Briefing on Business & Human Rights in Tanzania – 2019 Quarter 3 & 4: July – December

This publication is part of the Improving monitoring, research and dialogue on Business & Human Rights in Tanzania’ project  implemented by the Tanzanian Commission for Human Rights and GoodGovernance (CHRAGG), Business and Human Rights Tanzania (BHRT) and the International Peace Information Service (IPIS). This briefing is based on news and research published by Tanzanian and international media, journals and institutions. Its content does not necessarily reflect the views, opinions nor work of CHRAGG, BHRT or IPIS. 


More briefings on Business & Human Rights in Tanzania

To receive this briefing,  you can subscribe to our mailing list


Pakua maelezo mafupi kwa KISWAHILI (PDF)


The UN Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights (UNGPs) underline the role of governments and businesses in the protection and respect of human rights (Ref. E1). In their annual review, the Corporate Human Rights Benchmark Report (Ref. E2) observes that also in 2019 corporate progress on the implementation of the UNGPs is alarmingly low overall. Most companies seem to fail to show their respect for human rights. They lack the fundamental commitments and systems that are needed to prevent negative human rights impacts or to provide effective remedy in case harm was done. Human rights due diligence, which includes all the steps an organisation takes to identify, prevent, mitigate and account for adverse human rights impacts (Ref. E3), appears as a key weakness for most companies. To push practices of human rights due diligence on an international level, a second draft for a legally-binding treaty on business and human rights (Ref. E4) was presented by the UN in the second half of 2019. While an increasing amount of companies claim to be aware of their responsibility to respect human rights, it is time to raise the global bar on effective actions (Ref. E5).

States also have a key role to play in the achievement of the UNGPs. In November 2019, the annual UN Forum on Business and Human Rights was held under the theme “Time to Act: Governments as Catalysts for Business Respect for Human Rights.” Discussions served to stimulate governments to demonstrate progress and commitment to putting the UNGPs in practice (Ref. E6).

Non-governmental (NGO) and civil society actors also fulfil a key role in holding stakeholders accountable to respect and protect human rights. By the end of 2019, national and international NGOs report increasingly repressive trends in Tanzania (Ref. E7), also with respect to human rights. Amendments to NGOs’ regulation laws (Ref. E8) and arrests of human rights activists (Ref. E9) fuelled discontent. These allegations are disputed by government officials, who stress the significant progress made in the protection of human rights in the country (Ref. E10).

Read more : all references from the Editorial

The following overview lists news from mid-June to December 2019:

Resource extraction

Mineral resources are at the centre of the Tanzanian government’s regulation effort to increase national revenue. To achieve this goal, the government is taking measures to curb illegal extraction (Ref. R1) and mineral smuggling (Ref. R2, Ref. R3). Extractive companies are being held accountable to pay their taxes (Ref. R4, R5) and to comply with labour regulation (Ref. R6). Besides focussing on industrial mining, the government is also increasingly regulating small-scale mining (Ref. R7). At the same time, the government endeavours to boost the extractive sector by, for instance, simplifying mineral dealing and exportations (Ref. R8), by revising tax regimes for small-scale miners (Ref. R3), by opening up revoked mining areas for tender (Ref. R9) and by stimulating the construction of Tanzania’s first gold refinery (Ref. R10). A total of 28 mineral trading centres were also already set up to give small-scale gold miners easier access to a government-regulated market where they can directly and legally sell their production (Ref. R11). However, while the increase in revenue from these centres is evident, the benefits for small-scale miners are debated (Ref. R12). Access to markets remains an ongoing issue, not in the least for female miners (Ref. R13). To ensure they get a fair share of the profit in the sector, a responsible gemstone initiative centred around female miners was set up at the end of 2019 (Ref. R13).

The country’s drive to optimise the extractive sector will create new opportunities. However, the sustainability and fairness of natural resource governance are essential to make sure it benefits the development of Tanzania and its communities. Legal trainings are one way to increase know-how and awareness within the government (Ref. R14) and communities influenced by the extractive sector (Ref. R15).

Communities living near large industrial mines show a widespread feeling of distrust towards industrial mining, as an in-depth survey in north-west Tanzania reveals (Ref. R16, R17).  Communities feel that mining companies fall short in how they deal with the impacts and harm on local communities.  The lack of meaningful engagement between industrial mining companies and communities further increase the lack of community confidence in those companies and promote feelings of marginalisation (Ref. R17). Moreover, contrasts between the sophisticated mining operations and the often-impoverished surrounding communities are immense and create disappointment towards the actions taken by mining companies to support local communities.

