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Briefing on “Business & Human Rights in Tanzania” 2020 Quarter 2: April – June

This publication is part of the Improving monitoring, research and dialogue on Business & Human Rights in Tanzania’ project  implemented by the Tanzanian Commission for Human Rights and GoodGovernance (CHRAGG), Business and Human Rights Tanzania (BHRT) and the  International Peace Information Service (IPIS). This briefing is based on news and research published by Tanzanian and international media, journals and institutions. Its content does not necessarily reflect the views, opinions nor work of CHRAGG, BHRT or IPIS. 

 

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Editorial

The first imported case of Coronavirus disease (Covid-19) in Tanzania was reported on the 16th of March 2020 (Ref. E1). The Tanzanian government immediately issued instructions to limit the spread of the virus in the country, including capacity building of test facilities and health workers, limiting/prohibiting public meetings and international travel and awareness raising on preventive measures such as hand washing and social distancing (Ref. E2). To protect people’s livelihoods and the country’s economy, no restrictions on economic activities were imposed. Nevertheless, the global shutdown of international travel did significantly affect revenue streams from all-time strongholds such as tourism, impacting the livelihoods of many in Tanzania and especially those in small businesses (Ref. E3). In contrast, Tanzania’s extractive sector, and the export of gold specifically, continue to boost economic growth in the country, despite the global pandemic (Ref. E4, E5).

The Covid-19 pandemic brought much attention to the operations of extractive industries worldwide. Civil society organisations reported the lack of oversight on industrial mining companies during the pandemic and the immediate threats this brings to the basic rights of vulnerable communities (Ref. E6). Unprecedented challenges and hardship were also feared for the millions of people that depend on artisanal and small-scale mining (ASM) for their livelihoods (Ref. E7).

In northern Tanzania, the impact of Covid-19 was immediately evident in artisanal and small-scale mining communities. A small scoping study conducted by IPIS in gold, gemstone, diamond, salt and limestone communities (Ref. E8) revealed that mineral production, trade and communities’ livelihoods, directly and indirectly, suffered notably albeit variously from the travel bans, border closures and other preventive measures put in place (inter-)nationally to curb the spread of the virus. Not restricted by lock-down measures, artisanal mineral production continued in Tanzania, often at a reduced pace. Field mineral prices plummeted across all sectors, as mineral trade was hit hard due to the suspension of international travel which effectively shut down the (international) market for artisanal gold, tanzanite and diamond. In northern Tanzania, mineral trade continued albeit at reduced levels and with local buyers only. Challenges in the mining sector immediately trickled down to impact the available income, employment and livelihood opportunities of mining communities. With incomes reduced, communities struggled to secure basic needs. Moreover, with Covid-19 demanding all attention, solutions for other long-term struggles – such as human rights violations in the ASM sector – no longer received the attention they require.

With the country declared Covid-free in June 2020 (Ref. E9) and international air travel to/from Tanzania resumed, quick improvements were reported for ASM production, trade and miners’ incomes (Ref. E8). Whether these first steps of economic revival can be translated into a sustainable recovery of Tanzania’s different economic sectors remains to be seen.

Read more : all references from the Editorial

The following overview lists news from April 2020 till June 2020:

Resource extraction

The outbreak of Covid-19 has highlighted the importance of resource extraction to uphold Tanzania’s economy (Ref.E4). One of its strongholds is the export of gold, which is expected to stay strong during the pandemic as global demand and prices are continuously rising (Ref.R1).

Tanzania’s government is committed to enforcing laws to make sure that the country can profit from the development of the resource sector. Indeed, the government asked all mineral-producing regions to build mineral trading centers by the end of June 2020. Besides curbing illegal mineral export, regional gold trading centers will give small-scale miners direct access to a formal, regulated market for their minerals (Ref.R2). During the Covid-19 crisis, access to markets has become difficult for artisanal and small-scale miners. Miners have therefore asked assistance from the government so they can continue their activities (Ref.R3). In June, STAMICO – the State Mining Corporation – agreed to purchase gold from small-scale miners, with the intention to resume export to Dubai (Ref. R4).

The artisanal and small-scale mining (ASM) sector is facing further challenges. Their activities are reported to increasingly contribute to deforestation, e.g. in Mkweni Forest, Geita region (Ref. R5). Moreover, mining activities in reserved areas are in violation with laws governing activities in protected areas (Ref. R5). The use of mercury also persists in the sector, albeit often under the radar, which poses health threats to miners and communities (Ref. R6). This is especially problematic as the Tanzanian government is struggling to keep children out of mines. There, they often do hazardous jobs, such as mercury treatment, in order to gain a living (Ref. R7). However, successes can be noted, e.g. in Shinyanga region where ca. 1500 children were removed from mining sites (Ref. R8).

In the industrial mining sector environmental challenges persist. A recent example from Mara region illustrates the impact of toxic spills from the Cata gold mine (Kyawazaru, Butiama) on crops and grass lands in neighboring communities (Ref. R9). Although the company’s management acknowledged the issues, no long-term solutions are established at present. Yet, environmental damages can be offset by the adoption of more eco-friendly methods. Uranium mining company Mantra Tanzania, plans to use environment-friendly mining technology in its upcoming explorations at the Mkuju river (Lindi region) (Ref. R10).

To avoid and mitigate negative business impacts, conducting environmental and social impact assessments is crucial, and legally required. This proves necessary all the more, since not all mining operations have adequately addressed ongoing environmental or social issues (Ref. R11). Effective remediation in cases of harm is one way to offset negative impact. However, compensations are often debated (Ref. R12, R13).

