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IPIS Briefing October – November 2021 – Are we ready for a just transition to a sustainable low-carbon world?

The IPIS briefing offers a selection of articles, news and updates on natural resources, armed conflict, Business & Human Rights and arms trade.  Every month, an editorial and related publications shed a light on a specific topic in IPIS’ areas of research.

In focus: Are we ready for a just transition to a sustainable low-carbon world?

In the news: Congo Hold-up Dossier; Cobalt-rich Congo tries to push into battery manufacturing; Hunt for the ‘Blood Diamond of Batteries’ Impedes Green Energy Push.

New subscribers can register here to receive the briefing and updates on IPIS’ new maps and reports.

This briefing is produced with the financial assistance of the European Union. The contents of this document are the sole responsibility of IPIS and can under no circumstances be regarded as reflecting the position of the European Union.


IN FOCUS:

ARE WE READY FOR A JUST TRANSITION TO A SUSTAINABLE LOW-CARBON WORLD?

by Mieke Thierens

In November 2021, at the latest UN Conference of the Parties (COP), the world’s ambitions to address the climate crisis and achieve the goals set out in the Paris Agreement were once more discussed and re-affirmed. To keep the 1.5 degrees warming target within reach, commitments to firm reductions in greenhouse gas emission – that could lead to global net zero emissions by 2050 – were a clear objective of COP26. At the same time, the close link between climate action, sustainable development and a just transition was reiterated, to make sure that the transition towards net-zero emission, low carbon world would leave no one behind.

A key component of plans to reduce our carbon footprint is the accelerated transition to zero emission vehicles. The ‘‘COP26 Declaration on accelerating the transition to 100% zero emission cars and vans’ announced that, globally, by 2040, all new cars and vans sold should be zero emission. This ambition echoes plans in the European Green Deal, in which the European Union (EU) pledges to have at least 30 million zero-emission cars and 80 000 zero-emission lorries on European roads by 2030, in order to reach 100% zero emission from vehicles and climate neutrality by 2050.

The COP26 Declaration also explicitly mentions support to a global, equitable and just transition and to address the full value chain impacts from vehicle production, use and disposal. Key ingredients to achieve this just transition include technical assistance, financing, capacity building and ensuring ‘green jobs’. The recognition of needs beyond the carbon emission footprint – and the impact of full value chains – is essential in the sustainable energy transition debate. However, with what is on the table now: are weready for a sustainable, just transition to net-zero emissions?

Sourcing critical minerals for the low carbon transition

Resource extraction, and the extraction of critical “(energy) transition minerals”, is at the heart of the world’s planned low carbon energy transition. Clean technologies are heavily dependent on minerals such as copper, nickel, lithium and cobalt for energy storage. An electric vehicle typically contains lithium-ion batteries with a lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide as cathode. As calculated by the International Energy Agency (IEA), a typical electric car requires six times the mineral inputs (in weight; kg/vehicle) of a conventional car. This equals about 9 kg of lithium and 13 kg of cobalt for a single car.

With electric vehicle production set to increase exponentially by 2050, in line with “green transition” pledges, the global demand for critical transition minerals such as cobalt and lithium is expected to grow at an equally unprecedented pace. According to the IEA, the global annual demand for cobalt and lithium each will almost triple by 2030 (compared to today). The World Bankmentions growth percentages of ca. 600% for cobalt and over 900% for lithium between 2017 and 2050. In the EU alone, this would mean a need of 15 times more cobalt and 60 times more lithium in 2050, just for electric batteries.

The extraction and processing of transition minerals, while ensuring an economically, environmentally and socially sustainable supply chain, will be – and already is – a challenge.

A 2020 study by Eléonore Lèbre and colleagues examined the environmental, social and governance risks associated with mining projects across 20 metal commodities world-wide. They concluded that 70% of cobalt resources are located in high-risk contexts, especially in terms of social and governance dimensions. Lithium, on the other hand, is found in areas that are most vulnerable to environmental risks, and water risks especially.

At present, the production of transition minerals is highly concentrated geographically: more than 60% of global cobalt is extracted in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), while over 60% of known lithium reserves are within a specific area of Chile, Argentina and Bolivia. Not surprisingly, DRC is identified as one of Lèbre et al.’s top high-risk cobalt contexts.

While the issues with the artisanal mining of cobalt in the Democratic Republic of Congo have been in the international spotlight for some time, more and more details on harmful practices of large-scale, industrial cobalt mining operations are beginning to surface as well. Indeed, as already argued in a 2020 IPIS briefing, concerns in artisanal mining should not distract from the significant malpractices in cobalt supply chains that source from industrial mines.

New research by RAID and their Congolese colleagues from CAJJ, published just a few weeks ago, offers a sobering look into the severe labour rights abuses faced by workers in five industrial cobalt mines in DRC. There, Congolese workers are systematically subjected to unsafe and unhealthy working conditions, discrimination, racism, violence, excessive working hours and extremely low pay. Pay as low as 3 euro (£2.5) a day – much less than a living wage by any standard. According to RAID’s study, companies involved include Kamoto Copper Company (owned by Glencore), Tenke Fungurume Mining (majority owned by China Molybdenum) and Sicomines (a joint venture between Gécamines and a Chinese consortium).

Their cobalt supply chains are said to serve electric vehicle producers such as General Motors, Toyota and Volkswagen. These labour rights abuses appear to be the direct result of an outsourcing model that allows multinational companies to hire employees for their Congolese mining operations mainly via subcontracting firms. Not only does this reduce labour costs, it also makes it much easier to limit responsibilities, obligations and legal liability. It allows these companies to make claims about respecting international standards and having human rights due diligence policies, without actually having to put those in practice.

The Business and Human Rights Resource Centre (BHRRC)’s Transition Mineral Tracker reveals a similar picture. Despite human rights policies in place, allegations of environmental pollution, corruption, dangerous working conditions, displacement without insufficient community consultation and compensation and of attacks on civil society organisations are linked to industrial cobalt mining companies in DRC.

The World Benchmarking Alliance’s 2021 Just Transition Assessment summarizes the current reality of transition mineral supply chains well: “Our first assessments of companies’ contributions to a just transition show a striking and systemic lack of action by companies to identify, prepare for and mitigate the social impacts of their low-carbon strategies. (…) Only 12 (out of 180) companies demonstrate the basics of identifying and managing human rights risks.”

Towards better future alternatives?

What to expect of plans to ensure an adequate supply of critical minerals to power the transition to net-zero emissions and a low carbon world?

Firstly, intensified extraction is expected in today’s core extractive zones, such as the DRC, South America or China. Last August, China Molybdenum announced significant investments to double cobalt production in its Tenke Fungurume Mine, already one of the largest cobalt mines in the DRC and, indeed, one of the industrial mines where severe labour rights violations have been recorded. Also other multinational mining companies have again expressed interest to commence or ramp up their operations in the DRC as “safer” jurisdictions do not (yet) offer the same resource riches.

According to Congolese president Felix Tshisekedi “the country is open for business and investment”. The DRC government is thereby also ensuring its own place in the electric battery value chain. It is putting mechanisms in place to control the artisanal cobalt marketin the country and to develop its own domestic battery manufacturing capacity. Today, the latter is strongly dominated by China as it hosts the majority of the global cobalt refining capacity.

Securing critical transition minerals is also high on the EU’s priority list. Increasingly aware of dependency risks versus critical mineral needs, the EU Parliament recently accepted the European Commission’s action plan on critical raw materials. Re-localising mineral extraction to source more transition minerals from EU countries and their territories is a key aspect of this strategy.

France is one of Europe’s countries that is already considering opening up new mines, both on land and within its exclusive economic zone on the Polynesian seabed, where one of the richest cobalt crusts in the world is located. President Macron even made exploring the French deep-sea one of the strategic levers of the France 2030 recovery plan. Not only are both European governments and mining CEOs convinced that Europe has the majority of the minerals it needs within its territories. These new mineral supply chains are also presented as a way for Europe to do mining – and its energy transition – in a modern, efficient, more environmentally-friendly and ethical/responsible way. Mining that is bound by the most progressive industry standards and in line with European and national regulation and legislation regarding responsible supply chains and human rights. Mining that is allegedly a safer, just option for people, the environment and corporate reputations.

“Clean”, “green”, “responsible” European transition mineral supply chains would offer an answer to the common criticism that low carbon energy strategies continue to ignore the true environmental and human costs of resource extraction and de facto replace a carbon footprint by an equally troublesome mineral footprint that allows for similar injustices. At present, however, there is little assurance that corporate promises for responsible mineral supply chains and a just transition will offer real fairness, including the respect for human rights.

As Bainton and colleagues demonstrate, many of the world’s major mining companies already appropriate the ‘just transition’ language as part of next marketing strategies to promote themselves as essential actors in the transition to a low-carbon future. Mining operations in new resource areas already ignore the rights of Indigenous Peoples, as is the case with a newly planned lithium mine in Nevada (USA). Unique habitats like Upemba National Park (DRC) are ready to be sacrificed for the construction of hydropower dams which are obliged to supply much-needed extra energy required for the increased extraction of copper and cobalt in the region.

In Serbia, protests have been ongoing for weeks against the government’s plans to allow multi-national Rio Tinto to start lithium extraction. Protesters argue the mine will cause too much environmental damage.  Multiple companies and governments are keen to start mineral extraction in the deep sea, without fully understanding the environmental impact of this type of extraction and without meaningful governance systems in place.

Moreover, initiatives to push for strong regulatory frameworks and mandatory corporate human rights due diligence are being delayed or watered down. These initiatives would oblige all supply chain actors to identify, assess, prevent and mitigate environmental and human rights harm linked to their operations. However, progress on national, regional and international mandates is lagging behind the need for these instruments.

It was announced recently that the EU Directive on Sustainable Corporate Governance is being postponed in what has been called a big win for corporate lobbyists. An EU-wide binding measure to stop companies from engaging in abusive litigation (the so-called SLAPPs) against human right defenders is also still in its consultation phase.

However, after a decade, the UN Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights have taught us that the protection of human rights and human rights defenders, through strong legal frameworks and mandatory corporate accountability, urgently needs to be established. This is crucial if we want to make sure that actions to counter the climate crisis do not aggravate existing environmental and human rights crises.

As long as what we consider to be a just transition does not hold human rights at its core, it will not be just and it will not be sustainable. As it stands, it seems there is still important work to be done before we are ready for a just transition to net-zero emissions and a low-carbon world.

