systems, poor reporting and End User Certificates.

Somali commandos trained by Turkey back home | 9 March 2021 | Anadolu Agency

A Turkish military aircraft carrying a contingent of Somali commandos who had completed their training in Turkey landed in the Somali capital Mogadishu on Monday.

Civilians own more arms than security officials in Nigeria | 9 March 2021 | The Guardian (Nigeria)

In Nigeria civilians are in possession of more arms than security officials, a report from SBM Intelligence said. The report details how the proliferation of small arms in Africa’s largest economy is fueling insecurity in the country.

At least 20 killed in huge blasts at barracks in Equatorial Guinea | 7 March 2021 | The Guardian

Bata explosion: Equatorial Guinea death toll rises to 98 | 8 March 2021 | BBC News

Seek Independent Inquiry of Blast | 10 March 2021 | HRW

Dynamite explosions at military base devastate Bata (Photo essay) | 11 March 2021 | Reuters

At least 20 people have been killed and more than 600 wounded in a huge series of explosions at a military barracks in Equatorial Guinea, state television has reported.

Russia’s Wagner Group reportedly deployed in Africa | 5 March 2021 | Anadolu Agency

Although Moscow does not officially recognize its activities, Wagner – a private Russian military company – is reportedly operating under different names and structures, such as companies related to gold and diamond mining, military training, and cyber warfare.

Le doux commerce des armes apaise-t-il les conflits ? | 2 March 2021 | La vie des idées

Le commerce des armes constitue un facteur de conflictualité. En forte augmentation depuis plusieurs années, il s’avère difficile à réguler au niveau mondial, tant en raison des intérêts de certains États que de la multiplication des pôles de production dans le monde.

Congo-Brazzaville’s repressive government buys secret weapons haul from Azerbaijan | 22 February 2021 | Mail & Guardian

In January 2020, at the port of Derince on the eastern shores of the Sea of Marmara, a huge cache of weapons was loaded onto the MV Storm. The ship, which is registered in the tax haven of Vanuatu, set sail from Turkey with an arsenal of mortar shells, multiple-launch rockets, and explosives, en route from Azerbaijan to the Republic of the Congo, better known as Congo-Brazzaville.

Turkish-trained special forces take Somalia back to days of civil war | 20 February 2021 | The Arab Weekly

Protesters and the population in Mogadishu said that the special forces of the Gorgor Special Division, trained by Turkey, attacked civilians and killed demonstrators, which took Somalia back to the days of the civil war and possibly unleashing a security chaos that will benefit militant forces, especially the al-Qaeda-linked al-Shabaab extremists.


East Africa: New CEP Report Reveals that Illicit Trade in East Africa is Funding Extremists, Terrorists, and Warlords | 31 March 2021 | The Counter Extremism Project | AllAfrica

East Africa – a key security partner in the war on terror and a principal engine of economic development on the African continent—is being critically undermined by illicit trade, according to the new report An Unholy Alliance: Links Between Extremism and Illicit Trade in East Africa from the Counter Extremism Project (CEP).

Central African Republic: Rights experts concerned over ‘Russian advisers’ and close contacts with UN peacekeepers | 31 March 2021 | UN News

Russian mercenaries behind human rights abuses in CAR, say UN experts | 30 March 2021 | The Guardian

UN-appointed independent rights experts on Wednesday raised concerns over the recruitment and use of private military and foreign security contractors by the Government of the Central African Republic, and their apparent close contacts with UN peacekeepers there.

International Tribunal Upholds Conviction of Congolese Warlord | 30 March 2021 | Courthouse News Service

Bosco Ntaganda was unmoving Tuesday, with hands folded in front of him, as International Criminal Court judges dismissed the former militia leader’s appeal of war crimes and crimes against humanity.

Mozambique’s extremist violence poses threat for neighbours | 29 March 2021 | DW

On October 5, 2017, armed men carried out a pre-dawn attack on three police stations in Mocímboa da Praia, a district in Mozambique’s northern province of Cabo Delgado. The attackers killed 17 people and made away with guns and ammunition. They reportedly told the villagers that they don’t believe in Western education and would not pay taxes. Since that first ambush, the attacks have spread to several districts in the region and have become more frequent.

‘Total chaos’: survivors tell of insurgent attack in Mozambique | 29 March 2021 | The Guardian

Isis claims deadly attack in northern Mozambique | 29 March 2021 | The Guardian

The first that people in the Mozambican city of Palma knew of the attack by Islamist militants was the sound of gunfire that erupted at 4pm on Wednesday afternoon.

Sudan and rebel group sign agreement on separation of religion and state | 28 March 2021 |


The Sudanese government and a major rebel group from its southern Nuba Mountains on Sunday signed a document which paves the way for a final peace agreement by guaranteeing freedom of worship to all while separating religion and the state.

Dozens killed in attack on northern Mozambique gas town | 28 March 2021 | France24

Dozens of people were killed in an attack on the northern Mozambique town of Palma this week, a spokesman for the country’s defence and security forces said, including seven people when a convoy of cars was ambushed in an escape attempt.