Read more : all references on Resource Extraction

Agriculture

Agriculture is one of the oldest pillars of Tanzania’s national economy and one of the biggest contributors to its economic wellbeing (Ref. A1). Despite the economic importance of agriculture, the majority of the sector – and especially small-scale/ subsistence farming and livestock keeping – is still challenged by poor working and living conditions and limited modernization (Ref. A2, A3). Equal inclusion of women in the agriculture sector would not only boost living standards, it could mean a boost to the sector itself (Ref. A4). Women represent a large part of the agricultural workforce (especially in subsistence farming), but are hardly considered as breadwinners, let alone potential drivers or innovators of the sector (Ref. A4).

To boost agricultural productivity, the government focusses on bringing more modern agriculture technologies to farms, to secure major investments in rural areas and to provide more trainings (Ref. A1, A3, A5). While promoting fertilizers is one way to increase agricultural production (Ref.A6), ecologically-friendly alternatives might be interesting to consider to make the sector more environmentally sustainable (Ref. A7).

The Covid-19 outbreak also threatens the agriculture sector, even though the government and the banks took measures to mitigate the economic impact of the pandemic. Banks have provided capital to suffering agribusinesses (Ref. A8), while the government increased its emergency food reserve to ensure food security (Ref. A9). Border closures and global market uncertainty have, however, a significant impact on export products such as sesame or fresh flowers (Ref. A10, A11). Reduced tourism also has a negative effect on the demand for certain agricultural products such as chickens. This is a concern to all farmers working in the poultry business (Ref.A12).

Read more : all references on Agriculture

Tourism

At present, Tanzania’s tourism sector is facing two main challenges: conflicts around protected areas and the Covid-19 outbreak.

Conflicts over land rights/use and human-wildlife conflicts remain present in areas near Tanzania’s national parks and other protected areas. Several land conflicts involving farmers and pastoralists have been reported recently from Mbarali district (Mbeya Region), Ruaha National Park (Iringa Region) and Babati district (Manayara Region) (Ref. T1). Government officials acknowledge the need to clarify regulations and find solutions to resolve these conflicts, but stress that protected areas cannot be used for human activities (Ref. T2). Near protected areas, human-wildlife conflicts also continue to threaten communities and wildlife populations. In Myomero district (Morogoro), elephants regularly intrude on farming grounds, causing crop destructions and killings of elephants and villagers (Ref. T3). Near Ruaha National Park (Iringa Region), more than 740 acres of crops were destroyed in the 2018/2019 farming season and several villagers were attacked and/or killed by wild animals (Ref. T4).

The tourism sector drastically changed with the Covid-19 pandemic, as the World Health Organisation (WHO) still advises to avoid travel to control the transmission of the virus. In April 2020, the Tanzanite Deputy Minister for Tourism and Natural Resources declared that the country’s tourism sector was facing one of the hardest times since independence (Ref. T5). Normally, the tourism sector has been a key pillar of the national economy. Its decline due to Covid-19 has also been greatly affecting local communities, whose livelihoods depend on tourist facilities. Amongst those affected are Maasai women farmers in Ngorongoro district (Arusha Region), who no longer have a stable market for their produce as most lodges in Ngorongoro temporarily closed or scaled down business (Ref. T6). To promote tourism while assuring compliance with Covid-19 preventive measures, the Tanzanian government has implemented measures such as Covid-19 certifications for hotels and tourist facilities, an Advance Passenger Information System (APIS) for incoming travellers and potential insurance cover for foreign tourists who want to visit Tanzania (Ref. T7).

Read more : all references on Tourism

Infrastructure

Since he won office in 2015, President John Magufuli has made improving Tanzania’s infrastructure one of his top priorities. Several strategic infrastructure projects were launched in order to lift the country’s socio-economic status (Ref. I1). More road networks, paved highways and more modern infrastructures in general make areas more accessible for social and commercial interactions, which helps to accelerate economic productivity.

When implementing large-scale infrastructure projects, the rights of people directly affected by the constructions have to be considered. Where negative effects are expected or occur, adequate measures to mitigate these effects need to be taken by the companies implementing infrastructure constructions. This is part of companies’ responsibility to respect human rights, as set out in the UN Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights (Ref. I.

Communities of Solwa district in Shinyanga, e.g., were recently asked to vacate the area where a water pipeline will be constructed near Lake Victoria, after being compensated for their loss of property (Ref. I3). Compensation is often disputed and considered too low. Residents of Mbanja ward (Lindi region) who are affected by the Liquified Natural Gas (LNG) project, claim that compensations awarded by the Tanzania Petroleum Development Corporation (TPDC) are insufficient to rebuild their lives (Ref. I4). Compensation of others affected by the LNG has been put on hold until verification materials have been submitted (Ref. I5). In the case of construction on the Bus Rapid Transit infrastructure, the government has already paid 5.7 billion Tanzanian Shilling as compensation to 77 Dar es Salaam City residents who will have to leave their properties to make way for project’s third phase (Ref. I6).  These compensations are part of the Resettlement Actions Plan (RAP), which provides an agreed plan for the resettlement and compensation of project- affected persons (Ref. I7).

Read more : all references on Infrastructure

Reading list

References “Editorial”

E1: Tanzania confirms first Coronavirus case | East African | 16.03.2020

Tanzania on Monday (16.03) confirmed its first case of Covid-19 in the country. Health ministry said the 46-year-old woman returned from Belgium on Sunday aboard a RwandAir plane. https://www.theeastafrican.co.ke/tea/science-health/tanzania-confirms-first-coronavirus-case-1438782

E2: Hotuba ya waziri wa afya, maendeleo ya jamii, jinsia, wazee na watoto, Mhe. Ummy Ally Mwal Imu (MB), Kuhusu makadirio ya mapato na ma tum iz i ya fedha kwa mwaka 2020/21 | Minister of Health, Development, Society, Gender, Elderly and Children United Republic of Tanzania | April 2020.