Source photo: London Mining Network.

FURTHER READING

Human Rights law disappears from Commission plans | 1 December 2021 | ETUC

‘Battery arms race’: how China has monopolized the electric vehicle industry| 25 November 2021 | the Guardian

Will ‘green metals’ become Africa’s new oil? | 22 November 2021 | The Africa Report

‘Like slave and master’: DRC miners toil for 30p an hour to fuel electric cars | 8 November 2021 | the Guardian

More clean energy means more mines – we shouldn’t sacrifice communities in the name of climate action| 4 November 2021 | the Conversation

Mining the planet to death. The Dirty Truth about Clean Technologies | 4 November 2021 | Spiegel International

Renewable Energy & Human Rights Benchmark 2021 | 2 November 2021 | BHRRC

The Road to Ruin? Electric vehicles and workers’ rights abuses at Congo’s industrial cobalt mines” | November 2021 | RAID & CAJJ

Harmful impacts of mining | November 2021 | RMF

Big miners reconsider Congo, Zambia risks as copper price surges | 13 October 2021 | Financial Post

Access to a healthy environment, declared a human right by UN rights council | 8 October 2021 | UN News

Tous les minéraux nécessaires aux batteries des voitures modernes pourraient être extraits en Europe : il suffit de les exploiter | 7 October 2021 | La Libre

Congo looks to lure more investment to tap green metals deposits | 7 October 2021 | Mining.com

Ensuring access to the raw materials for the European Green Deal: A European Call for Action | 30 September 2021 | ERMA

Bedrijven staan te drummen voor cobalt uit Congo | 8 September 2020 | Mo* magazine

The spiralling environmental cost of our lithium battery addiction | 5 August 2018 | Wired

Developing countries pay environmental cost of electric car batteries | 22 July 2021 | UNCTAD

Reducing the carbon footprint at the expense of a mineral footprint? | June 2021 | IPIS

 

IN THE NEWS

BUSINESS AND HUMAN RIGHTS

Haut- Katanga : 3 ONG accusent l’entreprise minière Rwashi mining de violations des droits humains | 28 November 2021 | Radio Okapi

Trois ONG de défense des droits de l’homme ont dénoncé samedi 27 novembre « des violations récurrentes des droits humains » par l’entreprise minière Rwashi mining à Lubumbashi (Haut-Katanga). Acidh, Afriwatch et Premi Congo accusent cette multinationale notamment « d’expulsion forcée, de dépossession des maisons et des terrains sans indemnisation appropriée ».

GIZ Trains Stakeholders to Counter Illicit Movement of Minerals, Terrorist Financing, Others | 25 November 2021 | Liberian Observer

The Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) has trained several national stakeholders to counter the movement of illicit minerals, terrorist financing and money laundering, as well as illicit financial flows, within the Artisanal Smallscale Miners sector of Liberia.

Kimberley process certification system in Cameroon. Independent monitoring report (FR) | 25 November 2021 | Journal du Cameroun

As early as 2000, several States validated the creation of a Kimberley Process Certification Scheme (KPCS), endorsed by Resolution 55/56 of the United Nations General Assembly, the purpose of which was to bar the way to the entry of illicit conflict diamonds. Following Decree No. 2011/3666/PM of 2nd November 2011 on the creation, organization and functioning of the SCPK, Cameroon in June 2012, became a participant in the Kimberley Process (KP). However, there is a risk of illegal trade in diamonds in the State of Cameroon from the Central African Republic (CAR), with which it shares porous borders and is plagued by armed conflict. It is on the strength of this reality that civil society organizations are mobilizing to prevent the invasion of the official circuit by conflict diamonds still called “blood diamonds”. This led to the production of the “Independent Monitoring Report of the Kimberley Process Certification Scheme in Cameroon”.

Traders not registered with GJEPC barred from importing, exporting rough diamonds | 22 November 2021 | DevDiscourse

Import or export of rough diamonds will not be permitted unless the concerned importer or exporter is registered with the Gem and Jewellery Export Promotion Council GJEPC, the Directorate General of Foreign Trade DGFT said on Monday. GJEPC is the designated importing and exporting authority for Kimberley Process Certification Scheme KPCS.

At a ‘certified’ palm oil plantation in Nigeria, soldiers and conflict over land | 22 November 2021 | Mongabay

The Okomu Oil Palm Company is majority-owned by Socfin, a French-Belgian multinational that operates plantations across West and Central Africa. Certified by the RSPO in early 2020, Okomu’s motto is “responsible tropical agriculture.” But over the past decade, the company has been embroiled in disputes over land ownership and its use of Nigerian soldiers as a de facto security force for its plantations, which border a national park that’s home to leopards, chimpanzees and forest elephants. Critics say the RSPO’s decision to certify Okomu illustrates everything that’s gone wrong with sustainability labeling for palm oil.

Problem With “Conflict Minerals” Extraction | 19 November 2021 | Taarifa

In the early 2000s, activists began to campaign against the extraction of “conflict minerals”—a catchall term for gold and the “three Ts” (tin, tantalum, and tungsten) originating from war zones in eastern Congo.

Congo Hold-up Dossier | November 2021 | RFI

Congo Hold-op Dossier | November 2021 | Le Soir

DR Congo data leak: Millions transferred to Joseph Kabila allies | 19 November 2021 | BBC

Le plus grand « leak » d’Afrique dévoile les secrets financiers du Congo | 19 November 2021 | Mediapart

Congo Hold-up : La BCC et la Gecamines, « des machines à cash au profit » de Kabila | 19 November 2021 | Politico.cd

Congo Hold-up : « il y a dans le chef de cette union sacrée des médias et des ONG occidentaux, un appel à délation » (Kikaya Bin Karubi) | 21 November 2021 | Politico.cd

Congo Hold-up: les deux millions suspects du régime Kabila à George Forrest | 22 November 2021 | Le Soir

Congo Hold-up : LUCHA demande la suspension « immédiate » des indemnités payées par l’État à Joseph Kabila | 22 November 2021 | Politico.cd

Opinion: « Congo hold up »: fumée épaisse, flamme incertaine? | 22 November 2021 | La Libre Afrique

« Congo Hold-up » : ouverture d’une information judiciaire visant le clan de Joseph Kabila | 24 November 2021 | Le Monde

Soupçons de détournement : La Sicomines dément les accusations de Congo hold-up | 30 November 2021 | Politico.cd

Congo Hold-up. C’est le nom d’une nouvelle enquête collaborative explosive qui documente d’importants détournements de fonds publics en République démocratique du Congo. Parmi les principaux responsables présumés figurent l’ancien président Joseph Kabila et son premier cercle. Fruit du travail de 19 médias partenaires associés au consortium européen EIC et de cinq ONG spécialisées, elle est basée sur l’analyse de millions de documents bancaires et transactions qui ont fuité d’une banque africaine : la BGFI.

Négoce mondial de l’or : comment Dubaï prive les producteurs africains d’une partie de la manne aurifère | 19 November 2021 | Agence Ecofin

Depuis son lancement en 2003, le régime international de certification des diamants du Processus de Kimberley (PK) a contribué à réduire la présence des « diamants de sang » dans le négoce mondial de ces pierres précieuses. Malheureusement, d’autres produits miniers sont encore à l’origine de violations des droits de l’Homme ou font perdre des milliards de dollars chaque année aux pays producteurs.

Should Zimbabwe Be Made Kimberley Process Chair? | 19 November 2021 | JCK

Zimbabwe: ‘We’re Happy to Assume Kp Post’ | 22 November 2021 | The Herald | AllAfrica

The recent Kimberley Process Plenary in Moscow featured—as expected—mostly familiar squabbles and an all-too-familiar lack of progress. But the famously fractious certification scheme greeted the most surprising announcement—Zimbabwe’s bid to be named vice chair, the traditional stepping stone to becoming chair—with an also-surprising lack of dissent.

New Obligations for Companies to Better Protect Human Rights and the Environment | 19 November 2021 | Eversheds Sutherland

On 29 November 2020, the Swiss voters rejected the “The Responsible Business Initiative – Protecting human rights and the environment” popular initiative (so- called “corporate responsibility initiative”).

US Court Dismissed Cobalt Mining Forced Labor Lawsuit Against Tech Companies | 18 November 2021 | Global Supply Chain Compliance | Baker McKenzie

On November 2, the United States District Court for the District of Columbia dismissed the suit brought by a class of child laborers who mine cobalt in the Democratic Republic of Congo (“DRC”) against several US tech companies under the Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act (“TVPRA”) and several common law based causes of action.

Conclusion of the 2021 Kimberley Process Plenary | 17 November 2021 | U.S. Department of State

The United States participated in the annual Kimberley Process Plenary hosted in a hybrid virtual and in-person format in Moscow, November 8–12. The Kimberley Process is an international, multi-stakeholder initiative created to increase transparency and oversight in the diamond industry in order to eliminate trade in conflict diamonds, defined as rough diamonds sold by rebel groups or their allies to fund conflict against legitimate governments.

WDC President Calls for Stronger Action on Conflict Diamonds | 17 November 2021 | Israeli Diamond Industry

World Diamond Council (WDC) President Edward Asscher spoke during the Opening Session of the 2021 Kimberley Process (KP) Plenary, calling for Kimberley Process members “to agree to expand the conflict diamond definition in order to support long-term consumer confidence,” Rough & Polished reports.

Pandora Papers reveal Emirati royal families’ role in secret money flows | 16 November 2021 | ICIJ

From skyscrapers rising in the desert to free-trade zones hawking gold and diamonds, the UAE is open for business. Sometimes that business involves shadowy companies and international crimes.

Germany: call for an improvement of the Supply Chain Due Diligence Act | 15 November 2021 | FIDH

The Supply chain due diligence act was adopted by the German Federal Parliament on 11 June 2021 and will enter into force on 1 January 2023. It aims to improve the protection of international human rights and the environment by setting binding standards for large companies and their value chains. Following the adoption of the UN Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights (UNGPs) in 2011, Germany adopted a National Action Plan on Business and Human Rights, which recalled (without setting legal standards) that companies should respect human rights in their operations and their value chains.

Why So Many Hate The Kimberley Process—But Don’t Leave | 12 November 2021 | JCK

The Kimberley Process will end its virtual plenary today, and it looks like that will follow an all-too-familiar pattern.