Kenya and Uganda complicit in targeting of South Sudan human rights defenders | 26 March 2021 | RFI

A new report by Front Line Defenders reveals that human rights activists in South Sudan are facing threats, intimidation and harassment, with those seen as a threat by the government becoming a target.

Citizens accuse SSPDF of extortion along the Juba-Yei Road | 25 March 2021 | Radio Tamazuj

Business people and passengers plying the Juba-Yei road have accused the South Sudan People’s Defence Force (SSPDF) of extorting them through unnecessary checkpoints along the road, claims the army denied.

RCA : braquage spectaculaire d’un convoi humanitaire à Bakouma, dans la préfecture de Haut-Mbomou | 24 March 2021 | Corbeau News

Un convoi des véhicules humanitaires a fait l’objet d’un braquage spectaculaire dans la sous-préfecture de Bakouma, située à 130 kilomètres au nord de la ville de Bangassou, et à 864 kilomètres à l’est de Bangui. Il s’agit des véhicules de l’agence des Nations unies pour les affaires humanitaires (OCHA) qui ont été braquées par un groupe d’hommes lourdement armés, identifiés comme des éléments rebelles de la coalition des patriotes pour le changement (CPC).

ACLED Regional Overview – Africa (13-19 March 2021) | 24 March 2021 | ACLED | ReliefWeb

Last week in Africa, Islamist militants launched deadly attacks in the border region between Mali and Niger; heavy fighting was reported in the Oromia and Tigray regions of Ethiopia; and a former president declared himself the leader of the Coalition of Patriots for Change rebel alliance in the Central African Republic.

RCA : De quoi Wagner est-il coupable ? | 23 March 2021 | Corbeau News

What Laws Constrain This Russian Private Military Company? | 23 March 2021 | Lawfare

En 2018, lorsque la société Wagner arrive discrètement en Centrafrique, de nombreux habitants expriment leur étonnement et leur inquiétude vis à vis de ces étrangers ne parlant pas leur langue. Il était encore plus étonnant de constater l’insistance de ces mercenaires pour installer leurs bases en province, dans des zones riches en ressources naturelles…

Beheadings’: Aid workers wait for visas as violence intensifies in Mozambique | 23 March 2021 | Mail & Guardian

The death toll in Mozambique’s Cabo Delgado insurgency already exceeds 2 000 people, but there could be many more. Internally displaced people, who are the face of the country’s latest humanitarian drama, have already surpassed half a million, at more than 670 000.

RDC: soupçonné dans le meurtre du militant Chebeya, le général Numbi réfugié au Zimbabwe (sources concordantes) | 22 March 2021 | TV5Monde

L’ancien chef de la police de République démocratique du Congo (RDC), le général John Numbi, soupçonné d’être le commanditaire de l’assassinat en 2010 du militant des droits humains Floribert Chebeya et cible de sanctions occidentales, a fui au Zimbabwe, ont indiqué lundi des sources concordantes.

Niger: au moins 60 morts près de la frontière malienne | 22 March 2021 | VoA

Au moins 60 civils ont été tués dimanche dans une série d’attaques contre des villages de l’ouest du Niger proches de la frontière malienne, six jours après des attaques dans la même zone qui avaient fait 66 morts, a appris lundi l’AFP de sources sécuritaire et locale.

Barkhane: derrière les succès tactiques et la montée en puissance de la «sahélisation», le manque de stratégie? | 21 March 2021 |

Malgré les succès militaires de Barkhane, l’augmentation des effectifs européens et la pluie d’aides financières internationales, la situation au Sahel se dégrade. Retour sur un paradoxe avec Emmanuel Dupuy, président de l’IPSE et le colonel Hogard, ancien officier de Légion et des forces spéciales.

CAR ex-President François Bozizé takes charge of rebel alliance | 21 March 2021 | al-Jazeera

RCA : François Bozizé quitte le KNK pour prendre la tête de la coalition rebelle | 18 March 2021 | Corbeau News

Spokesman Serge Bozanga confirms former president agreed to become ‘general coordinator’ of alliance aiming to overthrow central government.

US deploys Green Berets to defeat ISIS-linked insurgents in Mozambique | 20 March 2021 | Business Insider

The elite Green Berets have been deployed to help defeat Islamic State insurgents accused of beheading children as young as 11 in Cabo Delgado, Mozambique.

Armed Group in Northeastern DRC Goes on Killing Rampage | 19 March 2021 | VoA

The U.N. refugee agency said an armed group in the Democratic Republic of Congo is on a rampage that has killed nearly 200 people and forced tens of thousands to flee their homes since the start of this year.

ACLED 2020: the year in review | 18 March 2021 | ACLED

ACLED’s 2020 annual report reviews the past year of data on political violence and demonstration activity around the world.

RCA : l’armée nationale et ses alliés ont repris la ville de Nana-Boguila aux mains de la CPC | 18 March 2021 | Corbeau News

La ville de Nana-Boguila, située à 70 kilomètres de Paoua sur l’axe Bossangoa, est secouée ce mercredi matin par de légers tirs d’armes automatiques des forces de défense nationale et leurs alliés russes et rwandais qui viennent de reprendre la ville aux mains des rebelles de la coalition des patriotes pour le changement (CPC) qui se retirent.