Overall, mining companies still see Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) activities as the best way to give back to communities (Ref. R18). Despite business and government initiatives, miners’ safety and health (Ref. R19) as well as environmental protection are persistent challenges in the extractive sector. Deadly accidents are still a reality (Ref. R20) and mining pollution (Ref. R21) causes harmful effects on neighbouring communities (Ref. R22). Despite environmental laws, mining companies are still reluctant to share their mine closure plans (Ref. R23).  To protect and respect human rights, all stakeholders need to make sure that ‘do no harm’ principles are the standard, instead of initiatives ‘to do good’ (Ref. R17).

Read more : all references on Resource Extraction


In Tanzania, 55% of the population and 75% of low-wage earners directly depend on the agriculture sector for their livelihoods. However, farmers still lack access to capital, markets (Ref. A1) and land (Ref. A2). Land issues often lead to protracted conflicts which affect communities’ human rights and development. At the end of 2019, the government set up a special zone to resolve land conflicts in Morogoro, a region known for its conflicts between farmers and pastoralists (Ref. A3). Settling land disputes is essential to increase agricultural production, protect livelihoods and, hence, reduce poverty. The protection of the livelihoods of farmers and pastoralists could also be reinforced by initiatives such as crop (Ref. A4) and livestock insurance (Ref. A5).

The challenge for Tanzania is to maximize the benefits from its fertile land and waters while ensuring sustainable development for local communities. The fight against illegal fishing (Ref. A6) exemplifies this difficult balance. While the government dedicated important means to prevent fish stock depletion and considers its policy as a success (Ref. A7), law enforcement measures seem to have created tensions and violent clashes with fishing communities (Ref. A8).

Women play a significant role in the agricultural production but are still facing unequal economic opportunities and gender-based violence. Women land rights (Ref. A9) and awareness campaigns (Ref. A10) are key to protect women’s physical and economical security. Child labour is equally concerning. The tobacco industry, for instance, is implementing environmental Corporate Social Responsibility activities (Ref. A11), but is still accused of relying on children for a large share of its production (Ref. A12).

Read more : all references on Agriculture


Tanzania is home to a large natural wealth and has created numerous protected areas to preserve it. Conservation efforts go hand in hand with the growth of the tourism sector. As a result, wildlife trafficking (Ref. T1) and poaching (Ref. T2) represent a challenge for the Tanzanian tourism industry. The country is increasing its effort to limit wildlife smuggling (Ref. T3) especially through its ports (Ref. T4). The attention dedicated by the judicial system to high profile cases (Ref. T5) demonstrates the determination of the country to tackle this phenomenon.

Conservation also has its impacts on local communities. Human-wildlife conflicts are frequent due to the increase of both human and wildlife populations (Ref. T6). In areas surrounding protected areas, these conflicts can be fatal, as increasingly reported from Arusha, Manyara and Katavia regions (Ref. T7). Not only intruding wildlife can affect local livelihoods, community evictions in the name of conservation efforts are also disruptive. At the end of 2019, a 15-year old land conflict in Kagera region was ended without eviction (Ref. T8).

Wildlife hunting is responsible for the destruction of valuable wildlife and constitutes another source of conflict between tourism investors and local communities (Ref. T9). In an effort to regulate wildlife hunting, Tanzania decided to reduce the size of the Selous Game Reserve (Ref. T10) dedicated to hunting and to revoke the hunting permit of the Green Mile Safari company for violations of the hunting rules (Ref. T11).

Read more : all references on Tourism


Numerous large-scale infrastructure projects are in the works in the country, including the Standard Gauge Railway (Ref. I1), the Liquefied natural Gas Project (Lindi Region), Stiegler’s Gorge hydropower project and The East Africa Crude Oil Pipeline. These investments are meant to ease the movement of people and goods and to boost the country’s economic development.
On paper, these initiatives can generate Corporate Social Responsibility benefits, such as education and health initiatives (Ref. I2, I3). They are also supposed to comply with the country’s environment laws (Ref. I4). Nevertheless, concerns remain. The Stiegler’s Gorge Project should double Tanzania’s electric production. Despite the president’s reassurance, environmental organisations continue to express concerns about the potential damage of this hydropower project to the Selous Game Reserve’s unique flora and fauna (Ref. I5, I6, I7).