Speech by the Minister of Health, Development, Society, Gender, Elderly and Children of the United Republic of Tanzania on Budget Estimates for the Financial Year 2020/21, also mentioning measures by the Government on the prevention of Covid-19 and care of patients. https://www.parliament.go.tz/uploads/budgetspeeches/1588245798-Hotuba%20ya%20Bajeti%20Wizara%20ya%20Afya.pdf

E3: How COVID-19 is destroying Africa’s tourism industry | DW | 13.05.2020

Africa’s tourism industry has been hard hit by coronavirus lockdowns. Overnight, hotel bookings were canceled, safaris postponed and cultural tours abandoned. Tourism across the continent has always relied on international travelers. But now, a dangerous combination of national lockdowns, a tiny local tourism customer base, and an industry aimed at high-paying foreign visitors means Africa’s tourism industry may not adapt quickly enough to avoid collapse. Tanzania is famous for its safari industry – from lions lounging in the Serengeti to elephants ambling through the Ngorongoro Crater and flamingos on Lake Manyara. Except now, there are no safari vehicles brimming with Western tourists to see them. Because Tanzania has not imposed a lockdown, and continues with a ‘business as usual’ approach, local tourism operators aren’t eligible for government assistance. That many of the tourism companies are small businesses makes it even more difficult for them to survive a global crisis. https://www.dw.com/en/how-covid-19-is-destroying-africas-tourism-industry/a-53407678

E4: Tanzania to register fastest economic growth in East Africa | The Citizen | 10.07.2020
Despite the devastating impact of the Covid-19 pandemic, the African Development Bank predicts that Tanzania will register the highest economic growth among the 12 eastern African countries in 2020. “Despite the projected slowdown, real GDP growth in Tanzania will benefit from increased prices of gold, a major national export,” reads the report in part. Gold is Tanzania’s leading foreign exchange earner after overtaking tourism this May, largely due to increased prices and production volumes.

E5: Tanzania: Initial Assessment of the Impact of the Coronavirus Pandemic on the Extractive Sector and Resource Governance | Natural Resource Governance Institute | 10.06.2020

This is one of a series of country briefings produced by NRGI to summarize the evolving situation with respect to the pandemic and its economic impacts. Key messages: (1) Tanzania’s short-term economic outlook is not as challenging as that facing many other resource-rich countries, partly due to the high price of gold; (2) Tanzania’s four large-scale gold mines are benefitting from globally high gold prices but are facing operational challenges, (3) Following the pandemic, the government may turn to the mining sector to capture more benefits, but this approach is unlikely to succeed. https://resourcegovernance.org/analysis-tools/publications/tanzania-assessment-coronavirus-extractive

E6: Voices from the Ground: How the Global Mining Industry is Profiting from the COVID-19 Pandemic | Earthworks (USA), Institute for Policy Studies – Global Economy Program (USA), London Mining Network (UK), MiningWatch Canada, Terra Justa, War on Want (UK), and Yes to Life No to Mining | 02.06.2020

This report provides in-depth cases to exemplify the four trends highlighted in the international open letter Global Solidarity with Communities, Indigenous Peoples and Workers at risk from Mining Pandemic Profiteers”. These trends pose an immediate threat to the health and safety of communities and organizations that have been struggling to defend public health and their environments against the destruction and devastation of mining extractivism for decades, as well as to the safety of workers in the mining sector. The key trends are (1) Mining companies are ignoring the real threats of the pandemic and continuing to operate, using any means available, (2) Governments around the world are taking extraordinary measures to shut down legitimate protests and promote the mining sector, (3) Mining companies are using the pandemic as an opportunity to hide their dirty track records and present themselves as public-minded saviours, (4) Mining companies and governments are using the crisis to secure regulatory change that favours the industry at the expense of people and planet. https://miningwatch.ca/publications/2020/6/2/voices-ground-how-global-mining-industry-profiting-covid-19-pandemic?__cf_chl_jschl_tk__=3a5c174ed4a4705a2319844b13a07769c8138307-1606306447-0-AYIKrCZhuF9Ln-FVaFlRPNQvUK8gUh5m1xL-tpRDU8_5LJ5dT3ZgrFLWY-QdI9MK4dn 

E7: Emergency action needed for vulnerable artisanal and small-scale mining communities and supply chains | OECD Civil Society “call to action” |12.05.2020

As the corona virus sweeps the globe, affecting the health and lives of millions, the pandemic is wreaking further economic havoc on the lives of artisanal, small scale miners and their communities. Around 83 per cent of the world’s mining workforce relies on these mines for their livelihood. That comes to roughly 40.5 million people. These people were vulnerable before the corona pandemic and even more so now. Global civil society organizations and community-based associations are calling for immediate and concerted action from governments, financing institutions, international organizations, private sector actors and others to support artisanal mining communities and to shore up their resilience in this time of corona virus crisis. It is also essential that we protect hard-won gains related to human rights and due diligence in mineral supply chains in alignment with the OECD Due Diligence Minerals Guidance. At a time of heightened risks in global mineral supply chains, the carrying out of due diligence and support for on-the-ground, OECD-aligned initiatives are more important than ever. https://www.oecdwatch.org/2020/05/12/emergency-action-needed-for-vulnerable-artisanal-and-small-scale-mining-communities-and-supply-chains/

E8: The impact of Covid-19 on artisanal mining communities in northern Tanzania | IPIS | 04.08.2020