RCA : détonations d’armes à Alindao, les mercenaires russes affrontent les rebelles de la CPC | 18 March 2021 | Corbeau News

La sous-préfecture d’Alindao, située sur la route nationale 2, à 120 kilomètres au sud-Est de la ville de Bambari, est secouée depuis cet après-midi par des détonations d’armes automatiques des mercenaires russes et des rebelles de la coalition des patriotes pour le changement (CPC).

RDC: 30 morts en deux jours de combats entre l’armée et une milice en Ituri | 18 March 2021 | VoA

Trente personnes, dont onze civils, ont été tuées en deux jours de combats entre l’armée congolaise et un groupe armé actif en Ituri, dans le nord-est de la République démocratique du Congo, selon un bilan dressé jeudi par l’armée.

SSPDF, SPLA-IO trade accusations over new fighting in Maban | 18 March 2021 | Radio Tamazuj

SPLA-IO forces accused SSPDF troops of launching an attack on their position in Maban County of Upper Nile State on Tuesday, a charge the SSPDF denied. It was the latest exchange of accusations since both sides clashed in Nasir County earlier this week.

RCA : Ngaoundaye et Bakouma, les rebelles de la CPC se retirent de ces deux localités | 18 March 2021 | Corbeau News

Après le crépitement d’armes dans la nuit du lundi à mardi 16 mars, la ville de Bakouma semble retrouver un peu d’accalmie. Les rebelles du CPC semblent se retirer d’eux-mêmes de la ville. Même son de cloche aussi à Ngaoundaye, les populations ont signalé le départ des rebelles de la ville. S’agit-il de leur stratégie ?

Daech en RDC : par quel bout le prendre ? | 17 March 2021 |

L’administration Biden a décidé, jeudi 11 mars dernier, de compter les miliciens des Forces démocratiques alliées (ADF), responsables des massacres perpétrés à l’Est de la République Démocratique du Congo (RDC), parmi les « groupes terroristes » affiliés au groupe État Islamique (EI). Une décision qui suscite beaucoup d’interrogations dans l’esprit des congolais. Pourquoi avoir attendu si longtemps ? Fallait-il qu’un diplomate meurt à l’Est, en l’occurrence l’Ambassadeur italien Luca Attanasio, pour que finalement ce que beaucoup dénonçaient depuis belle lurette soit finalement pris en compte ?

Mozambique insurgency: Children beheaded, aid agency reports | 17 March 2021 | BBC

A leading aid agency says that children as young as 11 are being beheaded in Mozambique’s Cabo Delgado province.

RCA : Ramazani, le chef milicien Anti-Balaka de Bria, libéré de Ngaragba, rejoint le CPC | 17 March 2021 | Corbeau News

Le vendredi 16 mars 2018, dans la matinée, à Bria (préfecture de la Haute Kotto), une opération de la Minusca avait abouti à l’arrestation de monsieur Jean Francis Diandi alias Ramazani. Il avait été accusé de nombreux crimes, dont l’assassinat d’un Casque bleu mauritanien et marocain en 2017. Incarcéré à la maison d’arrêt de Ngaragba, ce redoutable chef milicien Anti-Balaka est désormais libre, et rejoint la coalition des patriotes pour le changement (CPC). Comment est-il devenu libre malgré les accusations de crimes contre l’humanité qui pèse contre lui ?

RCA: un premier témoignage contre la milice de Yekatom et Ngaïssona à la CPI | 16 March 2021 | RFI

Il s’agit du premier témoignage entendu dans le procès ouvert mi-février contre Patrice Edouard Ngaïssona et Alfred Yekatom devant la Cour pénale internationale (CPI). Les deux Centrafricains sont poursuivis pour crimes contre l’humanité et crimes de guerre commis en 2013 et 2014. L’accusation a appelé à la barre une victime de l’attaque du 5 décembre 2013 à Bangui.

RDC: verdict attendu contre Laurent Nsubu Katende, chef de milice du Kasaï | 16 March 2021 | RFI

En République démocratique du Congo (RDC), un verdict très attendu, ce mardi 16 mars, dans le procès d’un milicien présumé du Kasaï : celui de Laurent Nsubu Katende, présenté comme le commandant d’une milice liée à l’insurrection armée de Kamuina Nsapu. Une insurrection qui, entre 2016 et 2019, s’est opposée aux forces armées congolaises dans la province du Kasaï-Central. Selon l’ONG Trial International, cette insurrection a entraîné la mort de plus de 3 000 personnes. Plus de 80 fosses communes liées à ces massacres ont déjà été découvertes.

FG, ECOWAS-EU to train 150 ex-militants from Cross River | 16 March 2021 | Vanguard (Nigeria)

The Presidential Committee on Small Arms and Light Weapons (PRESCOM) is to train 150 ex-militants who surrendered their weapons in 2018 in Calabar for training on various skills acquisition programmes.

US special operations forces train Mozambique troops to counter ISIS threat | 16 March 2021 | Stars & Stripes

U.S. special operations troops have launched a mission to assist counterterrorism forces in Mozambique, where there are growing concerns about escalating violence by Islamic State militants.