Corruption is another concern in the sector. While water is a vital need, numerous water projects are facing diversions of public funds due to overpricing (Ref. I8), sabotage (Ref. I9) and dysfunction (Ref. I10). The conditions under which projects are executed have to be studied with specific attention in order to guarantee national and local benefits. As such, the Bagamoyo Port Project, to be implemented by Chinese investors, is carefully watched by the government (Ref. I11).

The scope of the 1,149 km long East Africa Crude Oil Pipeline (EACOP) represents potential human rights risk for the many communities along its pathway. The project is currently on hold due to negotiations in Uganda. In light of the delays in the execution of the project, the Tanzanian government allowed local communities to temporary use the land on the pipeline route (Ref. I12).

Read more : all references on Infrastructure

Reading list  

References “Editorial”

E1: Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights: Implementing the United Nations ‘Protect, Respect and Remedy’ Framework | Office of the High Commission on Human Rights (OHCHR) | 2011
This is the United Nations (UN) framework that indicates the roles and responsibilities of governments and businesses with regard to preventing and addressing corporate human rights harms. It is based around three pillars: (Pillar I) The state duty to protect human rights; (Pillar II) The corporate responsibility to respect human rights; (Pillar III) The access to remedy. The UN Guiding Principles (UNGP) are internationally agreed principles; however, they are voluntary principles and are not legally binding.

E2: 2019 Key findings Report| Corporate Human Rights Benchmark | 11.2019
The 2019 Corporate Human Rights Benchmark Assessment assessed 200 of the largest publicly traded companies in the world on a set of human rights indicators. It reveals that: (1) in aggregate, the 200 companies are painting a distressing picture: most companies are scoring poorly and the UN Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights (UNGPs) are clearly not being implemented, (2) Human rights due diligence is a key weakness for most companies, (3) Encouraging progress for companies assessed multiple times, (4) Not all companies are ‘in the race to the top’, (5) Out of sight – out of mind: new companies scoring 17%, (6) Companies fail to show remedy and compensation for victims of abuse, (7) Transparency needs to improve – particularly for actual impacts and company practices, (8) Information and Communication Technology Manufacturing is lagging behind.

E3: Corporate human rights due diligence – identifying and leveraging emerging practice | UN Human Rights Office of the High Commissioner
Human rights due diligence is a way for enterprises to proactively manage potential and actual adverse human rights impacts with which they are involved. It involves four core components: (a) Identifying and assessing actual or potential adverse human rights impacts; (b) Integrating findings from impact assessments across relevant company processes and taking appropriate action accordingly; (c) Tracking the effectiveness of measures; (d) Communicating on how impacts are being addressed with stakeholders.
E4: Legally binding instrument to regulate, in international human rights law, the activities of transnational corporations and other business enterprises | OEIGWG|16.07.2019
Negotiations to develop a treaty on business and human rights kicked off on 6 July 2015 with the first meeting of the UN Human Rights Council’s open-ended intergovernmental working group on transnational corporations and other business enterprises with respect to human rights (OEIWG), which has a mandate of elaborating an international legally binding instrument. In July 2018, the OEIWG released the first draft of the legally binding instrument being negotiated, also known as the “Zero Draft”. On 16 July 2019, a “Revised Draft” was released.
E5: UN Global Compact 2019 Progress Report| United Nations| 2019
The United Nations Global Compact established a framework of Ten Principles to guide businesses in the areas of human rights, labour, environment and anti-corruption. The 2019 progress report demonstrates that mainstreaming the Ten Principles and the Global Goals in strategies and operations is still a major challenge for companies.
E6: UN Forum on Business and Human Rights highlights the importance of coherent policies |Investment Treaty News |17.12.2019
From November 25 to 27, 2019, the Office of the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights hosted this year’s United Nations Forum on Business and Human Rights in Geneva, Switzerland. The forum’s mandate is to discuss trends and challenges in implementing the UN Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights (UNGP), identify good practices, and promote dialogue and cooperation. The 2019 forum focused on the need for all governments to demonstrate progress, commitments and plans in moving the UNGP from paper to practice.

E7: Tanzania: Climate of Fear, Censorship as Repression Mounts | Human Rights Watch | 28.10.2019
Two reports from Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch point out that Tanzania’s repression of the media, human rights defenders, and opposition parties has intensified since 2015.

E8: House passes criticised NGOs Law Amendment | The Citizen | 28.06.2019
Parliament passed amendments to the Written Laws redefining – among other issues – how non-governmental organizations (NGOs) should operate. While these amendments are presented as a chance for the government to ensure that NGOs undertake the operations in the line with the objectives for which they were registered, opponents see a possibility to exclude certain persons from the operations of NGOs.