Set up as a small qualitative scoping study, this IPIS Insight aims to highlight key elements of the socio-economic impact of Covid-19 measures and restrictions on artisanal mining communities in northern Tanzania, as observed by selected members of these mining communities. Between 5 and 19 May 2020, phone-based interviews were conducted with 37 key informants representing gold, coloured gemstone, diamond, limestone and salt mining communities in Kigoma, Geita, Shinyanga, Mara and Manyara region (N Tanzania). Informants were questioned on the implementation of preventive measures at mining sites, the impact of Covid-19 on mineral production, prices and trade (compared to pre-Covid-19) and the impact at large on mining communities in northern Tanzania. Follow-up interviews with 10 informants were held between 7 and 14 July 2020 to capture any immediate effects of reduced travel restrictions in/to Tanzania. https://ipisresearch.be/publication/impact-covid-19-artisanal-mining-communities-northern-tanzania/

E9: Coronavirus: John Magufuli declares Tanzania free of Covid-19 | BBC News | 08.06.2020

Tanzania’s President John Magufuli has declared the country “coronavirus-free” thanks to prayers by citizens. “The corona disease has been eliminated thanks to God,” Mr Magufuli told worshippers in a church in the capital, Dodoma. The World Health Organization (WHO) has expressed concern over the government’s strategy on Covid-19. The government has stopped publishing data on the number of coronavirus cases in the country. On 29 April, the last day official data was released, there were 509 cases, with 21 deaths in Tanzania. https://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-52966016

References “Resource extraction”

R1: Gold export remains strong amid COVID-19 | Daily News | 15.05.2020

The country’s gold export is expected to remain strong, amid the pandemic, pushed by rising global demand. The increase in gold prices as a result of its increasing demand (safe haven asset) will provide a buffer to Tanzania’s mining sector, according to Deloitte. Deloitte warned that, following the Covid-19 pandemic, the sector could be faced with challenges such as “global supply chain disruption that will decrease exports and the ceasing of operations by mines to comply with social distancing policies”.
https://dailynews.co.tz/news/2020-05-145ebd50c2a1832.aspx

R3: Rescue small miners: plea | The Citizen | 27.04.2020

Mining stakeholders have appealed to the government to rescue small scale miners by buying their minerals mainly gold, for them to sustain operations. Small-Scale miners normally sell their findings through regional mineral trading centres to dealers who then export the same to the world markets. But since the outbreak of coronavirus pandemic, transportation has been the biggest challenge following travelling restriction and suspension of plane flights. The miners now seek government support to get recapitalized and continue with their operations.

R4: Stamico to by $10m gold a week | The Citizen | 24.06.2020

The State Mining Corporation (Stamico) says it will be spending $10 million (about 23billion TZS) per week on buying gold from local miners. The managing director said that they were waiting for flights to resume between Tanzania and Dubai, so that it can start exporting gold again. Dubai is one of the biggest gold markets in the world. The plan is to purchase and accumulate gold for 1 week and then sell it to Dubai. The idea of purchasing gold from local miners aims at supporting them – particularly ASM miners whose operations have been hard hit by Covid-19.
https://www.thecitizen.co.tz/news/1840340-5582124-b0cd5l/index.html

R5: Artisanal gold miners threaten Mbongwe forest reserve’s for future | The guardian | 01.06.2020

“We’ve been fighting against the vice, but the fight seems to get out of hands as the spread of deforestation is alarming”, Mbilinyi said when speaking to a group of journalists who visited the district. He said small miners at Nyakafuri mine site have been cutting trees rampantly in violation of the laws on Forest Reserves and have been taking timber that they use in propping up their minerals, the practice has destroyed many swathes of Mkweni Forest (Geita region). Mbilinyi said stern steps have started to be taken against miners engaged in such destruction of the forest reserve managed by the Agency to ensure tree cutting is not done in legally reserved areas.
https://www.ippmedia.com/en/news/artisanal-gold-miners-threaten-mbogwe-forest-reserve-survival

R6: East Africa: Small Miners’ Love for Cheap Gold, Keeps Mercury Flowing | The East African | 30.04.20
The artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) sector is the force behind trade in mercury even as experts warn of the heavy metal’s risks to not just health but also the environment. To keep these dealings going, and feed its appetite for mercury-which is perceived as a cheaper and quicker method, especially for individual players–the sector has resorted to secrecy and corruption. About 98 per cent of all ASGM operators in the region use mercury. Up to one million Tanzanians, 140,000 Kenyans, and 31,622 Ugandans are directly involved in ASGM work. For the past eight years, Kenya imported an average of 19,070kg of mercury compared with Tanzania at 2,821kg Uganda at 123kg.
https://www.theeastafrican.co.ke/news/ea/Small-miners-cheap-gold-keeps-mercury-flowing/4552908-5538550-11r0jsjz/index.html

R7: Tanzania struggles to end child labor from the lure of gold | Thomson Reuters Foundation | 05.04.20
Three years ago, 14-year-old Julius left his family near the lakeside city of Mwanza, Tanzania, to try his luck mining gold. Julius, now 17, said he has been working with mercury for three years – but no one had ever told him it was dangerous. There are more than four million child laborers in Tanzania aged between 5 and 17, according to a government survey released last year in conjunction with the International Labour Organization. That’s roughly a third of the country’s children. More than three million are doing hazardous jobs, including at illegal mines like the one near Nyaligongo in northern Tanzania where they are exposed to mercury, heavy dust, and work long shifts without safety gear. The Tanzanian government is aware of the problem but has struggled to keep children out of small, unlicensed mines. Its laws do not allow children under 14 to work, and hazardous work is not permitted for children over 14. Tanzania has signed all major international conventions on child labor and introduced its own laws to prevent the worst child labor. https://br.reuters.com/article/us-tanzania-mining-children-feature/tanzania-struggles-to-end-child-labor-from-the-lure-of-gold-idUSKBN176007

R8: 1,500 children removed from mining child labour | Majira newspaper | 13.04.2020

About 1520 children have been removed from the worst mines in the last five years (2014-2019) through an anti-child labor project in three mines in Shinyanga region. The project is being implemented by the Friend Social Development Organization (SDO) in Shinyanga region, in a statement released during weekend, Project Coordinator Tangi Clement said the main aim of the project was to ensure early childhood employment as mines were eliminated.