First Witness Called in War Crimes Trial of African Militia Leaders | 15 March 2021 | Courthouse News Service

The trial against two former Central African Republic officials charged with dozens of counts of murder, torture and the destruction of religious sites is expected to take several years before a final judgment is delivered.

Armed violence involving community-based militias in greater Jonglei (January – August 2020) | 15 March 2021 | OHCHR & UNMISS | ReliefWeb

The UN issued a report on Monday calling on the South Sudanese authorities to hold accountable the military and political figures who are supporting community-based militias in the Greater Jonglei region, in order to prevent further violence.

The shipwreck of the Central African Republic… | 15 March 2021 | International Viewpoint

The Central African Republic is still not emerging from the most serious crisis it has known since it became independent. France’s policy, from the colonial period until now, partly explains the endemic violence that reigns in the Central African Republic.

The “Weaponization” of the Criminal Law in Zimbabwe | 12 March 2021 | Opinio Juris

After spending 72 days in remand detention, Zimbabwean student activist Alan Moyo was released on bail on 19 February 2021. Moyo’s lengthy pre-trial detention is sadly not unusual – it is one of numerous cases witnessed in recent months in Zimbabwe, targeting those perceived to be critical of government’s policies.

Turkey’s expansion and influence in Africa continues upward trajectory | 12 March 2021 | Daily Maverick

Without much fanfare, Turkey has steadily spread its political, economic and even military foothold across Africa. It’s gone from just 12 embassies and $100-million in foreign direct investment in 2003 to 42 embassies and $6.5-billion in 2021. Plus a five-fold increase in trade from 2003 to 2019 and 51 African cities now served by Turkish Airlines.

Senegal: Impunity for Macky Sall’s regime must end | 12 March 2021 | African Arguments

Since the arrest of leading opposition politician Ousmane Sonko on March 3, Senegal has been gripped by unprecedented popular protests. Rather than listen to the demands of the largely peaceful protest movement, the government has set out to crush it using all the means at its disposal: arbitrary arrests, the use of live ammunition, and the deployment of marauding militias.

DR Congo: Probe State Role in UN Experts’ Murder | 12 March 2021 | HRW

Authorities in the Democratic Republic of Congo should meaningfully investigate government responsibility for the 2017 murders of United Nations investigators Michael Sharp and Zaida Catalán. The administration of President Felix Tshisekedi should commit to ensuring that all those responsible for the murders are held to account and international fair trial standards are met.

Running from terror in north-east Mozambique (video) | 12 March 2021 | BBC

An Islamist insurgency in north-east Mozambique has driven more than half a million people from their homes in the past year. Aid agencies are calling it an urgent and forgotten humanitarian crisis. In a world exclusive, a BBC team reached the besieged town of Palma at the heart of the conflict – the first international journalists to do so.

Uganda: End Enforced Disappearances of Opponents | 11 March 2021 | HRW

Ugandan authorities should take immediate steps to end the ongoing abductions by suspected state agents and cease the unlawful detention without trial of opposition supporters, Human Rights Watch said today.

RCA : Bozoum, l’armée nationale reprend le contrôle du village Manga après des heures de combat | 11 March 2021 | Corbeau News

Situé à 30 kilomètres de Bozoum sur l’axe Bocaranga, le village Manga a été repris hier par les militaires de l’armée nationale appuyés par leurs alliés russes et rwandais aux mains des rebelles de la coalition des patriotes pour le changement (CPC). Désormais, les forces loyalistes ont dans leur viseur la commune de Bavara, situé à une soixantaine de kilomètres.

Spécial Mapping: l’AFDL et l’APR ont tué jusqu’à 307 499 réfugiés installés dans les camps de Bukavu | 10 March 2021 |

Le rapport Mapping publié en août 2010 est accablant. Ce document concerne les violations “les plus graves” des droits de l’homme et du droit international humanitaire commises entre mars 1993 et juin 2003 sur le territoire de la République Démocratique du Congo. Poursuivant son édition spéciale sur ce rapport Maping, vous révèle, outres multiples exactions commises par des éléments armés de l’AFDL (Alliance des Forces Démocratiques pour la Libération) composés entre-autres de Banyamulenge/Tutsi, cités dans ce document, des militaires de l’APR (Armée Patriotique Rwandaise) et des FAB (Forces Armées Burundaises), une période assez difficile pour les territoires de Walungu et Kabare au Sud-Kivu, caractérisée par une poursuite “impitoyable” des réfugiés Hutu par les forces de l’AFDL/APR qui, plus tard, ont renversé le régime du Président Mobutu.

Mozambique’s Forgotten Insurgency | 10 March 2021 | Foreign Policy

Since October 2017, more than 2,600 people—most of them civilians—have been killed in northern Mozambique, according to analysts at the Armed Conflict Location & Event Data Project. Over the past three years, a growing insurgency has plunged Mozambique’s northernmost province into violent chaos.

Coup-Proofing: Russia’s Military Blueprint to Securing Resources in Africa | 10 March 2021 | Council on Foreign Relations

In the Central African Republic (CAR), outside the capital Bangui, President Faustin-Archange Touadéra exerts little to no authority. Armed rebel groups control two-thirds of the country, including access to mining sites. Political instability is deeply rooted: CAR has endured four successful coups and two failed coups since 1979, including the unsuccessful attempt ahead of the presidential election in December last year.