E9: Notable Year for Human Rights Record in Tanzania | The Citizen | 29.12.2019
From a human rights perspective, the twelve months of the year 2019 are not seen by human rights activists to have borne fruit and made progress as far as respect for people’s basic rights and freedom is concerned. Concerns on declining press freedom, the ban on political rallies, the push for an arrangement that would ensure a free and fair elections are some of the issues that continued to test the commitment of authorities in ensuring respect for human rights principles.

E10: Human Right Status superb, CHRGG says | Daily News | 12.12.2019
Unlike assertions from a section of the political class, the international community and other rights groups who were misleading people that they were increasing human rights violations, the chairman of the commission for human rights and good governance (CHRAGG) moved to refute those claims, insisting the country had made tremendous strides in protection of human rights.

References “Resource extraction”

R1: Ruby Explorers in Manyara face arrest |Habari Leo|16.10.2019
Manyara Regional Commissioner (RC) Alexander Mnyeti has ordered the arrest of a ruby exploring and mining firm’s officials over prolonged search of gemstones. RC Mnyeti accused the mining firm of spending long periods spanning over 20 years on the exploration of the gemstones, which is against the law.
R2: Madini yenye thamani ya sh. 1.3 bilioni yakamatwa (Minerals worth 1.3 billion seized) |Mwanachi newspaper |14.07.2019
The Inspection and Monitoring Department on the minerals smuggling at Namanga border (Arusha) has caught minerals worth 3 billion Tanzanian shilling during the 2018/19 period, most of which were gemstones. As a comparison, minerals amounting more than 300 million Tanzanian shilling were caught being smuggled outside Tanzania unlawfully in 2017/18.
R3: PM Majaliwa warns minerals smugglers |The guardian newspaper|23.09.2019
Prime Minister Kassim Majaliwa warned people including unfaithful business people involved in the smuggling of minerals out of the country to stop forthwith, as the government is very watchful and will have no mercy to pounce on them. To enhance production by small-scale miners, the government removed Value Added Tax of 18% and withholding tax of 5% for all minerals sold at local auctions.
R4: Mining firms in Tanzania on the spot over royalty fees |The East African|17.09.19
Mining companies in Tanzania risk being denied transport permits to ferry their products if they have not adhered to section 18 of the country’s Mining Act of 2010 (and revised in 2017), which requires all producers to pay royalty fees on the gross value of minerals produced.
R5: Sakata kodi ya pango ardhi yaangukia mgodi (The hunt for land tax falls on Geita Gold Mine)| Habari Leo|12.07.2019
Special Operations by the Deputy Minister of Land, Housing and Residential Development, Dr Angeline Mabula were conducted to hold accountable, all institutions and companies which have not paid land tax. The Gold Mine (GGM) in Geita region has been affected and seems to have failed paying land tax due to an unappropriated land deed.   

R6Government closes down Tanzanite One Mine |Daily News|28.07.2019
Following the breach of laws, the government took the decision to temporarily close the mining activities of Tanzanite One Mining Limited (TML), the world’s biggest miner and supplier of Tanzanite. The company has been ordered to pay its more than 700 employees their salaries for the past 22 months.

R7: Tanzania’s extractive sector reaps from reforms |The East African|30.12.2019
Tanzania’s extractive industry turned around its fortunes in 2019 as the country embarked on reforms to boost revenue collection. Despite the reforms, the government can still reap more from the mining sector.
R8: Tanzania Government to simplify minerals regime |The Citizen|08.09.2019
The government has announced two measures aimed at simplifying mineral dealing and ease its exportation. “However, this does not mean that the government will stop controlling mineral business as we want transparency and ensure the government earns its rightful share” said Mr Biteko.

R9: Tenders to be floated over ownership of 10 mining areas |The Citizen|19.12.2019
10 mining areas with Retention Licences (RL), which have been repossessed by the government, will now be allocated through floating of tenders for projects on nickel, gold and rare earth elements. “Among other things, an investor interested in investing in those areas will be obligated to work as well as to develop artisanal miners” the Mining Commission chairman said.

R10: Tanzania’s First Gold Refinery Plant Underway |Daily News|23.09.2019
The project to establish a major gold refinery plan in the mineral-rich Geita region is designed to increase revenues and jobs as well as promote modern technologies to realise maximum benefits from the mineral sector.
R11: Trading centres boost Tanzania’s mining sector |The Citizen|19.12.2019
These government-controlled selling and buying centres are part of President John Magufuli’s drive to optimize mineral trading to benefit not just multinationals but also small-scale miners, brokers and dealers. Currently there are 28 operational trading hubs in the mineral-rich areas of Mwanza, Geita, Chunya, Arusha, Namanga, Singida Sekenke, Dar es Salaam, Kahama, Shingyanga, Ruvuma, Katavi, Tanga, Iringa, Manyara, Singida, Dodoma, Kigoma, Tabora, Mbeya, Mara and Songwe.