R9: Mine allegedly leaking hazardous water | Republic newspaper | 16-22.06.2020

More than 20 acres of various crops belonging to the people of Kyawazaru, Butiama in Mara region have dried allegedly following water flowing from the Cata mine suspected to be toxic. Speaking to reporters who visited the rice, bean and maize fields/farms, the people living in the area said crops and grass had dried due to the poisoned water. “Two acres of rice planted and relied on for food have dried up following the spread of water in the field”, says Mariselina Magana, one of the people whose farms have been affected. Kichonge says the mine management visited the field to inspect the damage and promised to change water direction after acknowledging that the problem was caused by the spilled water from their mine.They dug a hole for water to flow in it but when it was full, poisoned water started to spread  in the fields again.

R10: Uranium miner adopts eco-friendly methods | Africa Press | 06.06.2020

Mantra Tanzania, a uranium mining company, said yesterday that it will use in-situ recovery (ISR) mining technology as its Mkuju River Project. The technology is touted for its environment-friendly nature and ability to increase its economic potential. Mantra Tanzania is a subsidiary of Uranium One.” ISR is relatively known as the eco-friendly mining method and it would be the best method of choice for our work in Tanzania”, Mantra Tanzania managing director Fredrick Kibodya said in a statement yesterday. Mr. Kibodya’s statement comes in less than two months since the company announced that it was seeking a pre-qualification for a contractor for the provision of project design work on its Mkuju River.
https://www.africa-press.com/tanzania/economy/uranium-mining-firm-to-use-safe-eco-friendly-tech

R11: Zungu identifies problem mining Kisarawe | Tanzania Daima | 23.06.2020
Minister of state Office, Vice President (Union and Environment), Mussa Azzan Zungu has paid a visit to the Kaolin mine owned by Rakkadlin Co. Ltd in Kisaware District (Pwani Region) facing environmental challenges including lack of an environmental impact assessment certificate. Zungu accompanied by Kisarawe District Commissioner Jokate Mwegelo, Eastern Region Manager of the National Environmental Management and Conservation Council (NEMC) Anorld Mapinduzi, Lawyer from the Office of the Vice President, NEMC and various officials from the District, where he witnessed the mining activities, and the minerals mined used as raw materials for marble production. In 2018 the investor was given conditions to fix the challenges, but to date they have not and the business is still going on while citizens’ complaints are still there. Therefore, we will present the findings of our assignment and steps ahead to DC, to the NEMC Lawyer and President Office Union and Environment, he said.

R12: Legal error leads to rehearing of Barrick appeal against North Mara resident | Africa Intelligence | 03.06.2020

The appeal which Barrick Gold lost against Maseke Marwa Hamba is to be reheard because of a procedural error. Marwa Hamba claims he was insufficiently compensated when he was relocated to make room for the Canadian gold mining giant at the North Mara mine. https://www.africaintelligence.com/mining-sector_financing-and-advisory/2020/06/03/legal-error-leads-to-rehearing-of-barrick-appeal-against-north-mara-resident,108407505-ar1

References “Agriculture”

 A1: Tanzania: Improved Irrigation to Unlock Potential in Agriculture | Tanzania Daily News | 10.06.2020
Tanzania’s economic base depends on the prosperity of its farmers and the government has done much to improve the opportunities open to cash and food crop farmers. However, there will have to be major investments in the rural areas in irrigation farming if this progress is to be sustained over the next decades. Agriculture, the country’s mainstay of the national economy, is the biggest contributor to Tanzania’s economic wellbeing and will continue to be the oldest economic activity in the years to come. The development of irrigation sector has an unprecedented opportunity to facilitate the Tanzania agriculture sector to be transformed from subsistence to a modern and highly commercial sector. The government is currently giving high priority to irrigation development which is emphasized within the National policy frameworks. “With weather vagaries, climate change and natural calamities standing on the way of the Tanzanian farmer, irrigation farming remains the key sector in attaining food self-sufficiency,” says Daudi Kaali, the Acting Director General of the National Irrigation Commission (NIRC).
https://dailynews.co.tz/news/2020-06-095edf8c45c40f2.aspx

A2: Unlocking potential of Tanzania’s smallholder farmers | Anadolu Agency |  29.02.20
Social enterprise use modern agricultural practice to help farmers transform from subsistence farming to profitable business. When Osmund Ueland met a group of farmers to pitch his idea about starting a goat milk project to help poor families improve nutrition and boost incomes, he elicited loud applause from the crowd. Huddled in a dimly lit mud-walled house, the farmers unanimously approved the idea saying it was the best step to curb malnutrition and fight poverty.
https://www.aa.com.tr/en/africa/unlocking-potential-of-tanzanias-smallholder-farmers/1749472