Négociations sur le Traité ONU: l’UE manque à son devoir de protéger les droits humains | 12 November 2021 | Le Soir

Le mois dernier, le groupe de travail intergouvernemental chargé de l’élaboration d’un traité visant à réglementer les entreprises en matière de droits humains s’est réuni pour la septième année consécutive à Genève. Malgré la volonté de certains Etats de faire avancer le processus, l’Union européenne a contribué à son blocage.

Congo lawmakers tell Barrick to secure mine perimeter after deadly protest | 12 November 2021 | Mining.com

Lawmakers in Democratic Republic of Congo have asked Barrick Gold Corp to secure the perimeter of its Kibali gold mine after a protest last month over the eviction of people living on the company’s concession turned deadly.

Corporate social responsibility under international investment treaties | 11 November 2021 | Lalive | Lexology

With the world awaiting the decisions coming out of COP26, responsibility, accountability and international co-operation are fast becoming the new direction of travel. This movement is also affecting international investment treaties, where a shift towards greater scrutiny of investors’ commitment to CSR principles is changing the symmetry of such agreements.

Sweden charges 2 oil executives for war crimes in Sudan | 11 November 2021 | The Associated Press

Sweden charges Lundin Energy executives with complicity in Sudan war crimes | 11 November 2021 | Reuters

Lundin Oil: Corporates also can be accomplices to war crimes | 17 November 2021 | Rahman Ravelli

Sweden has charged two executives of a Swedish oil exploration and production company for complicity in the military’s war crimes in Sudan from 1999 to 2003, including in its dealings with the country’s regime to secure the company’s oil operations in the African nation.

White-Collar Crime or Non-Crime: International Corporate Compliance and Risk Control in the Context of Cross-Border Law Enforcement Cooperation | 10 November 2021 | JunZeJun Law Offices | Lexology

In the era of multilateral trade and globalization, cooperation and development among the world’s economies have deepened, and the economic and trade relations between different countries/regions have become increasingly close. At the same time, however, criminal activities such as drug trafficking, money-laundering, corruption, fraud and terrorist financing have gradually become globalized, professionalized and complicated. “Transnational crime has become a threat to peace and development, even to the sovereignty of nations”.

Like slave and master’: DRC miners toil for 30p an hour to fuel electric cars | 8 November 2021 | The Guardian

Congolese workers describe a system of abuse, precarious employment and paltry wages – all to power the green vehicle revolution.

More clean energy means more mines – we shouldn’t sacrifice communities in the name of climate action | 4 November 2021 | The Conversation

As the world shifts to renewable energy and fossil fuel industries close down, what will happen to the local workforce, communities and businesses that depend on them?

The Dirty Truth About Clean Technologies | 4 November 2021 | Spiegel

The poor South is being exploited so that the rich North can transition to environmental sustainability. Entire swaths of land are being destroyed to secure the resources needed to produce wind turbines and solar cells. Are there alternatives?

More clean energy means more mines – we shouldn’t sacrifice communities in the name of climate action | 4 November 2021 | DevDiscourse

This is an essential instrument to help all companies mining, renewable technology and finance take responsibility for their social and environmental impacts.The principles require businesses to conduct human rights due diligence to avoid harming workers, local communities and people further down the renewables supply chain.

14 Things to Know About Germany’s New Supply Chain Due Diligence Law | 2 November 2021 | Ravenscroft & Schmierer | Lexology

The German Supply Chain Due Diligence Law (Lieferkettensorgfaltspflichtengesetz [LkSG]) was enacted by the German Bundestag on 11 June 2021 and will come into force from 1 January 2023. It obliges German-based companies above a certain size to fulfil their human rights and environmental obligations throughout the global supply chain. Starting from 1 January 2023, companies with at least 3,000 employees will be covered, and from 1 January 2024 extend to companies with at least 1,000 employees. It is intended to ensure compliance with fundamental human rights standards such as the prohibition of forced labour and child labour.

Toxic Cost of Going Green (video) | 31 October 2021 | Unreported World

Unreported World investigates the dirty business of cobalt mining in the Democratic Republic of Congo. The mineral is fuelling the planet’s green revolution, but at what cost?

Yes, Diamonds Do Good. But What Happens When They Don’t? | 29 October 2021 | JCK

This week, De Beers released a report that showed that, when consumers buy diamonds—younger ones in particular—they rank sustainability concerns above traditional factors such as style and price. They want good environmental stewardship and support for local communities.

The Problem with “Conflict Minerals” | 19 October 2021 | Dissent

In the early 2000s, activists began to campaign against the extraction of “conflict minerals.” Today, violence continues unabated in eastern Congo, underscoring the misguided frameworks governing transnational intervention.

Liberia and Concession Agreement: The Case of Mittal Steel | 19 October 2021 | The New Dawn

Liberia’s Minerals and Mining Law, adopted in April 2000, encourages foreign investment. It includes a requirement for a Mineral Development Agreement (MDA) between the government and an eligible applicant for a Class A mining license with concessions awarded for up to 25 years and renewable consecutively if evidence of mineral reserves is found. On 17 August 2005, the National Transitional Government of Liberia (NTGL) headed by Gyude Bryant entered into an MDA with the world’s largest steel company, ArcelorMittal (AML) to explore Liberia’s extensive reserves of iron ore, which could see, ArcelorMittal investing around US$900 million over the next 25 years.

Tanzanian gold miners ten times more likely to die from road injuries, study finds | 15 October 2021 | Mongabay

Mining areas are dangerous for many reasons: they’re linked to a heightened risk of cancer, poisoning, heart and respiratory diseases. Now, researchers have identified a hitherto overlooked hazard: roads.

Revised GRI Standards Integrate UN Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights and Foreshadow Emerging Mandatory Human Rights and Environmental Due Diligence Legislation | 12 October 2021 | Mayer Brown

The Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) have revised their Universal Standards to emphasize and require more transparency in reporting on human rights impacts and due diligence obligations. This is a significant update because all entities reporting in accordance with the GRI standards are required to report on the Universal Standards (now GRI 1, 2 and 3).

What is the Future of Guinea’s Mining Sector After the Coup? | 11 October 2021 | HRW

Guinea’s September 5 coup sent shock waves through both West Africa and global commodities markets. Guinea is the world’s second largest producer of bauxite, the ore needed to produce aluminum, and has rich iron ore, gold, and diamond reserves. The coup raises three fundamental questions about the future of Guinea’s mining sector and whether Guineans will benefit from the country’s mineral wealth or continue to pay the price for its exploitation.

Metals Technology Initiative Publishes Compliance and Due Diligence Guidance on New Website | 11 October 2021 | TechTimes

The Metals Technology Initiative (MTI), an anti-corruption collective action initiative of four leading firms in the metals technology industry, has launched a website to make its guidance on gifts and hospitality and on third-party due diligence freely accessible to all.

Pandora Papers: Rosy Blue rejigged its offshore network after Panama expose (Behind paywall) | 6 October 2021 | The Indian Express

It has figured in every offshore leak since the HSBC records in 2015, and Rosy Blue, among the largest diamond-trading firms in the world, is also in the Pandora Papers that reveal details of its current offshore investments until 2020.

NATURAL RESOURCES

Hunt for the ‘Blood Diamond of Batteries’ Impedes Green Energy Push | 29 November 2021 | The New York Times

Dangerous mining conditions plague Congo, home to the world’s largest supply of cobalt, a key ingredient in electric cars. A leadership battle threatens reforms.

RDC : fraude minière, près de 12 millions USD de droits superficiels annuels non réglés entre 2017 et 2021 | 29 November 2021 | Zoom-Eco

Les assujettis non en règle de paiement de la quotité de 50% des droits superficiaires annuels revenant au Trésor public ont occasionné près de 12 millions de dollars américains de manque à gagner au Gouvernement de la République Démocratique du Congo pour la période allant de 2017 à 2021.

L’impact de la déforestation sur les peuples autochtones du Congo, Cameroun et Centrafrique | 25 November 2021 | Zoom-Eco

Pénurie des denrées alimentaires, disparition des plantes et essences médicinales, ou encore changement de mode de vie, telles sont les conséquences de la déforestation sur les peuples autochtones d’Afrique Centrale.

Cobalt-rich Congo tries to push into battery manufacturing | 25 November 2021 | Reuters

Industrie des batteries et marché́ des véhicules électriques: la RDC veut jouer un rôle clé | 24 November 2021 | Actualite.cd

Democratic Republic of Congo’s government said on Wednesday it would push to develop domestic battery manufacturing capacity to add value to its exports of minerals such as cobalt and copper.

European Parliament backs plans to secure EU supply of critical raw materials | 24 November 2021 | The Parliament Magazine

Welcome address by Commissioner Thierry Breton at the 8th annual high-level conference of the European Innovation Partnership on Raw Materials | 17 November 2021 | European Commission

It hasn’t exactly been a secret among experts that Europe’s dependency on the import of certain rare minerals and materials needed in the production of digital devices is worrying, and the EU hasn’t exactly been quick to respond to the growing challenge this represents.

Rare earths: Scarcity at your fingertips (transcript) | 23 November 2021 | Quartz Obsession Podcast

A group of 17 elements make up a little-known group called rare earth metals. They are notoriously tricky to extract, which is unfortunate since they’re key components in smartphones, batteries, motors, and wind turbines, and essential to a clean-energy future. China has a near monopoly on the mining and processing of rare earth metals, but as demand for them rises, other countries are looking to get into the game.

The decline of South Africa’s mining sector in five charts | 23 November 2021 | Daily Maverick

Five revealing charts, put together by Paul Miller, director of mining consultancy AmaranthCX, show the decline of South Africa’s once vibrant mining sector. The information is based on Miller’s own number crunching as well as South African Reserve Bank, S&P Capital IQ and Fraser Institute data.

Africa doesn’t reap the rewards of its $24 billion marine fisheries industry | 22 November 2021 | Quartz Africa

The African marine fisheries sector is huge. It’s valued at more than US$24 billion per year. The sector is comprised of two main players. One is the continent’s artisanal or small-scale fishers, a form of fishing conducted on small fishing boats by coastal communities. The other is industrial fisheries, including trawlers and distant water fishing fleets.

Will ‘green metals’ become Africa’s new oil? | 22 November 2021 | The Africa Report

Clean energy technologies are seen supercharging demand for four industrial metals – copper, nickel, cobalt and lithium, as countries across the globe step up their climate change mitigation ambitions. The value of these metals is projected to rival that of oil in the next 20 years – and Africa stands to reap the benefit.