R12: Gold rush? Not for us say Tanzania’s small-scale miners |Reuters|30.10.2019
A new network of government-controlled trading centres was meant to ensure Tanzania’s small-scale miners got a bigger share of the country’s mineral wealth. But most still can’t get a foot in the door. Literally. Entering the exchanges is restricted to those who can afford the license needed to sell gold. Concerns are being raised on dealers becoming obstacle to fair prices for miners.

R13: Moyo Gemstones’ initiative to ensure female gemstone miners get a fair share of profit |Business & Human Rights Resource Centre|13.11.2019
One third of Tanzania’s miners are female. However, they often know the least about gemstones and this puts them at a disadvantage when selling gemstones. Moyo Gemstones is a global collaboration between the non-governmental organisation Pact, Anza Gems, Nineteen48, Tanzania Women Miners Association (TAWOMA) and Everledger. It is the world’s first responsible coloured gems programme.

R14: Tanzanian lawyers groomed on extractive sector industry |The Citizen|19.09.2019
Tanzania is seeking to boost maximum utilisation of resources to benefit its people, yet there are only few lawyers who are competent enough to analyse extractive industry contracts and advise the government appropriately at the time of signing. The Tanganyika Law Society (TLS and the Canadian Bar Association (CBA) organised a training program to equip policy actors with knowledge on best practices and standards in resource management.
R15: Norton Rose Canada lawyers offer sustainable development training to lawyers in East Africa |Law Times|29.10.2019
The initiative provided advocacy training to 65 lawyers working in civil society, legal aid, community-based agencies as well as regulators, professors and parliamentarians.  The goal was to increase sustainable economic growth for East Africans, particularly women and vulnerable groups, affected by extractive industries, a statement from the firm said.
R16: As Tanzania Confronts Its Industrial Miners, What Do Locals Think? |African Argument|25.09.2019
Discussions on mining reforms tend to focus on macro-economic factors as the industry’s contribution to national revenue while less attention is paid to the impact of mining on local development. Surveys of communities around large-scale mines in northwest Tanzania reveal widespread feelings of distrust, marginalisation and reports of violations.
R17: Dissecting the social license to operate: local community perceptions of industrial mining in northwest Tanzania |IPIS|28.08.2019
Communities living around extractive operations arguably have most to win and lose from the mining industry. To bring the voices of these communities to the centre of the debate, IPIS conducted surveys on community perspectives in 32 villages nearby six industrial mines in northwest Tanzania. Results show a low community confidence in industries’ governance as well as a low satisfaction regarding corporate accountability. Allegations of serious human rights violations highlight the need for procedural fairness.
R18: Mine commits 5.7BN for key village projects |Daily News|28.12.2019
The North Mara mine operating in Nyamongo township in Tarime District has set aside 5.7bn/- for the implementation of a number of community development projects in 11 villages surrounding the mine. The projects include a ten-kilometre road that will ease movement of people and goods around the mining location.
R19: Mirerani artisanal miners more prone to TB: Study |Daily News|27.11.2019
According to a recent study conducted by the Ministry of Health, Community Development, Gender, Elderly and Children and Kibong’oto Infectious Disease Hospital (KIDH), artisanal miners engaging in the exploration of Tanzanite are more likely to acquire the infectious disease usually caused by mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) bacteria from graphite dust.
R20: Wachimbaji wawili wafukiwa na kifusi (Two miners buried due to mine collapse) |Mwananchi Gazeti|03.10.2019
Two miners mining at Nyakafuru mine in Mbongwe district (Geita region) have died while two others are feared dead after being buried by debris at Imalanguzu District Geita mine on 1 October 2019.
R21: Acacia halts Mara gold processing over leak |The East African| 20.08.2019
Acacia mining has ceased operations in its North Mara gold mine in Tanzania following a prohibition notice from the National Environment Management Council. The mine had failed to contain and prevent seepage from its tailing storage facility. Production at the plant will not resume until the notice is lifted.

R22: Why Lake zone has high cancer cases |The Citizen|14.11.2019
Chemical substances emanating from mining sites, consumption of local brews, population growth and fishing in the Lake Zone regions, have been identified by scientists as key risk factors tied to the soaring cases of cancer in the zone.