La Centrafrique au cœur d’une guerre d’information | 10 March 2021 | Corbeau News

La Centrafrique, l’ex Oubangui-Chari, immensément riche en minerais et pierres précieuses, aussi vaste que la France et vingt fois plus grande que la Belgique, Jadis considéré comme un bastion du « pré-carré » français en Afrique centrale est devenue au cours des trois dernières années l’arrière-cour des ambitions russes sur le continent africain au grand dam de l’hexagone.

Death of an Ambassador and the Congolese Slaughter | 10 March 2021 | Inter Press Service

On the morning of 22nd February a jeep from the World Food Programme (WFP), followed by another one with the Italian ambassador, Luca Anastasio, was driving along Route Nationale 2 passing by The Virunga National Park, an UNESCO Congolese World Heritage Site famous for its dwindling population of unique mountain gorillas.

RCA : Bokolobo reprise par les FACA ? Le premier ministre annonce sa reprise , mais l’UPC d’Ali Darassa dément | 10 March 2021 | Corbeau News

Le Premier ministre annonce la reprise du fief du chef du groupe armé Ali Darassa, le village de Bokolobo. Ce que dément l’UPC. Mais sur le terrain, les forces loyalistes avancent depuis plusieurs semaines, alors que le 13 janvier la CPC tentait une attaque contre la capitale Bangui.

Is Turkey challenging Egyptian influence in Guinea-Bissau? | 9 March 2021 | al-Monitor

Amid regional warnings of Turkey’s growing role in West Africa, including Guinea-Bissau, Egyptian President Abdel Fattah al-Sisi received a call from Umaro Sissoco Embalo, president of Guinea-Bissau, to discuss ways to develop cooperation in the economic and security fields.

Russia’s Return to Africa | 9 March 2021 | The International Affairs Review

Russia’s announcement that it plans to open a naval base in Sudan marks a clear return of Russia to the African continent amid a push to expand its power. Since the mid-2010s, Russia has sought to reassert itself via a mix of having an official state presence on the continent and the use of private military contractors (PMCs).

Centrafrique: François Bozizé est le coordonnateur de la CPC selon un document | 8 March 2021 | RFI

En Centrafrique, l’armée poursuit son avancée sur le territoire contre la Coalition des patriotes pour le changement avec le soutien des forces bilatérales russes et rwandaises. Née le 15 décembre, on commence à connaître un peu mieux cette coalition des patriotes pour le changement (CPC). RFI a pu consulter des documents qui confirment que François Bozizé a accepté d’en devenir le coordonnateur récemment.

RCA : Kaga-Bandoro, les rebelles sont accusés d’exaction sur la population | 8 March 2021 | Corbeau News

La situation sécuritaire est encore très préoccupante dans certaines régions de la RCA. À Kaga-Bandoro, dans la Nana-Grébizi, la population vit dans la peur. Les activités des hommes armés empêchent les habitants de vaquer librement à leurs occupations. Certains habitants parlent de la nervosité des rebelles, d’autres relèvent par contre une situation d’irritabilité ou d’inquiétude de ces derniers.

A woman guerrilla fighter in Congo relates her ordeal | 8 March 2021 | Deutsche Welle

In eastern Congo, militias killed more than 2,000 people in 2020. The many rebel groups in the volatile region have several women as members. DW met a female combatant who was a victim of violence before taking up arms.

Ntaganda case: ICC Trial Chamber VI orders reparations for victim | 8 March 2021 | ICC

Today, 8 March 2021, Trial Chamber VI of the International Criminal Court (“ICC” or “Court”) delivered in a public hearing its Order on Reparations to victims under article 75 of the Rome Statute in the case of The Prosecutor v. Bosco Ntaganda.

RCA : les soldats FACA et leurs alliés poursuivent leur offensive contre les rebelles sur l’axe Amadagaza | 8 March 2021 | Corbeau News

Après la sous-préfecture de Gamboula ou les forces armées centrafricaines (FACA) et leurs alliés mercenaires russes et rwandais ont littéralement mis hors d’état de nuire les rebelles de la coalition des patriotes pour le changement (CPC) sur l’axe menant à Berberati, les troupes loyalistes poursuivent leur opération sur l’axe menant à la sous-préfecture de Amadagaza.

RCA : vive émotion à Bambari après l’assassinat des quatre jeunes par les mercenaires russes | 8 March 2021 | Corbeau News

L’affaire faisait grand bruit sur les réseaux sociaux dans tout le pays, mais également à Bambari depuis la semaine dernière. Ce jour, le 5 mars 2021, les quatre jeunes ont été arrêtés par les mercenaires russes, à leur domicile, et depuis lors, ils ne sont jamais revenus à la maison. Leurs parents ont mené des investigations auprès de la gendarmerie et de la police locale en vain.