Exploitation illicite des minerais au Sud-Kivu : un proche du Gouverneur dément son implication | 20 November 2021 | Politico.cd

Lors de la plénière du jeudi 18 novembre 2021 tenue à l’assemblée nationale, le député Bulambo Kilosho a accusé le chargé de sécurité du gouverneur, Didier Kapay de vente des minerais de Lamituga, en territoire de Mwenga dans les comptoirs à Dubai.

RDC-Exploitation illicite des minerais : Juvénal Munubo rappelle l’urgence d’exiger au Rwanda et l’Ouganda le respect des certificats de la CIRGL sur la certification des minerais | 20 November 2021 | Actualite.cd

Dans le cadre du débat général à l’Assemblée nationale jeudi dernier sur le rapport de la commission parlementaire envoyée dans le territoire de Mwenga en vue de recueillir des informations sur l’exploitation illicite des minerais par des sociétés étrangères, les députés ont fait plusieurs propositions et recommandations en vue de permettre de contrôler effectivement ses mines qui sont à la base des conflits intermittents dans l’est du pays.

DR Congo President Felix Tshisekedi orders mining licences audit | 20 November 2021 | al-Jazeera

Felix Tshisekedi, president of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), has demanded a ban on issuing and trading mining permits until the country’s mining registry has been audited, a measure aimed at combatting fraud within the sector.

Zimbabwe: Illegal Use of Mercury in Mining Sector Continues | 19 November 2021 | The Herald (Zimbabwe)

Efforts by Zimbabwe to reduce and where possible eliminate the use of mercury particularly in the mining sector in line with the Minamata Convention continue to be a huge challenge.

Zambia launches probe on illegal issuance of mining licenses | 19 November 2021 | CGTN

The Zambian government said on Thursday that it has instituted a serious audit of how mining licenses were issued in the past.

In Ivory Coast, a battle to save cocoa-ravaged forests | 18 November 2021 | Reuters

This cocoa-growing settlement was all but destroyed last year by Ivorian forest agents, leaving farmers to rake through their beans amid broken concrete and other remnants.

DR Congo lawmakers urge reparations over illegal mining | 17 November 2021 | France24

Lawmakers probing illegal mining by foreign-owned firms in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo on Wednesday recommended fines and reparations to local communities to compensate for the losses.

EU proposes law preventing import of goods linked to deforestation | 17 November 2021 | Reuters

European Commission Proposes Restrictions and Due Diligence Requirements for Products Associated with Deforestation and Forest Degradation | 22 November 2021 | Mayer Brown

The European Commission proposed a law on Wednesday aimed at preventing the import of commodities linked to deforestation by requiring companies to prove their global supply chains are not contributing to the destruction of forests.

Illegal mining depleting Apamprama Forest Reserve | 17 November 2021 | Ghana Business News

The Apamprama Forest Reserve in the Ashanti Region is being depleted by illegal miners, data from Digital Earth Africa (DE Africa), a research institution, has shown.

Mozambique Woos Russian Companies, Others With Oil Licence | 17 November 2021 | Business Post (Nigeria)

The government of Mozambique has opened the 6th licensing round and is currently inviting foreign oil companies, including those from Russia, to participate and bid for the development of projects in the sector in the country.

The Cobalt Expansion Drive Is A Copper Story | 16 November 2021 | S&P Global

Driven by a cobalt price rally and cost reduction, some copper-cobalt miners are actively assessing restart and expansion opportunities. An S&P Global Market Intelligence analysis suggests that even if there is a potential cobalt price downgrade, led by a narrowing market deficit, large-scale miners would still benefit from increased production.

Combatting Mass Clear-Cutting in Congo | 15 November 2021 | Spiegel

The rainforest of the Democratic Republic of Congo is one of the world’s most important ecosystems. But international timber firms are logging trees there illegally. Locals are starting to fight back, with some success.

Central African Republic: Diamond trafficking ring unleashes a political storm in Portugal | 13 November 2021 | Market Research Telecast

Gold, diamonds and drugs: Portuguese peacekeepers suspected of smuggling | 10 November 2021 | DefenceWeb

An angry crony and a scrupulous officer dynamited the diamond, gold and drug trafficking network woven by the Portuguese military integrated into the UN humanitarian mission in the Central African Republic. The plot came to light this week, when the arrest of 11 people, civilians and military, within Operation Miríade was announced, which perplexed the main Portuguese authorities, who found out from the press.

Gold Mining in Burkina Faso Becomes Increasingly Dangerous | 9 November 2021 | VoA

Terror attacks on gold mining operations in Burkina Faso are becoming a regular occurrence. For VOA, reporter Henry Wilkins looks at the impact the attacks are having on the lives of survivors and what it could mean if extracting gold, the country’s primary source of income, becomes too dangerous.

RDC : les entreprises chinoises accusées d’exploitation illicite des minerais dans l’Est (rapport parlementaire) | 6 November 2021 | Agence Anadolu

L’Assemblée provinciale de la province du Sud-Kivu dans l’Est de la République démocratique du Congo (RDC) a accusé les entreprises chinoises d’exploiter illicitement les minerais de la région.

DRC wants end to Glencore export of raw cobalt | 6 November 2021 | SwissInfo.ch

The Deputy Prime Minister of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) has told Swiss delegates at the COP26 climate conference in Glasgow that her country will no longer accept the export of its raw materials, notably cobalt, by commodities giant Glencore.

$9.4bn hydrogen megaproject set for Namibia | 5 November 2021 | H2-view

Namibia heading for world record green hydrogen costs, conference hears | 22 November 2021 | Mining Weekly

(The hydrogen hype: Gas industry fairy tale or climate horror story? | 7 December 2020 | Corporate Europe Observatory)

(Green Hydrogen Is Bubbling with Hype—Again | 9 April 2021 | Anthropocene Magazine)

(Scientists warn against global warming effect of hydrogen leaks | 14 October 2021 | Euractiv)

(‘Shipping green hydrogen to the EU will be too expensive, but importing green ammonia would be cheaper than producing it locally’ | 18 November 2021 | Rechargenews.com)

A new $9.4bn green hydrogen project is set to be developed in Namibia with Hyphen Hydrogen Energy being selected by the local Government to develop the first, large-scale green hydrogen project. The project will produce an estimated 300,000 tonnes of green hydrogen per year in the African nation which will serve both domestic applications as well as exportation potential.

The Toll of War – International Day for Preventing the Exploitation of the Environment in War and Armed Conflict | 5 November 2021 | The CSR Journal

Tomorrow marks the 2021 International Day for Preventing the Exploitation of the Environment in War and Armed Conflict. Despite the protection afforded by several important legal instruments, the environment continues to be the silent victim of armed conflicts worldwide. The toll of warfare today reaches far beyond human suffering, displacement and damage to homes and infrastructure. Modern conflicts also cause extensive destruction and degradation of the environment.

Smuggling prompts Africa’s biggest gold producer to rethink export tax | 5 November 2021 | African Mining Market

Ghana is reconsidering a tax that’s spurred an increase in gold smuggling from small mines, a trend that’s depriving the country of much-needed revenue.

Illicit gold mining behind Zamfara insecurity, says ICPC boss | 3 November 2021 | The Nation (Nigeria)

How illegal gold mining fuels violent crimes in Zamfara – ICPC | 2 November 2021 | Premium Times (Nigeria)

The Chairman of the Independent Corrupt Practices and other related offences Commission (ICPC), Prof. Bolaji Owasanoye, has blamed the intractable security challenges in Zamfara State on the activities of illegal miners of gold and related natural resources.

L’audit forestier en RDC soulève bien des espoirs | 2 November 2021 | DW

A la veille de la COP26, la RDC a décidé d’auditer ses concessions forestières et de suspendre les contrats d’exploitation douteux dans ce domaine.

Africa’s Crackdown on Informal Gold Miners Spreads to Mali | 2 November 2021 | Bloomberg

Mali is getting closer to bringing in new rules to better control artisanal gold mining and overtake South Africa as the continent’s second-biggest producer.

Hundreds of NGOs sign open letter calling to halt “illegal activities” in DRC’s protected areas | 30 October 2021 | Mongabay

More than 200 Congolese and international NGOs have published an open letter calling for a government clampdown on “illegal activities” in protected areas of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC).

Congo to ban log exports to reduce pressure on its forests | 29 October 2021 | Reuters

Democratic Republic of Congo’s environment minister said on Thursday the country intends to ban all log exports and implement other measures to lessen threats to its carbon-absorbing tropical rainforest, a major bulwark against climate change.

In Burkina Faso gold mines, extremists seek power source | 28 October 2021 | DefenceWeb

Extremist groups in the Sahel are eyeing gold mines as a way to pay for weapons, vehicles and other equipment required to launch deadly attacks.

Minerais : des décennies de gouvernance opaque du diamant | 28 October 2021 | ADIAC

Le rapport de l’Observatoire Sarw, publié le 26 octobre, pose la problématique de l’exploitation de la pierre précieuse en République démocratique du Congo (RDC). Selon l’auteur, le diamant n’a tout simplement pas contribué au développement du pays et particulièrement de la ville de Mbuji-Mayi. Pourtant, une seule société, en l’occurrence la Sacim, a fait sortir du sous-sol kasaïen plus de 350 000 carats en novembre 2019, pour une valeur estimée à près de six millions de dollars américains.

Four arrested for trafficking ivory from DR Congo | 27 October 2021 | The New Times

Rwanda Investigation Bureau (RIB) has in custody four people held for allegedly trafficking products from endangered animals such as elephant ivory.

DRC: Suspension of moratorium on new logging concessions causes concern | 25 October 2021 | Afrik21

The government of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) wants to lift the moratorium on the exploitation of new logging concessions, or 70 million hectares of forest. Concerned by this decision, Greenpeace Africa has referred the matter to the African Union Commission. For the NGO, new logging in the DRC would be detrimental to the whole of sub-Saharan Africa, whose climate is fundamentally linked to the state of the Congo Basin forests.

RCA : la société russe Wagner déploie ses experts en évaluation du diamant et or en Centrafrique | 21 October 2021 | CorbeauNews

Ils sont arrivés il y a quelques jours sur le sol centrafricain et sont actuellement à pied d’œuvre sur les différents chantiers miniers exploités par des sociétés de mafia russe proche de Wagner dans les villes de province.