A3: Tanzania: Minister Extolls State’s Efforts in Agriculture Sector | Tanzania Daily News|   26.06.2020
The Minister for Agriculture, Mr Japhet Hasunga has praised the government’s commitments to ensure that modern technology is used and boosts the agriculture sector. The Minister said the approach has improved farmers’ income and crops’ yields. According to Mr Hasunga, the government is ready to support the Uyole centre and other research centres to increase trainings on modern technology that addresses agricultural challenges to the farmers. “We have a plan to shift to agribusiness that benefits farmers and improves agriculture sector in the country. This would also help to achieve government agenda of industrialization,” noted Dr Mkamilo.
https://dailynews.co.tz/news/2020-06-265ef5a4babad35.aspx

A4: Tanzania: More Women Inclusion Means Advanced Agriculture | Tanzanian Daily News | 30.06.2020
One might be surprised to hear a call for more women inclusion in Tanzania agricultural sector, especially when reports shows that by last year, 70-75 percent of the entire labour force in the sector was occupied by women, and that 95 percent of rural women are doing farming. Truth be told, however, that still women lag behind when it comes to reaping the sweats of their work on the field. Speaking of a typical African family is speaking of a social unit with a conservative form of an agreement that a man is a natural breadwinner or unelected provider of a family. Women’s role in a family has largely remained at taking care of family chores and if is to provide help then she will be required to take care of a farm dedicated for family food and little incidentals. This pattern of labour division not only dissuades women from fully engagement, an arrangement hinders the sector from realizing its full potential as women are no longer incentivized to put all their creative and innovative ideas just as we have seen them propelling other sectors.
https://dailynews.co.tz/news/2020-06-305efb0c12d6294.aspx

A5: Tanzania: Embrace Agri Tech to Boost Output, Farmers Told | Tanzania Daily News | 23.06.2020
Farmers have been advised to use the best seeds and modern agriculture technologies to boost food output and surplus for business, which will increase the family income and raise farmers’ living standard. Modern agricultural farming is the best way to increase food crops production and other for industrial raw materials for industrialization, which will increase employment opportunities. Sharing his experience in modern agricultural activities, Mr Laurent Lazaro a farmer from Masanze ward in Kilosa district in Morogoro region, said he has benefited enough from practicing modern agriculture from the training he received from Tanzania Agricultural Research Institute (TARI) at Ilonga Centre.
https://dailynews.co.tz/news/2020-06-235ef21f316dcac.aspx

A6: Tanzania: New Fertiliser Bulk Procurement System to Boost Productivity | Tanzania Daily News | 12.05.2020
The new system, which became effective during the 2017/18 fiscal year, has seen farmers including coffee growers benefiting from the supply of fertilisers throughout the farming season. Fertilizers are important for a productive agriculture (Tilman et al., 2002; Spiertz and Ewert, 2009). However, these nutrient inputs come with high environmental impacts as well (Mosier and Syers, 2004; Spiertz, 2010). The question remains, where to draw the line in the consideration between human food and energy supply and the environmental impact of fertilizers.
https://dailynews.co.tz/news/2020-05-115eb9714b08695.aspx

A7: Environmental impact of mineral fertilizers: possible improvements through the adoption of eco-innovations | Thesis of Kathrin Hasler | Wageningen University | 2017
Here the implementation of so called environmental or eco-innovations could solve a wide range of problems. Eco-innovations are innovations which not only intent to improve the economic value, but also the ecological value of a product or service. The application of eco-innovations could results in agriculture higher in sustainability.
https://research.wur.nl/en/publications/environmental-impact-of-mineral-fertilizers-possible-improvements

A8: Tanzania: Banks Urged to Support Agribusiness Recovery | The Citizen | 20.05.2020
Banks have been requested to provide liquidity to enable the struggling agri-businesses to recover from the impact of Covid-19. An economic stimulus has also been proposed to help the agricultural producers hit by production and export shocks. “Funds are needed from the financial institutions to provide liquidity,” said the East African Business Council (EABC) on its latest report Covid-19’s impact to the agricultural sector. The apex body of private sector associations in the region said agriculture which employs the majority has suffered considerably from the pandemic.
https://www.thecitizen.co.tz/news/-Banks-urged-to-support-agribusiness-recovery/1840340-5558480-1030shqz/index.html

A9: Tanzania: State Sketches Food Security Precaution | Tanzania Daily News | 13.05.2020
The government has announced new measures targeting to address the impacts of the coronavirus pandemic on food security, committing to, among other things, buying over 735,000 tonnes of cereals as emergency food reserve for three-months. Minister for Agriculture, Mr Japhet Hassunga, told the parliament yesterday that food production for the 2019/2020 season was generally not affected as agro-inputs had already been imported before the global lockdowns. He said, however, that, with the likelihood of the pandemic to persist, the state had resolved to spend an additional 217.5bn/- to buy some 435,000 tonnes for the National Food Reserve Agency-NFRA. Initially, the government had in the 2019/20 financial year planned to spend 15bn/- to buy 65,000 tonnes of cereals. It also planned to spend extra 24bn/- of the NFRA internal sources to ensure a total of 103,698.794 tonnes of food reserve.
https://dailynews.co.tz/news/2020-05-125ebadf89239df.aspx

A10: Tanzania Horticulture Exports Hurt By Border Closure | The East African | 27.05.2020
The closure of the border between Tanzania and Kenya hit Dar’s horticulture sector due to long delays at the crossing for fresh produce truckers, risking a disruption of the supply chain. Horticulture is one of Tanzania’s economic pillars. After the halt of international aviation, the Taha signed a deal with Ethiopian Airlines. Despite the deal with Ethiopian Airlines to ferry fresh vegetables, fruits, herbs and flowers to global markets from Kilimanjaro International Airport, the airline has still not been granted long-term landing permits. “Unless the government resolves the hiccups, the future of the deal with the Ethiopian Airlines is hanging in the balance,” said Dr Mkindi, as she asked the government to consider issuing between three to six-month landing warrants for cargo flights to ease their operations. Currently, Taha has to apply for a landing warrant for every incoming flight at routine airport charges and has to attach backup documents each time. The introduction of a fertiliser bulk procurement system (FBPS) is meant to enhance productivity and ensure reliable availability of commodities, the Ministry of Agriculture has said.
https://www.theeastafrican.co.ke/business/Tanzania-horticulture-exports-hurt-by-border-closure/2560-5562732-oubkga/index.html