La République centrafricaine en guerre, le gouvernement veut plus de preuve des allégations de crimes de guerre portées contre l’armée nationale et ses alliés | 8 March 2021 | Corbeau News

Depuis quelques jours, sur les réseaux sociaux et dans les rues de la capitale, les citoyens centrafricains sont nombreux à dénoncer le non-respect de droit international humanitaire et de nombreuses bavures perpétrées par les mercenaires russes, partenaires de l’armée nationale dans son opération contre les rebelles de la coalition des patriotes pour le changement.

RCA : arrivée des soldats FACA et leurs alliés russes à Paoua | 6 March 2021 | Corbeau News

Les soldats FACA et leurs alliés russes, basés à Bozoum, ont mené ce vendredi 5 mars une opération contre plusieurs positions rebelles de la COALITION DES PATRIOTES POUR LE CHANGEMENT sur l’axe Bozoum Paoua, une voie routière principale pour le ravitaillement de la capitale aux produits champêtres. Ils sont arrivés hier dans la ville de Paoua, à une centaine de kilomètres de Bozoum, suscitant l’inquiétude de la population locale.

DR Congo’s Virunga National Park: The deadly job of protecting gorillas | 3 March 2021 | BBC

Protecting the forests of Virunga National Park in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo – home to endangered mountain gorillas – could be described as one of the toughest jobs on the planet.

RCA : des mercenaires de Wagner accusés une nouvelle fois de viol sur une jeune femme dans la Lobaye | 3 March 2021 | Corbeau News

Dans une affaire, des mercenaires russes sont une nouvelle fois accusés d’avoir violé une jeune femme centrafricaine au village Boukoko, situé à 12 kilomètres de Mbaïki sur l’axe Boda, dans la préfecture de la Lobaye.

Rwandan Judiciary Under Scrutiny | 2 March 2021 | HRW

An apparent mistake has confirmed what most of the world already knew: government critic Paul Rusesabagina is unlikely to receive a fair trial in Rwanda. In a recorded video call, Rwanda’s justice minister, Johnston Busingye, admitted the government’s role in the August 2020 enforced disappearance, illegal transfer, and fair trial rights violations of Rusesabagina, whose trial on terrorism charges began on February 17.

Mozambique: Civilians killed as war crimes committed by armed group, government forces, and private military contractors | 2 March 2021 | Amnesty International

Hundreds of civilians in Mozambique have been unlawfully killed by the armed group known locally as ‘Al-Shabaab’, government security forces and a private military company hired by the government, Amnesty International said today, as it published a new report on the ongoing conflict in Cabo Delgado.

RCA : Berberati, des mercenaires russes et des FACA accueillis dans la liesse à leur arrivée dans la ville | 2 March 2021 | Corbeau News

Plusieurs dizaines des soldats de l’armée nationale, mais aussi des mercenaires russes de la société Wagner, viennent d’arriver ce mardi 2 mars à Berberati. Ils ont été accueillis par une foule de population en liesse. Désormais, leur seul objectif, affronter les rebelles de la coalition des patriotes pour le changement qui ont bloqué depuis un mois le corridor Berbera – Ti Kenzo, le seul axe de ravitaillement de la ville depuis le Cameroun.

Police killings: how does South Africa compare? | 2 March 2021 | Mail & Guardian

South African police killed someone every 20 hours last year on average, according to statistics released late last year by the South African government’s Independent Police Investigative Directorate (Ipid). The 424 deaths reported represent a slight decrease from 2018/2019 when 440 people died “as a result of police action.”

RCA : Bossangoa : De multiples défis à relever | 2 March 2021 | CorbeauNews

Plus de 14 000 personnes ont été déplacées depuis le 21 février à Bossangoa, dans le nord-ouest du pays, craignant une offensive des Forces armées centrafricaines (FACA) et de leurs alliés.

Democratic Republic of Congo : North Kivu and Ituri – Deterioration of the humanitarian situation : Beni, Mambasa and Irumu Territories (infographic) | 2 March 2021 | OCHA | ReliefWeb

Ituri (DRC) : les combats entre l’armée et le FPIC font 19 morts à Mwanga | 2 March 2021 | Topinfos24

Les Forces armées de la République Démocratique du Congo (FARDC) ont annoncé la neutralisation d’au moins 16 miliciens du Front Patriotique et Intégrationniste du Congo (FPIC) dans le village Mwanga situé non loin de la ville de Bunia c’est dans la province de l’Ituri.

Central African Republic: Situation Report, 2 March 2021 | 2 March 2021 | OCHA | ReliefWeb

In Bossangoa, thousands of displaced people need humanitarian assistance and protection. Clashes in Bambari in mid-February temporarily displaced thousands, left 36 people injured and dozens of shelters burned. A surge in violence has displaced over 276,000 people within the Central African Republic since mid-December.

The Ammunition Box or the Ballot Box? | 1 March 2021 | International Policy Digest

Like many countries in the region, the Central African Republic has been ravaged by post-election strife. The latest bout of fighting is two months old and dates from the presidential and legislative elections of December 2020.

République centrafricaine : l’horreur des violences | 1 March 2021 | Amnesty International

La situation sécuritaire s’était détériorée à quelques jours de l’élection présidentielle et des élections législatives du 27 décembre dernier à la suite de la formation par six groupes armés, de la Coalition des patriotes pour le changement (CPC) défavorable à l’organisation des élections.