Angola’s Catoca says tailings leak contained no hard metals | 20 October 2021 | Reuters

Angola’s Catoca diamond mine said a July tailings leak, which turned a river red and killed large numbers of fish downstream in the Democratic Republic of Congo, contained a mixture of sand and clay, but no hard metals.

After Mining, DR Congo Turns Focus on ‘Illegal’ Forest Harvesting Contracts | 19 October 2021 | The East African | AllAfrica

The Democratic Republic of Congo government has announced an imminent purge of “doubtful contracts” in the forestry sector, promising another round of anxiety in an area of the economy deemed exploited by foreign entities.

Child miners: the dark side of the DRC’s coltan wealth | 18 October 2021 | ISS

Coltan is one of the world’s most vital minerals, and 60% of reserves globally are found in the Democratic Republic of the Congo’s (DRC) Kivu province. In 2019, 40% of the global coltan supply was produced in the DRC. Much of the country’s coltan is extracted using the labour of over 40 000 child and teenage miners.

Why the resource nationalism | 14 October 2021 | The Citizen

Modernisation and commercialization of the mining sector in Tanzania had unintended consequences with ripples felt beyond the African continent while rekindling the then dormant debate about the plunder of African resources.

Big miners reconsider Congo, Zambia risks as copper price surges | 13 October 2021 | Financial Post

Major mining companies are looking to invest in countries they previously considered too risky, including Democratic Republic of Congo and Zambia, propelled by a dwindling pipeline of big copper mines elsewhere and record-high prices.

In Eastern DR Congo, A Business Battles With Violence And Uncertainty | 13 October 2021 | International Business Times

Roger Muhindo is proud of his chocolate factory — an emblem of entrepreneurial courage in one of the world’s most troubled regions. “We are pioneers!” Muhindo proclaims at the entrance to his plant, where 10 employees make a locally sourced product, Virunga Origins chocolate.

Exploitation et certification des minerais : la RDC signe un mémorandum de coopération avec les Emirats Arabes Unis | 12 October 2021 | Politico.cd

La ministre des Mines, Antoinette N’Samba Kalambayi en séjour du 29 Septembre au 1er Octobre dernier à Abou Dabi, sur invitation du ministre de l’Energie et des infrastructures des Emirats Arabes Unis, Suhahil Mohamed Al Marzouel, a signé un mémorandum d’entente de coopération entre les deux pays dans le secteur minier, a appris l’ACP lundi du ministère des Mines.

Haut-Katanga : 19 sociétés pétrolières impliquées dans la contrebande suspendues et interdites d’importer le produit pétrolier en RDC | 11 October 2021 | Politico.cd

Sur demande de l’Inspection Générale des Finances, le ministre des Hydrocarbures, Didier Budimbu a instruit le Secrétaire Général de son ministère de retirer temporairement les contrats de fourniture et de suspendre les autorisations d’importation et commercialisation de sociétés impliquées dans la contrebande au Haut-Katanga.

11 die in illegal gold mining in Angola’s Huambo province in past 3 months | 10 October 2021 | CGTN

At least 11 people have died over the past three months in central Angola’s Huambo province due to illegal mining, especially gold, local police announced here Saturday.

Europe races to fix its rare earths import dependency | 9 October 2021 | Hellenic Shipping News

Europe is on a mission to wrest back control of its rare earth magnet supply chain from China. Permanent magnets, commonly using a neodymium-iron-boron chemistry, are one of the hidden enablers of modern technology, powering everything from robots to refrigerators to laptop speakers.

Pandora Papers: Top Mnangagwa official exposed in biggest leak | 9 October 2021 | The Zimbabwe Standard

A complex web of suspected tax evasion and underhand deals has been exposed following the opening of a shelf company in Seychelles by an ally of President Emmerson Mnangagwa. During his stint as permanent secretary in the Ministry of Defence, Martin Rushwaya, together with Colonel Grey Mashava, allegedly opened a shelf company, Greatgem Cooperation, through a Russian law Orm, Cliff Legal Services, which is the professional intermediary for the company.

BHP to expand into “tougher jurisdictions” in search of battery metals | 8 October 2021 | Republic of Mining

BHP chief executive Mike Henry said the company is ready for a strategic shift out of its geographical, advanced-economies comfort zone into “tougher jurisdictions”, as part of its plans to increase exposure to commodities such as copper and nickel, needed to power the energy transition.

«Il est temps que la France cesse d’encourager les projets climaticides de TotalEnergies en Afrique» | 8 October 2021 | Le Monde

A l’occasion du sommet Afrique-France qui s’ouvre le 8 octobre à Montpellier, des philosophes, des économistes, des responsables d’institutions et d’ONG, dont la présidente du CCFD-Terre solidaire Sylvie Bukhari-de Pontual, l’avocat Guy Aurenche et le député européen Pierre Larrouturou dénoncent le soutien de la France aux projets du géant pétrolier en Ouganda et au Mozambique.

High risk, low pay for DRC rangers entrusted to guard a gorilla sanctuary | 8 October 2021 | Mongabay

At the age of 13, Marie Jeanne Bora Ntianabo already knew she wanted to be a park ranger. Today, she’s one of 250 rangers protecting Kahuzi-Biega National Park in the Democratic Republic of Congo, home to rare and threatened species like Grauer’s gorillas (Gorilla beringei graueri), from poachers and gold prospectors.

Congo’s $6 bln China mining deal ‘unconscionable’, says draft report | 8 October 2021 | Reuters

Democratic Republic of Congo should renegotiate its $6 billion infrastructure-for-minerals deal with Chinese investors, according to the draft of a report commissioned by a global anti-corruption body of governments, companies and activists.

Congo looks to lure more investment to tap green metals deposits | 7 October 2021 | Mining.com

The Democratic Republic of Congo is working on ways to entice more investment into its mines as the green revolution boosts demand for metals used in sectors like rechargeable batteries.

Le groupe BHP est en pourparlers avec Ivanhoe Mines pour acheter la concession de cuivre de Makoko dans le Lualaba | 7 October 2021 | MediaCongo

Le groupe BHP est en pourparlers pour acheter un projet de cuivre en République démocratique du Congo, marquant ainsi un changement radical dans la politique de la plus grande société minière du monde, qui consiste à éviter les juridictions à risque.

Tous les minéraux nécessaires aux batteries des voitures modernes pourraient être extraits en Europe : il suffit de les exploiter | 7 October 2021 | La Libre

Il faut autoriser à nouveau une exploitation minière moderne et respectueuse de l’environnement. De quoi gagner en indépendance géopolitique. Une chronique de Roberto García Martínez, PDG d’Eurobattery Minerals, société minière suédoise basée à Stockholm.

Natural vs. lab-grown diamonds – Where does the true value lie? | 5 October 2021 | Mining Review

While there are several arguments that can be made in the natural versus lab-grown diamond debate, finding out where the true value lies is an important starting point. While the choice may simply be based on the personal preference of the buyer, a critical factor in the decision-making process is increasingly being made on the grounds of whether the diamond has been produced sustainability, ethically and in an environment-friendly manner.

Forêt d’Afrique centrale : ce qu’il reste à sauver | 5 October 2021 | Le Monde

Le massif forestier africain séquestre l’équivalent de dix années mondiales d’émissions de CO2, à condition de freiner la déforestation en République démocratique du Congo.

From minerals to beer, Congo finance minister hunts for cash | 5 October 2021 | Mining.com

The Democratic Republic of Congo is intent on revisiting mining contracts, rescinding and reselling unused oil permits and boosting taxes on beer to fund its development plans, according to Nicolas Kazadi, the country’s finance minister.

Ressources minières : Au moins 600 milliards échappe au Mali par an, révèle FER-Mali | 5 October 2021 | Maliweb

Ce jeudi 30 septembre 2021, la salle de conférence du ministère des Mines, de l’Energie et de l’Eau a abrité la cérémonie de remise solennelle par le Front pour l’émergence et le renouveau au Mali (FER-Mali) d’un Manifeste pour la souveraineté économique du Mali à travers l’exploitation de l’Or. Au cours de cette cérémonie, le président du FER-Mali en a profité pour révéler le manque à gagner par l’Etat malien à cause des fausses déclarations douanières.

Nigeria: The U.S.$9 Billion Loss to Illegal Mining | 4 October 2021 | This Day (Nigeria) | AllAfrica

In what has become a familiar recourse to lamentation when concrete action was needed, Minister of State for Mines and Steel Development, Uche Ogah, recently accused private jet owners of aiding and abetting gold smuggling in the country.

Is the Resource Curse Hard-Baked Into African Economies? China’s Approach Hints That It May Not Be | 4 October 2021 | The Conversation | AllAfrica

Countries with abundant natural resources – gold, diamonds, crude oil- often fail to transform that advantage into favourable development outcomes. This is known as the natural resource curse. Countries like Nigeria, Angola and the Democratic Republic of Congo are often cited as examples.

Pandora Papers: Inside Zimbabwean tycoon Billy Rautenbach’s offshore family trust | 3 October 2021 | Daily Maverick

Records from a massive offshore data leak have provided the most detailed account yet of buccaneering mining and fuel magnate Billy Rautenbach’s family empire.

Assault on the West Coast: Inside the illegal diamond mining applications | 3 October 2021 | Daily Maverick

In the past few months, the Atlantic west coast in the region of the Olifants River estuary has sustained a barrage of new diamond mining applications. The documents reveal a litany of legally questionable oversights, including a failure to assess the needs of local communities. But the most disturbing evidence concerns the environmental consultant who has written most of the reports — according to the law, she is not qualified to work unsupervised.

Mines en République démocratique du Congo : « Un pillage qui réduit une partie de la population à une forme d’esclavage » | 3 October 2021 | Le Monde

Auteur de « Cobalt Blues », le journaliste belge Erik Bruyland pointe la responsabilité des dirigeants congolais, des entreprises étrangères et des géants du numérique dans le fiasco minier du pays.

ARMS TRADE

Djibouti substantially expands navy | 24 November 2021 | Janes

Djibouti’s Navy formally took delivery of four vessels in a ceremony attended by President Ismail Omar Guelleh on 22 November.

La Russie annonce une nouvelle dotation d’équipement militaire à l’armée centrafricaine | 23 November 2021 | CorbeauNews

La Fédération de Russie a annoncé des dons d’équipements militaires à l’armée centrafricaine en pleine reconstruction dans un pays ravagé par les violences des paramilitaires russes, mais aussi des soldats FACA et des groupes armés qui contrôlent toujours une partie du territoire national.