R23: Mining companies hesitate to handover mine closure plans |Daily News|19.12.2019
Mr Dotto Biteko (Mining Minister) said that about 190 mining companies out of 200 have not submitted their mining landscape information, detailing such activities before, during and after their mining activities in the surrounding communities. The latest legal amendments direct mining company owners to present to the State their environmental recovery plan(s).

References “Agriculture”

A1: Farmers want assured capital, markets to rise production |The Citizen|01.09.2019
Agriculture stakeholders have urged the government to invest in small scale farmers to ensure food security as well as surplus for export. Stakeholders agreed that the country has an abundant fertile land, but farmers have lacked capital and market assurance.

A2: Minister puts a halt to Vilima Vitatu evictions |Daily News|07.08.2019
Minister for Livestock and Fisheries, Luhaga Mpina, has suspended the operation to evict and torching houses of the pastoralist community in Vilima Vitatu Village in Babati District, Manyara Region. The operation conducted last month compelled many families to live under trees or in open spaces after their dwellings were torched, resulting in serious hardships, especially for pregnant women, children and sick people.

A3: Special land zone set up in Morogoro |Daily News|06.12.2019
The government has established a special zone for land issues in Morogoro, a move expected to end land disputes in the region. The region has been beset by a number of land conflicts, particularly between pastoralists and farmers. 46,715 acres that were previously used as reserved forests were given to farmers and pastoralists.

A4: Hope as government launches crop insurance |The Citizen|05.08.2019
Agriculture minister Japhet Hasunga launched crop insurance and its guidelines in response to calls by experts who have been urging the government to hasten the plan that would cushion farmers in time of distress.

A5: Livestock insurance slated to become new product in market |Daily News|24.07.2019
Tanzania Insurance Brokers Association (TIBA) believes that insurance services should also serve the livestock keepers not only to promote small-scale livestock keepers but also the national economic growth through the leather sector, given the fact that Tanzania ranks the third in livestock population behind Ethiopia and Sudan.

A6: Tanzania joins fight against illegal fishing |Daily News|15.11.2019
Tanzania has joined other South Western Indian Ocean (SWIO) countries in the fight against illegal fishing by ratifying the Port State Measures Agreement (PSMA) which seeks to prevent unregulated fishing.

A7: PM happy after state efforts increase fish availability |Daily News|11.08.2019
The Premier said most of the operations to combat illegal fishing run by the ministry have brought substantial benefits and increased sales of fish out of the country, which enables the nation to start benefiting from the resources.

A8: Fisheries officer, three villagers killed in police clash over fishing crackdown |The Citizen|23.07.2019
Four people died on Monday, June 23, 2019 evening after violence erupted when the police and officers from anti-illegal fishing unit clashed with residents at Siza Island in Lake Victoria. According to Mwanza Regional Commissioner John Mongella, the fisheries officer died in the mob attack while the three residents were gunned down in the violence.

A9: Rwanda, Tanzania Lead in Women’s Land and Property Rights |The East African|11.12.2019
Women continue to contribute significantly towards agricultural production in Africa but still do not enjoy the same rights over land. Women are not adequately represented nor do they meaningfully participate in land governance processes. They also have difficulty enforcing their rights to land because of a lack of information about their rights or how to exercise them.

A10: UN Women hails government’s commitment towards ending GBV |IPP Media|12.10.2019
The United Nations support the project meant to guarantee the rights of girls and to strengthen Unilever’s women’s safety at work to prevent and respond to sexual harassment and other forms of Gender Based Violence (GBV) in Mufindi and Njombe tea plantations and the surrounding areas.
A11: Tabaco-growing regions in green campaign |Daily News|18.12.2019
Over five million trees will be planted in Tabora and Shinyanga regions as part of the green campaign initiated recently by Japan Tobacco International. The campaign seeks to protect indigenous trees and limit the impact of tobacco-treatment processes on the environment.

A12: ILO ends relationship with tobacco companies as Tanzanian activists applaud move |The Citizen|07.11.2019
The Tanzania Tobacco Control Forum (TTCF) head says that through Corporate Social Responsibility, tobacco companies are in increasingly using certain projects to continue investing in Tanzania, yet it is estimated that 45 percent of the labour in tobacco farming comes from children.

References “Tourism”

T1: Tanzania seizes ivory tusks equivalent to 117 elephants killed |Reuters|05.07.2019
Tanzania has seized ivory tusks equivalent to killing at least 117 elephants, its tourism minister said, part of its drive to stamp out organized criminal networks involved in years of industrial-scale poaching.