RCA : quand Touadera désapprouve les soldats FACA et projette de recruter 600 miliciens d’autodéfense | 1 March 2021 | Corbeau News

Ceci n’est pas une blague, encore moins de l’amusement. C’est ce qui ressort de l’entretien du chef de l’État Faustin Archange Touadera avec l’imam de la mosquée centrale de Bangui il y a quelques jours. Il exprime sa volonté d’incorporer, en plus de ceux qui sont en formation au camp Kassaï, au moins 600 miliciens venus du PK5 ou d’ailleurs. Pour cause, il dit n’avoir plus confiance à plus de la moitié des militaires actuels qui ne « tardent pas à fuir » face aux rebelles.


Ethiopian police arrest 359 for suspected murder and illicit arms trade | 29 March 2021 | Xinhua

The Ethiopian Federal Police Commission disclosed the arrest of 359 people on suspicion of murder, illicit arms trade, money laundering and auto theft, the state-affiliated Fana Broadcasting Corporate reported Sunday.

Scale of Tigray horror adds to pressure on Ethiopian leader | 28 March 2021 | The Guardian

Pressure is mounting on Ethiopia’s prime minister, Abiy Ahmed, as the scale of horrors from his war against the northern Tigray region gradually emerge, revealing massacres, mass sexual violence and fears of ethnic cleansing.

Ethiopia’s Tigray conflict: MSF ‘witnessed soldiers killing civilians’ | 25 March 2021 | BBC

Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) staff say they witnessed the extrajudicial killing of four civilians by Ethiopian soldiers in Tigray earlier this week.

Men forced to rape family members in Ethiopia’s Tigray, says U.N. | 25 March 2021 | Reuters

More than 500 rape cases have been reported to five clinics in Ethiopia’s Tigray region, the United Nations said on Thursday, warning that due to stigma and a lack of health services the actual numbers were likely to be much higher.

Why the Tigray investigation should be conducted by the UN, alone | 25 March 2021 | African Arguments

Probe announced into alleged Tigray rights violations: UN rights office | 25 March 2021 | UN News

Any probe into war crimes that involves the AU or the government’s own human rights commission stands little chance of being effective.

Atrocity Alert No. 245: Niger, Myanmar (Burma) and Ethiopia | 25 March 2021 | Global Centre for the Responsibility to Protect | ReliefWeb

Physicians treating survivors of sexual violence in Ethiopia’s northern Tigray region claim that rape is being used as a weapon of war against the ethnic Tigrayan population. A CNN report cited testimony from nine doctors recounting that women are being gang-raped, drugged and held hostage. Doctors said that the perpetrators – the Ethiopian federal forces and allied Eritrean soldiers – were operating with impunity.

Ethiopie : Abiy Ahmed admet (finalement) la présence de forces érythréennes dans le Tigré | 24 March 2021 | Agence Ecofin

Depuis le début de la crise au Tigré en novembre 2020, plusieurs rapports d’ONG ont accusé les armées érythréennes et éthiopiennes d’exactions dans la région. Malgré les témoignages recueillis auprès des réfugiés, Abiy Ahmed et son homologue érythréen ont toujours réfuté ces allégations.

Eritreans Behind Atrocity in Northern Ethiopia, Report Finds | 24 March 2021 | Bloomberg

More than a hundred people were killed last November by Eritrean forces in the northern Ethiopian town of Axum, according to the Ethiopian independent human rights body.

U.N. calls for stop to ‘horrific’ sexual violence in Ethiopia’s Tigray | 23 March 2021 | Reuters

A dozen top United Nations officials on Monday called for a stop to indiscriminate and targeted attacks against civilians in Ethiopia’s northern Tigray region, particularly calling out reports of rape and “other horrific forms of sexual violence.”

Ethiopia’s leader says atrocities reported in Tigray war | 23 March 2021 | The Associated Press

Ethiopia’s leader on Tuesday said atrocities have been reported in Tigray, his first public acknowledgment of possible war crimes in the country’s northern region where fighting persists as government troops hunt down its fugitive leaders.

Statement on Gender-Based Violence in Tigray region of Ethiopia | 22 March 2021 | WHO

Amid a worsening humanitarian situation in the Tigray region of Ethiopia, reports of indiscriminate and targeted attacks against civilians, including rape and other horrific forms of sexual violence, continue to surface. This must stop.

EU slaps sanctions on Eritrea over human rights abuses | 22 March 2021 | Reuters

The European Union on Monday imposed sanctions on Eritrea over human rights violations and blacklisted the country’s National Security Office, which is tasked with intelligence gathering, arrests and interrogations.

Who is lobbying in the Ethiopia conflict as Coons heads to Addis Ababa | 19 March 2021 | Politico

The White House said Thursday it is dispatching Sen. Chris Coons (D-Del.), a top ally of President Joe Biden, to Addis Ababa, Ethiopia to meet with Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed at the president’s request to convey the administration’s “grave concerns about the humanitarian crisis and human rights abuses in the Tigray region,” according to a statement from national security adviser Jake Sullivan.