ICRC Statement: The Impact of Diversion and Trafficking of Arms on Peace and Security | 23 November 2021 | ICRC | ReliefWeb

ICRC Statement to United Nations Security Council Open Debate on the Impact of Diversion and Trafficking of Arms on Peace and Security delivered by Ms. Laetitia Courtois, Head of Delegation and Permanent Observer.

Niger acquiring Hurkus trainers, TB2 UAVs | 23 November 2021 | DefenceWeb

Turkey will supply Hurkus turboprop light attack/trainer aircraft and Bayraktar TB2 unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) as well as armoured vehicles to Niger, according to Turkish President Recep Erdogan.

Arms proliferation and insecurity in Nigeria | 22 November 2021 | Business A.M.

Albeit not having the correct data on the volume of illicit arms in circulation in the country, we nevertheless feel and experience their preponderance. Their abundance sustains religious insurgency, banditry, secessionist agitations, hostage-taking and other forms of criminality.

Traité sur le commerce des armes: Le Rasalao s’engage pour une mise en œuvre effective en Côte d’Ivoire | 21 November 2021 | Fratmat.info

Le Traité sur le commerce des armes (Tca) adopté en 2013 est entré en vigueur le 24 décembre 2014. Un processus de mise en œuvre qui a démarré par la signature de l’instrument en avril 2013, avec 130 Etats signataires. Malgré de nombreuses actions positives menées par l’Etat ivoirien, « sa domestication reste inachevée », faute d’une loi nationale sur les armes et munitions harmonisée avec ledit traité.

Fight Against the Proliferation and Illegal Trafficking of Small Arms and Light Weapons (SALW) in West Africa: National Commissions Meet in Accra for the Effective Implementation of the Ecowas Convention on SALW | 19 November 2021 | ECOWAS

The Commission of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) organised the Annual Meeting of National Commissions (NATCOM) on Small Arms in 2021 to review activities for the effective implementation of the ECOWAS Convention on Small Arms and Light Weapons (SALW) under the theme, “Promoting transparency and information exchange in the control, administration and management of SALW in the ECOWAS region” in Accra, Ghana, November 17-19, 2021.

Africa: How Israel’s defence and intelligence industries are making inroads across the continent (¼) | 19 November 2021 | The Africa Report

A constellation of Israeli firms, businessmen and consultants with a long-standing foothold in Africa are leveraging their connections to local corridors of power, to indirectly serve the interests of their country. This brand of back-channel diplomacy is thriving – and thoroughly devoid of transparency.

Innovative approach needed to curb transnational and organised crimes | 18 November 2021 | Ghana Business News

Mr Ambrose Dery, the Minister of Interior has called on the Economic Commission of West African States (ECOWAS) to develop innovative ways to curb transnational and organised crime within the region.

An Elusive Tank Hunter: Mali’s 9P133 ATGM Carriers | 11 November 2021 | Oryx

The Malian Armed Forces used to operate large quantities of armoured fighting vehicles (AFVs) received from the Soviet Union. In addition to acquiring sizeable numbers of T-54B MBTs, PT-76 light tanks and BTR-60 armoured personnel carriers (APCs), several more types operated in the shadows of their more numerous counterparts. One of these types is the 9P133 Malyutka, an anti-tank variant of the BRDM-2 reconnaissance vehicle. Instead of the original turret, the 9P133 features an elevatable launcher with six 9M14 Malyutka anti-tank guided missiles (ATGMs).

Le Cameroun renforce la sécurité aux frontières pour stopper le trafic d’armes et les enlèvements | 5 November 2021 | French.china.org.cn

Le Cameroun va renforcer la sécurité le long de sa frontière avec le Nigeria pour freiner la contrebande des armes et les enlèvements, a annoncé jeudi un responsable du gouvernement.

Army of Nigeria takes delivery of 60 Type 85 tracked APC Armored Personnel Carrier from China | 31 October 2021 | ArmyRecognition

According to information published by the NNN website on October 28, 2021, the Nigerian army has taken delivery of 60 Type 85 also named YW531H, a tracked APC (Armored Personnel Carrier) produced by the Chinese company NORINCO.

How Israel made Côte d’Ivoire a promised land | 28 October 2021 | The Africa Report

Côte d’Ivoire’s Abidjan, which has been a pillar of Israeli influence in West Africa since president Houphouët-Boigny’s rule, has strengthened its alliance with Tel Aviv and companies under the influence of Stéphane Konan, the late prime minister Hamed Bakayoko’s advisor.

Control illicit trade of small arms in Ghana – Board of NCSALW told | 28 October 2021 | GhanaWeb

Ambrose Dery, the Minister of Interior, has charged the Board of the Small Arms Commission, to put in robust measures to effectively control the illicit trade, manufacture, and flow of small arms and light weapons into the country.

Nord-Kivu : 4 militaires FARDC écroués pour meurtres et ventes d’armes | 20 October 2021 | Radio Okapi

Quatre militaires des FARDC ont été condamnés mardi 19 octobre à Goma (Nord-Kivu) à des peines allant de cinq ans à l’emprisonnement à perpétuité, pour des meurtres, des violations de consignes, des ventes et détention illégales d’armes et effets militaires.

Uganda commissions new infantry fighting vehicle | 19 October 2021 | DefenceWeb

The Uganda People’s Defence Force (UPDF) has commissioned the locally manufactured Chui (Leopard) infantry fighting vehicle (IFV), which is based on Twiga’s recently launched Nyati but incorporating elements required by the Land Forces of the UPDF.

Kenya: Revealed – How Bandits Obtain M16 Rifles | 18 October 2021 | Daily Nation | AllAfrica

When Rift Valley regional coordinator George Natembeya last month claimed that bandits in Laikipia were using sophisticated weapons, many did not believe him. But on October 12, security officers killed a suspected cattle rustler and recovered an M16 rifle with 25 rounds of ammunition in Longewan, Samburu West.

We must tackle illicit weapons, ammunition in parts of Africa, globally | 9 October 2021 | Modern Ghana

BMS7 took place in New York, in July. In this interview with Africa Renewal’s Franck Kuwonu, Ambassador Kimani, chair of the Seventh Biennial Meeting of States (BMS7) to consider the Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (PoA) and its international Tracing Instrument (ITI), talks about the proliferation of dangerous firearms in Africa, and welcomes efforts to trace ammunitions.

Disarmament chief says small arms remain threat to peace and security | 6 October 2021 | UN News

The High Representative for Disarmament Affairs told the Security Council on Wednesday that Small Arms and Light Weapons (SALW), in the context of peacekeeping operations, are a “threat” that can “exacerbate conflict, render arms embargoes ineffective, endanger ‘blue helmets’, humanitarian workers and local populations, and complicate peace agreements.”

Why Nigeria must domesticate ECOWAS treaties urgently | 4 October 2021 | Daily Post (Nigeria)

Army, Police, Immigration, Importers support law against proliferation of small arms, light weapons | 4 October 2021 | Vanguard (Nigeria)

The acting Director-General of National Taskforce, Baba Mohammed, said Nigeria must domesticate ECOWAS treaties and conventions because of the alarming proliferation of arms, and weapons into the country.

Trafic d’armes : Le Burkina Faso à égalité avec le Niger, le Tchad et l’Ukraine, selon une étude internationale| 4 October 2021 | LeFaso.net

Le Burkina Faso, avec un indice de 5.49 sur 10, est le 21e pays africain le plus affecté par le crime organisé dans le monde, selon l’Indice mondial sur le crime organisé. Le pays se classe derrière Madagascar et devant la Guinée Bissau. Sur le plan mondial, il occupe la 67e place. Dans le top 10 africain, la République démocratique du Congo détient la palme d’or (1er au plan mondial) suivie du Nigeria, de la Centrafrique, du Kenya, de l’Afrique du Sud, de la Libye, du Mozambique, des deux Soudans et du Cameroun.

NGOs urge SA to extradite Dutch arms dealer after SCA blows (Behind paywall) | 3 October 2021 |Business Day

Dutch arms dealer and fugitive Guus Kouwenhoven faces fresh calls for extradition from SA to the Netherlands after two losses in the Supreme Court of Appeal (SCA) in September.

Mali receives four Mi-171 helicopters and weapons from Russia | 1 October 2021 | DefenceWeb

An Antonov An-124 cargo aircraft delivered four Mi-171 helicopters, weapons and ammunition from Russia to Mali late on Thursday, Malian interim defence minister Sadio Camara has said.

Nigerian navy disowns officer’s allegations against Chadian soldiers | 28 September 2021 | Reuters

The Nigerian navy on Tuesday disowned allegations made in parliament by one of its senior officers that soldiers from neighbouring Chad were selling their weapons for $20 or $30, contributing to unrest in northern Nigeria.

CONFLICT

Le groupe Wagner est-il efficace pour lutter contre le terrorisme ? | 29 November 2021 | alWihda Info

Pour discuter du groupe Wagner, essayons de voir si d’autres entités existent avant le groupe Wagner, quelles sont leurs objectifs et méthodes opérationnelles. Nous pouvons constater que toutes les grandes puissances ont des groups para-militaires qu’ils engagent pour défendre leurs intérêts. La Russie, les USA, La Grande Bretagne, l’Iran, l’Israël, la France, etc.

The cynical realpolitik of the War on Terror: Uganda 2021 edition | 29 November 2021 | African Arguments

The Kampala bombings will likely mean more counter-terrorism ops, more human rights abuses, and more donor support for the Museveni regime.

South Sudan: Four SPLA-IO Generals Arrested for Trying to Defect | 29 November 2021 | The Tower Post

The Sudan People’s Liberation Army in Opposition’s (SPLA-IO) third infantry division headquartered in Langkien town of the Jonglei State’s Nyirol County said it had arrested four of its senior military officers for allegedly trying to defect on Wednesday.

Barrières Routières « au Rythme du Pays ». Au-delà de la prédation au Sud-Kivu, République Démocratique du Congo | November 2021 | Governance in Conflict Network

Ce rapport porte sur le phénomène des barrières routières au Sud-Kivu dans l’est de la République Démocratique du Congo. S’inspirant d’une approche socio-anthropologique, il soutient que les barrières érigées sur les routes sont des espaces de rencontre entre une diversité d’acteurs étatiques et non-étatiques interagissant entre eux et avec les populations. Cette étude aboutit au constat qu’au-delà de la prédation, les barrières routières ont, au fil du temps, fait partie du paysage socio-économique et participent à une forme de régulation sociale dans un contexte de fragilité de l’État. Enfin, ce rapport met en exergue le paradoxe selon lequel les populations soutiennent à la fois le maintien et la suppression de ces barrières routières, ouvrant ainsi le débat sur leur avenir au Sud-Kivu.