T2: Poaching using hand-made guns a major challenge facing Saadan National park |The Citizen| 06.07.2019
Persistence of poaching using locally made guns and wire traps have been named as some of the major challenges facing Saadan National park since its inception in 2005. A total of 1,118 poachers were apprehended in a total of 1,960 incidents that occurred between 2005 and 2018. 656 weapons – mostly rifles, shotguns and hand-made guns – were seized by Park Authorities.

T3: Tanzania steps up efforts to tackle wildlife smuggling |The East African|23.07.2019
Tanzania’s reputation as a biodiversity hotspot with strong international transport links makes its seaports more vulnerable to wildlife trafficking. Authorities in charge of Tanzania’s main seaports will prioritise specific actions such as improving risk profiling systems as part of new efforts to tackle smuggling wildlife out of the country.

T4: Countering wildlife trafficking through Tanzania’s ports |TRAFFIC |October 2019
Tanzania’s seaports, especially Dar es Salaam and Zanzibar, are highly vulnerable to wildlife trafficking: more than 23 tones of ivory seized in 2009–2015 were intercepted at or originated from these two ports. Strengthening port law enforcement capacity as well as security of maritime supply chains are key in the fight against wildlife trafficking.

T5: How the ‘Ivory Queen’ Trial Gave Tanzania Global Pride |The Citizen|15.09.2019
Tanzania won accolades from international wildlife crime experts on how it handled the case of a 66-year old Chinese businesswoman, Yang Fenglan, nicknamed the “Ivory Queen”, who was given a 15-year jail term for smuggling hundreds of elephant tusks, worth $2.5million.

T6: Human-wildlife conflicts on the rise in Tanzania, as animal numbers swell |The East African|26.09.2019
Tanzania’s two-year anti-poaching programme has registered mixed results with a spike in wildlife populations in national parks and game reserves, and an attendant increase in human-wildlife conflict. Authorities are now grappling with how to keep wild animals from destroying crops and invading human settlements adjacent to wildlife habitats, especially near the Serengeti National Park, and in Manyara and Katavi regions in northern Tanzania.

T7: 77 people killed in human-wildlife conflicts in 2018 |Daily Nation|03.07.2019
More than 400 people were killed in human-wildlife conflicts between 2014 and 2017, with 77 deaths recorded in 2018, according to the Tourism ministry. The ministry has also reported that 1,263 people were seriously injured by animals last year, 501 properties were damaged and 735 animals killed.

T8: Villagers Escape Eviction After Minister’s Directive |Daily News|26.12.2019
At last, the 15-year-old land conflict pitting villagers against the National Ranch Company Limited (NARCO) in Kagera Region has been put to rest, thanks to intervention by the Minister for Livestock and Fishery Development. President Magufuli had previously directed government authorities not to evict villagers in conserved areas which are no longer vital for preservation of wild animals and ranches, among others.
T9: Green Mile Safari told to stop marketing revoked hunting block to tourists |The Citizen|14.08.2019
On August 7, Dr Kigwangala revoked the licence of Green Mile Safari in its lake Natron block, for breaching of regulations. The company was also embroiled in long term conflicts with residents of 23 villages that surrounds the block.–Green-Mile-Safari-told-to-stop-marketing-revoked/1840340-5235502-2fimv5/index.html

T10: Tanzania to shut part of wildlife preserve to big game hunters |Reuters|26.07.2019
Tanzanian President John Magufuli ordered the sprawling Selous Game Reserve, a UNESCO World Heritage site, to be split in two to restrict the access of big game hunters. “I want the Selous Game Reserve to be split into two. A bigger area of the wildlife sanctuary on the upper side should be turned into a national park where hunting activities are not permitted.”, President Magufuli said.

T11: Tanzania bans UAE firm from hunting for violations of rules |The East African|10.08.2019
Tanzania has revoked a hunting permit for Abu Dhabi-based Green Mile Safari, which runs safari hunting operations around Lake Natron, for alleged violation of game hunting rules. Green Mile Safari is also accused of failing to pay the local communities concession fees amounting to $144,000 in the past two years. Green Mile Safari denies the allegations, blaming them on a smear campaign.