A11: Tanzania: Sesame Prices Fall Due to Global Market Uncertainty | Tanzania Daily News | 19.06.2020
The country’s sesame seeds prices have continued to plunge downwards as global market remains uncertain due to the coronavirus pandemic. The domestic prices plummeted in the recently sales to between 45/-and 225/-a kilogramme, for Dodoma and Mtwara auctions, while many kilos remained unsold. The local price was hit hard due to the effect of the virus on major sesame buyers, especially China, which account for almost 90 percent of the country’s export.
https://dailynews.co.tz/news/2020-05-115eb9714b08695.aspx

A12: Farmers raise concern over decline in poultry business | IPP Media | 07.04.2020

Poultry farmers in Iringa have raised their concerns over declining businesses of chickens as their main buyers from hotels and tourism industry have been hit by the coronavirus pandemic. They said following the spread of the virus, the number of local and international visitors visiting tourist attractions in the region have dropped which has greatly affected the poultry sub-sector. Effects will be felt across affiliated industries and the rest of the economy. https://www.ippmedia.com/en/news/farmers-raise-concerns-over%C2%A0declining-

References “Tourism”

T1: Pastoralists warned over parks invasion | The Citizen | 26.05.2020

The Ministry of Natural Resources and Tourism has vowed to expel all pastoralists grazing their livestocks in the protected area. The Deputy Minister, Mr Constantine Kanyasu ,said the ministry will no longer tolerate the practice because the national parks, in particular, are ‘no go zones’ for human activities. He issued the warning during his tour of the Burunge WildLife Management Area (WMA) project at Babati District in Manyara Region. Mr Kanyasu said he was aware of some local leaders alleged to be driving the animals to graze in the protected area and warned them to stop, otherwise they will face the wrath of the law.

T2: Tanzania: Govt Seeks Lasting Solution to Land Disputes in Protected Areas | Tanzania Daily News | 20.05.2020

The government is in the final stages of resolving land conflict between the Ruaha National Park (Manayara Region) and the local communities, Ministry of Natural Resource and Tourism announced yesterday. Conflicts involve farmers and pastoralists in Mbarali District (Mbeya Region) as will as the Ruaha national park. The legislator claimed the problem has remained far from ending. The public needs clarification on the matter so that they can live in peace and free from being arrested for staying in national
https://dailynews.co.tz/news/2020-05-195ec3f584d7b76.aspx

T3: TANAPA shift elephants from human settlements Sanare | Habarileo newspaper | 12.04.2020

Morogoro Regional Commissioner Loata Ole Sanare has called on the Tanzania Wildlife Management Authority (TAWA) and the National Conservation Agency (TANAPA) to develop a sustainable strategy for removing elephants from human settlements on farms. Sanare said this at the meeting he called in Mvomero District, which brought together senior officials of TAWA, TANAPA Mikumi, Councilors, Chairpersons and Executive Officers of the seven wards from the District. In Mvomero, there are regular attacks by elephants, which appear in people’s settlements, destroy crops and kill some villagers. The challenges ahead are to find a sustainable and respectful way to restrain the elephants, avoid people killing them and find legal and efficient steps to take against people who will do so. TANAPA’s senior conservation officer Dominic Tarimo affirms that a special task force has been formed with modern equipment for the purpose.

T4: 740 acres of crops damaged by wildlife in Iringa region -Official | The Guardian | 26.03.2020

More than 740 acres of crops in Iringa region have been destroyed by the wild animals during the 2018/2019 farming season. However, during the same period, nine people from various villages in the region were attacked and injured by the same wild animals. Five of them died. Iringa District wild animal officer, Fatma Juma, said the villagers in the area had been witnessing increased number of wild animals attacking them and destroying their crops. She said the affected villages are those bordering Ruaha National Park. “We are recording incidences of lion and elephants attacks”, she said as she briefed the journalists who were on field visit in the region.

T5: Tanzania tourism sector facing really hard time | The Guardian | 21.04.2020

The Deputy Minister for Natural Resources and Tourism, Constantine Kanyasu, has said the country’s tourism sector is facing one of the hardest times since independence. He said due to the Covid-19 pandemic, the number of tourists visiting various attractions in February has decreased. Kanyasu said that since the eruption of the pandemic, revenues from the tourism sector, which depends for 95% on foreign tourists, had been severely hit. He said the affected institutions include Tanzania National Parks Authority (TANAPA) and Ngorongoro Conservation.