Tigray’s women affairs, communications bureaus confirm sexual violence in the region is rampant | 18 March 2021 | Addis Standard

A report published by DW Amharic suggested that the number of women who have been subjected to sexual violence during the conflict in Tigray regional state is unknown. The interim administration of the region stated that more than 500 women have been raped in the region’s capital, Mekelle, Adigrat and its environs between November and February alone. Up to three women come to Ayder hospital in Mekelle each day. It is said that the number doesn’t give the full picture as most victims do not make it to the hospital.

UN Rights Chief Agrees to Ethiopia Request for Joint Tigray Inquiry | 17 March 2021 | VoA

United Nations human rights chief Michelle Bachelet has agreed to an Ethiopian request for a joint investigation in the country’s northern Tigray region, where Bachelet says possible war crimes may have been committed.

Ethiopia: Hundreds executed, thousands homeless – the human cost of fighting in Tigray | 17 March 2021 | Sky News

The breadth and depth of human suffering in the Ethiopian region of Tigray is perfectly clear to humanitarian workers, human rights groups and the international diplomatic community.

Ethiopia’s Amhara Seizes Disputed Territory Amid Tigray War | 16 March 2021 | Bloomberg

An internal conflict in Ethiopia is being used to settle a long-standing territorial dispute between two of its northern states. Forces from the Amhara region took control of several areas in Tigray after backing federal troops that staged an incursion into its neighbor’s territory, said Gizachew Muluneh, a spokesman for the Amhara government. Fighting has continued in Tigray since Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed ordered the army to retaliate after forces loyal to Tigray’s ruling party attacked a military camp in November.

The Ethiopian Human Rights Roadmap: a feeble bulwark against atrocity crimes | 16 March 2021 | Ethiopia Insight

In his acceptance speech on 2 April 2018, Abiy Ahmed, Ethiopia’s new prime minister, expressed his intention to bring tectonic changes. And, indeed, Ethiopia has undergone unprecedented political and legal changes since then.

U.S. will not resume assistance to Ethiopia for most security programs | 13 March 2021 | Reuters

The State Department on Friday said Washington has decided not to lift the pause in assistance to Ethiopia for most programs in the security sector, days after U.S. Secretary of State Antony Blinken described acts in Tigray as ethnic cleansing.

Tigray: Why are soldiers attacking religious heritage sites? | 12 March 2021 | African Arguments

There are reports of Ethiopian and Eritrea troops going out of their way to loot and destroy beloved churches, mosques and monasteries.

People are starving’: New exodus in Ethiopia’s Tigray area | 11 March 2021 | The Associated Press

Skinny, hungry, fleeing threats of violence, thousands of people who have been hiding in rural areas of Ethiopia’s Tigray region have begun arriving in a community that can barely support them — and more are said to be on the way.

Blinken: Acts of ‘ethnic cleansing’ committed in Western Tigray | 10 March 2021 | CNN

Secretary of State Tony Blinken for the first time Wednesday used the term “ethnic cleansing” to describe human rights abuses he said have been carried out in the Western Tigray region of Ethiopia, calling the situation “unacceptable.”

Ethiopia supplies weapons to Sudan rebels in Blue Nile to ‘occupy’ Kurmuk: SUNA | 8 March 2021 | AhramOnline

The Ethiopian government supplied weapons and ammunition to forces of Commander Joseph Tuka in Sudan’s Blue Nile state to help them “occupy” the Sudanese Kurmuk town, Sudan’s official news agency SUNA reported on Sunday.

Brutal Gender-Based Violence in Tigray — A Personal Account | 8 March 2021 | IDN

A woman in her 40s was found dead on the road to her home. She was found with her hands tied, injured to her head and sexually assaulted. This was in Mekelle. I know her son.” This is what one of our reporters (A.G.), who herself is a young woman, has reported.

The U.N. Must End the Horrors of Ethiopia’s Tigray War | 8 March 2021 | Foreign Policy

Recent human rights investigations confirm the atrocities that journalists reported in November. A strong multilateral push can force an Eritrean withdrawal and put the region on the path to peace.

Young men take up arms in northern Ethiopia as atrocities fuel insurgency | 8 March 2021 | The Guardian

Ethiopian troops and their allies in the restive northern province of Tigray face a growing insurgency fuelled by a series of massacres and other violence targeting civilians.

U.N. seeks access to Ethiopia’s Tigray for war crimes probe | 4 March 2021 | Reuters

The United Nations’ human rights chief asked Ethiopia on Thursday to allow monitors into Tigray to investigate reports of killings and sexual violence that may amount to war crimes in the northern region since late 2020.

Leader of Tigray’s forces accuses Ethiopian and Eritrean governments of genocide | 2 March 2021 | CNN

The ousted leader of Ethiopia’s Tigray region has accused the federal government and its Eritrean allies of genocide and other crimes against humanity, calling on US President Joe Biden to dial up the pressure against “invader forces.”

Ethiopia’s Tigray region: War behind a ‘steel wall’ | 1 March 2021 | Deutsche Welle

Ethiopia has claimed that an Amnesty report painting a dark picture of the Tigray crisis supports misinformation. Now the government has invited journalists to visit Tigray — only to arrest them.