References “Infrastructure”

I1: Tanzania and Rwanda in push to reshape East African logistics |The Africa Report|12.12.2019
Rwanda and Tanzania individually signed two mega-infrastructure deals in the last week in moves that will undoubtedly reshape the East African region politically and economically. The first phase of Tanzania’s Standard Gauge Railway (SRG), covering 202km from Dar es Salaam to Morogoro, is almost completed. The second phase will connect Morogoro to the administrative capital of Dodoma, even as the East African country also revamps its old metre-gauge railway to enhance connectivity. When completed, the new railway line will cover 1,457km, connecting Dar and the Lake Victoria port city of Mwanza.

I2: Tanzania Ports Authority provides 30M/- to support education, health sector in Mwanza |Daily News|27.11.2019
In a bid to improve health services and boost education in Mwanza Region, the Tanzania Ports Authority (TPA) has provided medical equipment and education materials worth 30 million Tanzanian shillings. The authority has extended the support to Nyamagana and Ilemela municipal councils in the region in form of Corporate Social Responsibilities

I3: President Magufuli pledges Sh400 million for construction of Kisaki hospital |The Citizen|25.07.2019
On July 25, President John Magufuli pledged 400 million Tanzanian shillings to support the construction of a health centre in Kisaki, Morogoro region. “I will donate at least 400 million Tanzanian shillings for the construction of the hospital especially taking into consideration that we are implementing a huge project Stiegler’s Gorge around the area” the President said.

I4: NEMC to inspect all projects and industries countrywide |Daily News|19.07.2019
The National Environment Management Council (NEMC), has unveiled its plan to recruit temporary workers to boost the capacity to inspect new projects and industries. Projects have to be registered for the Council to do Environment Impact Assessment (EIA) and comply with environmental laws.

I5: Tanzania to shut part of wildlife preserve to big game hunters |Reuters|26.07.2019
The World Wildlife Fund considers that the proposed Stieglers Gorge hydroelectric dam would put the site and the livelihoods of over 200,000 people at risk. The UNESCO warned that any resulting damage would put the Selous’s status of World Heritage Site at risk. President Magufuli said the project would take up only 3 percent of the wildlife sanctuary. “Tanzania is among global leaders in conservation activities, having allocated over 32 percent of our country’s total land to conservation,” he said. “Nobody can teach us about conservation.”

I6: UNESCO concerned about insufficient Strategic Environmental Assessment of the Rufiji Hydropower Project in Selous Game Reserve |UNESCO|17.12.2019
In response to the results of the independent technical review of the Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) commissioned by The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), the World Heritage Centre expresses grave concern over the state of conservation of Tanzania’s Selous Game Reserve World Heritage site and the impacts of the Rufiji Hydropower on the property.

I7: Foundation Stone Laid for Controversial Hydroelectric Dam |Deutsch Welle|26.07.2019
President John Magufuli defended the construction of the dam in Stiegler’s Gorge. Critics fear it could herald the end of the Selous Game Reserve which is home to a wealth of flora and fauna. With an output of 2.1 gigawatts, the power plant should more than double Tanzania’s current energy production.

I8: Government unearths water projects rot |Daily News|02.07.2019
The Government on Tuesday revealed how contractors were massively stealing billions of public funds through overpricing of water project construction in different parts of the country. Water Minister disclosed that the contractors were colluding with public officials in inflating costs.

I9: Seventy water engineers suspended |Daily News|24.07.2019
Sixty-seven district water engineers have been suspended over allegations of colluding with deceitful contractors to sabotage water projects in various parts of the country. Water woes have affected a number of sectors, including five dispensaries that have failed to operate due to water shortage.

I10: Rukwa water contractor face Mugufuli’s wrath |Daily News|07.10.19
President Magufuli denounced the shoddy implementation of over 20 billion Tanzanian shillings water projects in Rukwa region, ordering stern measures against the contractor. One of the projects is a 1.7 billion Tanzania shillings water project in Laela Town that was completed three years ago, but does not operate as all 33 water stations are dysfunctional.
I11: Tanzania gives Chinese firm conditions for Bagamoyo port |The East African|21.10.2019
The government of Tanzania issued an ultimatum to the Chinese investor in the $10 billion Bagamoyo port project to either accept and work with its terms and conditions of the contract or leave. Government rejected and revised five stringent demands made by Chinese investor because they were not beneficial to the country.

I12: Government allows temporary items in crude oil pipeline zone |The Guardian|02.10.2019
The government has directed district and regional authorities in the area where the East Africa Crude Oil Pipeline (EACOP) is projected to pass to allow residents undertake temporary activities within project area. This comes after implementation of the 1,445-Kilometre pipeline from Hoima in Uganda to Chongolleani in Tanga slowed down due to tax dispute between the government of Uganda and investors.