RDC : l’attaque d’un camp de déplacés fait vingt-deux morts en Ituri | 29 November 2021 | Le Monde

Les miliciens du groupe Codeco, qui prétend défendre les intérêts de la communauté des Lendu de cette province, sont soupçonnés d’être responsables de l’assaut.

Russian mercenaries using EU-trained soldiers in Africa | 29 November 2021 | EUObserver

Russian mercenaries have taken command of at least one EU-trained battalion in the Central African Republic (CAR) to help “predate” the mineral-rich country, according to a leaked report.

Senegal calls on China to get involved in war-torn Sahel region | 28 November 2021 | France24

Senegal’s Foreign Minister Aissata Tall Sall on Sunday said she hoped China would lend support in the fight against insecurity in the conflict-ridden Sahel region at the start of a China-Africa summit.

Military Contigent From Netherlands Armed Forces Conducts Field Excercise In Rwanda | 28 November 2021 | Taarifa

A contingent of 150 soldiers of the 44 Mechanized Infantry Bn from the Royal Netherlands Army are in Rwanda for a three weeks Field Training Exercise at Combat Training Centre- Gabiro from 28 November to 22 December 2021.

En RDC, l’armée ougandaise autorisée à passer la frontière pour traquer les rebelles ADF | 28 November 2021 | Le Monde

Certains voient cette décision comme une « solution provisoire » avant une réorganisation de l’armée congolaise, alors que près de 1 200 civils ont été massacrés dans l’est de la RDC depuis mai, selon un bilan du Baromètre sécuritaire de Kivu.

Two Chinese nationals killed, others kidnapped in eastern Congo | 25 November 2021 | Daily Maverick

Two Chinese nationals have been killed and an unknown number of other people kidnapped in an attack by the CODECO militia on a mining camp in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo, an army spokesman said on Thursday.

Meurtre des experts de l’ONU : les 54 prévenus accusés de mouvement insurrectionnel et crime de guerre | 24 November 2021 | Radio Okapi

Le ministère public a poursuivi à l’audience de mardi 23 novembre son réquisitoire sur les différentes préventions à charge des personnes accusées dans l’affaire du meurtre des experts de l’ONU. Après le mouvement insurrectionnel, l’organe de la loi a également abordé l’association des malfaiteurs et les crimes de guerre par meurtre.

From ethnic amnesia to ethnocracy: 80% of Rwanda’s top officials are Tutsi | 24 November 2021 | African Arguments

After the Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF) took power in 1994, it erased references to ethnic belonging. People ceased to be Hutu, Tutsi or Twa but became Rwandan, as underscored by the campaign Ndi Umunyarwanda (“I am Rwandan”). This policy of ethnic amnesia was understandable. During the genocide, being identified as Tutsi meant near certain death. The new government therefore sought to resolve inter-communal animosity by simply removing references to ethnicity.

L’Union européenne renouvelle les sanctions contre le Burundi | 23 November 2021 | RFI

L’Union Européenne renouvelle ses sanctions contre le Burundi jusqu’au 31 octobre 2022. Le pays est sous sanctions économiques depuis 2015 en raison des violations des droits de l’homme sous la présidence de l’ancien président, Pierre Nkurunziza.

West and Central Africa have world’s highest number of children recruited into conflict, U.N. Says | 23 November 2021 | The Washington Post

The number of children recruited into conflict in West and Central Africa is now the highest in the world, the United Nations’s children’s agency said Tuesday, a result of the region’s multiple crises and the growing hardships of the coronavirus pandemic.

East Africa’s terrorism hotspots: examining the roots and solutions | 22 November 2021 | The Conversation

Uganda has had a string of terror attacks lately. The most recent bombings took place in Kampala’s central business district and were claimed by the Islamic State jihadist group. Tensions have been increasing across the border too, in Kenya. The government has instructed security agencies to be more vigilant. Moina Spooner, of The Conversation Africa, asked terrorism researcher Dr Anneli Botha to provide insights into what drives terrorism in the region and how it should be addressed.

Rwandan online video reporter given “absurd” seven-year-jail sentence | 22 November 2021 | RSF

Reporters Without Borders (RSF) condemns the absurd and arbitrary seven-year prison sentence that Dieudonné Niyonsenga, the operator of an online TV channel called Ishema TV, has received from Rwanda’s high court as a result of an appeal by the prosecutor’s office against his acquittal at his initial trial. The authorities must stop persecuting online journalists, RSF says.

The ICC Appeals Judgment on Abd-Al-Rahman Jurisdictional Challenge: A Foreseeable Turn to Substantive Justice? | 22 November 2021 | EJIL:Talk!

On 1 November 2021, the International Criminal Court (ICC) issued its Appeals Judgment on Abd-Al-Rahman Jurisdictional Challenge which could have been the ICC’s own Tadic Interlocutory Appeal on Jurisdiction. In addition to challenging the legality of Security Council (SC) Resolution 1593, the Defence claimed the ICC was prevented from exercising its subject matter jurisdiction over crimes against humanity and war crimes committed in a non-international armed conflict (NIAC), as defined in Articles 7, 8(2)(c) and (e) Rome Statute, for conduct that occurred in Darfur, Sudan in 2003-2004.

Portugal ‘could leave UN mission’ thanks to diamond trafficking case | 22 November 2021 | Plataforma

Analysts contacted by Lusa believe the case of suspected diamond trafficking by members from Portugal of a United Nations mission in the Central African Republic presents major obstacles and could “lead to the departure of the Portuguese contingent”.

Le procès de Claude Muhayimana s’ouvre à la cour d’assises spéciale de Paris | 22 November 2021 | RFI

Ce citoyen franco-rwandais est accusé de « complicité par aide et assistance » pour « crimes de guerre » et « crimes contre l’humanité ». Après dix ans de procédures, deux reports dues aux contraintes sanitaires liées à l’épidémie de Covid-19, c’est le troisième procès qui s’ouvre en France en lien avec le génocide des Tutsis au Rwanda en 1994.

Gunmen kidnap 8 Chinese gold mine workers in South Kivu, DR Congo | 21 November 2021 | CGTN

Gunmen killed a police officer and kidnapped eight Chinese nationals working at a gold mine in the Democratic Republic of Congo’s (DRC) conflict-plagued east on Sunday, a CGTN source on site confirmed.

Djugu: Des affrontements entre les rebelles de URDPC/ CODECO et du Zaire font 6 morts dans les localités de Mba et Jaibu | 21 November 2021 | Politico.cd

Six personnes dont un enfant, ont été tuées ce dimanche 21 novembre 2021 lors des affrontements qui ont opposé les combattants de URDPC/ CODECO et ceux de Zaire, dans les localités de Mba et Jaibu dans le groupement Jaiba, en territoire de Djugu.

Ituri : Le ministère public requiert la prison à perpétuité pour 17 présumés CODECO | 21 November 2021 | Politico.cd

Le ministère public a requis la peine à perpétuité pour dix-sept présumés miliciens de CODECO et vingt ans pour les cinq autres, au terme de son réquisitoire devant le tribunal militaire de garnison de l’Ituri siégeant en chambre foraine, à la prison centrale de Bunia.

Parc national des Virunga : un écogarde tué dans une attaque menée par des ex-membres du M23 | 21 November 2021 | Politico.cd

Mutazimiza Kanyaruchinya Etienne, est le nom du Brigadier en chef d’un poste de patrouille des gardes du Parc National des Virunga situé à proximité du village de Bukima, au sein du secteur de Mikeno, dans le Territoire de Rutshuru tué dans une attaque menée la nuit du samedi 20 novembre.

Russia Says Ready To Support Mozambique In Fight Against Terrorism | 21 November 2021 | Eurasia Review

Russia is ready to support Mozambique in the fight against terrorism through cooperation in the field of intelligence, Russian Deputy Minister for Foreign Affairs Mikhail Bogdanov said at the end of a meeting with Prime Minister Carlos Agostinho do Rosário in Maputo.

Uganda in Talks With Congo to Defeat Rebels After Attacks | 20 November 2021 | Bloomberg

Uganda is in talks with neighboring Democratic Republic of Congo on plans to defeat Islamic rebels after four terrorist attacks in the past month.

Cameroon, CAR Raise Concerns About Border Security | 20 November 2021 | VoA

Defense ministers from Cameroon and the Central African Republic (CAR) say kidnapping for ransom, cattle theft and illegal arms trafficking continue to hinder security along the border of the neighboring countries. During this week’s transborder security meeting in Bouar, a commercial town in the CAR, the defense ministers agreed to jointly deploy troops to protect civilians from rebels fighting to topple the CAR government.

AMISOM Trains Jubaland Officials to Combat Conflict-related Sexual Violence | 19 November 2021 | Zawya

The African Union Mission in Somalia (AMISOM), has concluded a five-day training workshop on the prevention and response to sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV) in Kismayo, the administrative capital of Jubaland State.

Nigeria: Officials Indicted in Abuses of Protesters | 19 November 2021 | HRW

A judicial panel has found that army and police officers shot, injured, and killed unarmed protesters at the Lekki Toll Gate in Lagos, Nigeria during nationwide protests against police brutality in 2020, Human Rights Watch said today. This confirms Human Rights Watch findings, which the panel said the authorities tried to cover up.

RDC/État de siège : 729 membres des groupes armés arrêtés en Ituri depuis mai (FARDC) | 19 November 2021 | Politico.cd

Au total 729 membres des différents groupes armés, qui écument atrocement la province de l’Ituri, ont été arrêtés par les services de sécurité et de défense, depuis le mois de mai, au moment où tous les pouvoirs ont été remis entre les mains des autorités militaires.

Burkina Faso: la classe politique interroge les dysfonctionnements de l’armée dans la lutte contre le terrorisme | 19 November 2021 | RFI

Au Burkina Faso, la classe politique réagit face aux dysfonctionnements constatés au sein des forces armée en lutte contre le terrorisme. Majorité comme opposition demandent au chef de l’Etat des mesures fortes pour instaurer la sérénité au sein des troupes.