T6: Tanzania: UN Women Supports Maasai Women-Led Enterprises to Respond to COVID-19 | UN WOMEN | 24.06.2020
The Ngorongoro district in Arusha region is a land of craters, sacred forests and mountains, wild animals and the Maasai people. This community has learnt to co-exist with nature, sharing land, wild food, herbs and water with the wild animals that roam freely. Maasai women farmers in Ngorongoro district (Arusha Region) no longer have a stable market for their produce as most lodges in Ngorongoro temporarily closed or scaled down businesse because tourism restrictions.
http://www.unwomen.org/en/news/stories/2020/6/feature-maasai-women-led-enterprises-to-respond-to-covid-19

T7: Tourist facilities to undergo Coronavirus certification | Daily News | 14.05.2020

All hotels and tourist facilities in the country will from now onwards bear Covid-19 certifications, a move that seeks to protect visiting tourists from contacting and spreading the deadly disease. Such certification will be placed at the entrances of the facilities with the government eager to descend on those found flouting the regulation. All arriving flights are required to have an Advance Passenger Information System (APIS), compliant so as to allow the Tanzania’s Immigration Department and Airport Authorities to receive and interrogate the flight manifest for possible high-risk passengers.
https://dailynews.co.tz/news/2020-05-145ebcdcfe23ac5.aspx

References “Infrastructure”

I1: Tanzania: Dazzling Record in Infrastructure | Tanzania Daily News | 01.07.20
Construction of strategic infrastructures has been among President John Magufuli top priorities ever since he assumed the presidency on November 5, 2015. The head of state, who before his election to Tanzania’s top office served in the work ministry for the bigger part of his 20 years spell at ministerial, has initiated a number of projects that aimed at lifting the country’s socio-economic status. As his first presidential term edges towards the end, Dr Magufuli is touted for overseeing key infrastructure projects, notably the construction of the state-of-the-art Ubungo interchange, Tazara flyover, new Selander Bridge and the expansion of Morogoro road, all in Dar es Salaam.
https://dailynews.co.tz/news/2020-06-305efb840317bad.aspx

I2: Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights: Implementing the United Nations ‘Protect, Respect and Remedy’ Framework | Office of the High Commission on Human Rights (OHCHR) | 2011
This is the United Nations (UN) framework that indicates the roles and responsibilities of governments and businesses with regard to preventing and addressing corporate human rights harms. It is based around three pillars: (Pillar I) The state duty to protect human rights; (Pillar II) The corporate responsibility to respect human rights; (Pillar III) The access to remedy. The UN Guiding Principles (UNGP) are internationally agreed principles; however, they are voluntary principles and are not legally binding.
https://www.ohchr.org/documents/publications/guidingprinciplesbusinesshr_en.pdf

I3: The local citizens who received compensation in order to allow the water project to commence have been ordered to vacate the area | Nipashe newspaper | 01.04.2020

The residents from Solwa district, Shinyanga, who built the houses along the water pipeline project from Lake Victoria, have been ordered to leave the area after being compensated. The order was issued by Shinyanga District Commissioner, Jasinta Mboneka, who went to resolve the dispute with some citizens, who refused to vacate the area of the pipeline while they had already been compensated. Allowing the citizens to continue living around the pipeline area would cause danger to their livelihood as well as being the cause of economic sabotage, so those who were paid compensation must leave the areas before the Government resorts to forceful means.

I4: Cry for small compensation for gas project | Nipashe newspaper | 08.06.2020

Residents of Mbanja ward in Lindi region, the site of the LNG project, expressed their dissatisfaction with the funding levels provided by the Petroleum Development Corporation (TPDC) as compensation for relocating. In May this year, TPDC in collaboration with other international organizations, provided compensation to 693 people supposed to pave way for the project. About Sh. 5.2 billion was allocated for compensation of the citizens for the 2,072 hectare project area. According to a statement issued by Lindi Municipal Council, the minimum compensation paid per person was shs. 400,000  and the maximum is shs. 70 million. However, some of the citizens came forward, dissatisfied with the amount of money given. They added that when TPDC assessed their land and property in 2014, they promised to pay them compensations that would enable them to overcome poverty. “Contrary to the expectations of many citizens, the relocated people cannot build with the income they have earned and buy land. I do not think they can buy other farms”, said Mussa Mwaya, a resident of Likongo Village.

I5: Compensation put on hold for 39 TPDC employees | The Citizen newspaper | 09.06.2020

The Tanzania Petroleum Development Corporation has put on hold the compensation for 39 persons who have to vacate to pave way for the $30 billion Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) plant project, pending verification of their details, including bank information. The beneficiaries are among the 76 who were recently reported to have failed to show up for verification of their details, including bank information. In May 2020, TPDC issued compensation to some 617 verified project -affected persons whereby at least sh. 5.2 billion was set aside for the purpose.
https://www.thecitizen.co.tz/news/TPDC-puts-on-hold-compesation-for-39-villagers/1840340-5573400-beni9fz/index.html

I6: Tanzania Government Releases Sh5.7 Billion for 3rd Phase BRT Payout  | The Citizen | 13.04.2020
Government has disbursed Sh5.7 billion as compensation to 77 Dar es Salaam residents who will have to leave their properties to make way for the construction of the third phase of the bus rapid transit (BRT) project Due to certain complications, BRT has not been able to sort out the issue in one area but as soon as the problem is resolved the compensation would be done.
https://www.thecitizen.co.tz/news/Tanzania–government-releases-Sh5-7-billion-for-3rd-phase-BRT/1840340-5522794-format-xhtml-n86r5hz/index.html

I7: Tanzania – Dar es Salaam Bus rapid transit project | Resettlement Action Plan Report (Phase 2), Final Report | 04.2015
The main objective of this Resettlement Action Plan (RAP) is to provide an agreed plan for the resettlement and compensation of Project Affected Persons (PAPs) affected by the proposed BRT project phase two to be implemented in Dar es salaam specifically in Ilala, Kinondoni and Temeke Municipal Councils. The plan provides a road map for resolving displacement, resettlement and compensation issues.
https://www.afdb.org/fileadmin/uploads/afdb/Documents/Environmental-and-Social-Assessments/Tanzania_-_Dar_es_Salaam_BRT_RAP_Phase_2_-_04_2015.pdf

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