Cameroon, Nigeria, Chad Say New Jihadist Terrorism Threats Warrant Change of Military Response | 19 November 2021 | VoA

Cameroonian, Nigerian and Chadian troops fighting terrorism in the Lake Chad basin say attacks on military positions have been increasing since Boko Haram leader Aboubakar Shekau was declared dead in May. Military officials from the three countries say the Islamic State in West Africa Province group, or ISWAP, is completely changing terrorism tactics to gain the sympathy of Lake Chad basin civilians.

RDC/Sud-Kivu: 26 enfants sortis des rangs du Rassemblement Congolais contre l’Occupation et la Balkanisation (RCCOB) grâce à l’implication de la MONUSCO | 18 November 2021 | Actualite.cd

Le Sud-Kivu est toujours en proie aux violences. Dans plusieurs territoires, les enfants sont toujours exploités par des groupes armés. A Fizi, par exemple, ce phénomène n’est pas rare. C’est ce qu’a constaté notamment la MONUSCO dont la Section de la Protection de l’enfant a pour rôle notamment de lutter contre ces exploitations. Du 9 au 12 novembre, elle s’est rendue à Amba (territoire de Fizi) pour faciliter la signature de la déclaration unilatérale et de la feuille de route par le général autoproclamé Kimanuka Musasa, commandant d’un groupe armé appelé Rassemblement Congolais contre l’Occupation et la Balkanisation (RCCOB).

Ituri : les FARDC repoussent la milice de la CODECO à Drodro après des violents combats | 18 November 2021 | Radio Okapi

Des violents combats ont opposé mercredi 17 novembre les militaires des FARDC à un groupe des miliciens de la CODECO au centre commercial de Drodro dans le territoire de Dgugu, en Ituri. Selon des sources de sécurité, ce groupe a pris pour cible le site des déplacés qui héberge environ huit milles familles.

Rwanda, DRC, Monusco Discuss Repatriation of Members of Armed Groups | 18 November 2021 | Taarifa

Rwanda and the Democratic Republic of Congo are working on deepening cooperation that will see eventual repatriation of members of armed groups to their countries of origin.

Mozambique: Treating Root Causes of Northern Conflict Key to Guns Being Silenced | 18 November 2021 | AllAfrica

Four years ago in October, attacks by a few dozen young men on three police stations in Mocimboa da Praia – a district of Cabo Delgado province in northeastern Mozambique – signalled the beginning of an armed conflict in the area. University researchers, religious leaders and journalists largely agreed that extreme poverty and lack of prospects, especially among jobless young people, fuelled anger and despair.

Rwanda hosts 3rd annual conference on prevention of recruitment and use of child soldiers in conflicts | 18 November 2021 | The New Times

Rwanda is this week hosting a symposium under the Knowledge for Prevention (K4P) project which is under The Dallaire Institute’s African Centre of Excellence that aims at Peacekeeping and the Prevention of the Recruitment and Use of Child Soldiers.

Eastern Congo lawmakers sound alarm over 144 violent civilian deaths this month | 18 November 2021 | Reuters

At least 144 civilians have been killed in eastern Congo this month, lawmakers from the conflict-hit provinces said on Wednesday, refusing to back extending a state of siege they said was failing its mission to end decades of instability.

RDC : 22 victimes des atrocités de CODECO font des témoignages accablants devant le tribunal militaire en Ituri | 17 November 2021 | Politico.cd

Faisant leurs dépositions, mardi 16 novembre, devant le tribunal militaire de garnison de l’Ituri, vingt-deux(22) victimes des atrocités perpétrées par la milice CODECO, active dans les territoires de Djugu et de Mahagi ont fait des témoignages accablants, faisant froid au dos, sur les attaques sanglantes dans leurs localités respectives.

Detentions continue in Sudan – reports of beatings and torture | 17 November 2021 | Dabanga

The Democratic Lawyers Front of Sudan reports that Mohamed El Hadi, a leading member of the Empowerment Removal Committee* in Singa, capital of Sennar state in Sudan, has been subjected to brutal torture at the prison of the Military Intelligence in the Singa garrison since his detention on October 26.

Suspected M23 rebel arrested in Uganda with two guns | 17 November 2021 | Monitor

The arrest comes one week after M23 rebels raided the Congolese government security bases in Rutshuru District forcing hundreds of Congolese nationals to flee into Uganda through Bunagana border post in Kisoro District.

Arrestations et condamnations de militaires dans l’est de la RDC | 16 November 2021 | VoA

Six soldats congolais, soupçonnés d’être des “coupeurs de route” qui rackettaient les voyageurs, ont été arrêtés dans l’est de la RDC, où deux autres ont par ailleurs été condamnés pour le meurtre de deux enfants, a-t-on appris mardi de sources militaires locales.

Who are Islamic State’s affiliates in Central Africa? | 16 November 2021 | Reuters

Ugandan authorities blamed Tuesday’s deadly suicide bombings on “domestic terror groups” linked to the Allied Democratic Forces (ADF), an Islamist militia with roots in Uganda, based in the Democratic Republic of Congo.

The other insurgency: northwest Nigeria’s worsening bandit crisis | 16 November 2021 | War on the Rocks

In September, several Nigerian social media accounts known for their pro-military slant began reporting that a notorious bandit named Turji Gidde had been captured. It appeared to be a rare and dramatic victory in the military’s renewed campaign against the criminal insurgents who have terrorized swathes of northwestern Nigerian in recent years.

Barkhane: La France transfère une deuxième base militaire de Tessalit au Mali | 16 November 2021 | Sahel Intelligence

La force spéciale française “Barkhane” a transféré à l’armée malienne la base de Tessalit, dans le nord du Mali, dans le cadre de l’adaptation du dispositif militaire français dans la bande sahélo-saharienne, a annoncé mardi l’état-major des armées.

Explosions in Ugandan Capital Leave At Least One Person Dead | 16 November 2021 | Bloomberg

At least one person died when two explosions hit the Ugandan capital, the fourth blast in Kampala in the past month. The blasts occurred outside an office of insurer Jubilee Holdings Ltd. and near the city’s central police station, the Daily Monitor reported, citing eyewitnesses.

EU eyes sanctions in Mali, and against Russian mercenaries | 15 November 2021 | The Associated Press

The European Union is planning to take action against anyone delaying Mali’s political transition and is drawing up a list of sanctions to impose on Russian mercenaries that Mali’s government hired to fight extremists, EU foreign policy chief Josep Borrell said Monday.

Several dead in suspected jihadist attack on Burkina Faso security forces | 14 November 2021 | France24

Suspected jihadists killed at least 19 gendarmes and a civilian in an attack early Sunday in northern Burkina Faso, officials said.

U.S. confronts Russia as U.N. renews Central Africa peacekeepers | 13 November 2021 | Reuters

Russia and China abstained in a U.N. Security Council vote on Friday to extend a U.N. peacekeeping mission in the Central African Republic (CAR) as the United States called on Russia to investigate accusations of abuse by Russian contractors in the country.

Two Ugandan Soldiers Sentenced to Death in Somalia | 13 November 2021 | VoA

Two Ugandan People’s Defense Force (UPDF) soldiers serving under the African Union Mission in Somalia (AMISOM) have been sentenced to death and three others to 39 years in jail for the deaths of civilians.

Rwanda, DRC top military officials discuss rebel activity along borders | 13 November 2021 | The East African

Top Rwandan and DR Congo military officials met in Kigali this week on the back of an attack by an armed group believed to be ex-M23 rebels in Tshanzu and Runyoni, North Kivu, eastern DR Congo on Sunday.

Russia shrugs off French concerns on possible mercenary deal with Mali | 12 November 2021 | DefenceWeb

Russia on Thursday dismissed French concerns about a potential deal between Mali and a Russian private military contractor and said it planned to continue supplying Mali with weapons, military hardware and ammunition.

Joint Force of the Group of Five for the Sahel – Report of the Secretary-General (S/2021/940) | 12 November 2021 | UNSC | ReliefWeb

The present report is submitted pursuant to Security Council resolution 2391 (2017) of 8 December 2017, in which the Council requested the Secretary-General, in close coordination with the members of the Group of Five for the Sahel (G5 Sahel) – Burkina Faso, Chad, Mali, Mauritania and the Niger – and the African Union, to report on the activities of the Joint Force of the Group of Five for the Sahel and the support provided by the United Nations Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in Mali (MINUSMA) in this regard.

Give Peace a Chance. Séverine Autesserre’s apologia for international peacebuilding | 11 November 2021 | The Baffler

In three books, Autesserre has painted an unflattering picture of a multi-billion-dollar industry run by bureaucrats who are well versed in United Nations procedures but lack anything beyond the most basic knowledge of the places in which they work. Whether in Afghanistan, Colombia, or South Sudan, the denizens of Peace Inc. stay in secure compounds, among people they probably met on missions elsewhere. Careers are made in movement; staying put for too long can make it seem that one has gone native. All this contributes to what Autesserre describes as a pernicious “peacebuilding culture,” which blinds experts to the reality on the ground.

RDC : l’armée arrête un général autoproclamé et 5 ravitailleurs de la coalition rebelle CODECO-FPIC en Ituri| 9 November 2021 | Politico.cd

Les Forces Armées de la République démocratique du Congo ont affirmé lundi 08 novembre 2021 l’arrestation d’un Général autoproclamé de la milice Front Patriotique et Intégrationniste au Congo (FPIC) et 5 complices, considérés comme ravitailleurs de la coalition rebelle CODECO-FPIC, actif dans le Territoire de Djugu depuis plusieurs années.

EU begins military training against Mozambique insurgency | 7 November 2021 | Mail & Guardian

The EU on Wednesday launched a military training mission in Mozambique to help local troops to fight a jihadist insurgency in its gas-rich north.

RDC: deux militants de la Lucha en procès pour diffamation à l’encontre de la Première dame | 6 November 2021 | RFI

En République Démocratique du Congo, le mouvement citoyen la Lucha dénonce un acharnement judiciaire à l’encontre de ses militants. Deux d’entre eux : Parfait Muhani et Ghislain Muhiwa étaient en procès hier vendredi, devant le tribunal militaire de garnison de Goma, pour diffamation à l’encontre de la Première dame.

RDC : « Il faut un tribunal pénal international pour tous les crimes dans l’Est » | 5 November 2021 | Jeune Afrique

Si l’on veut espérer voir se profiler la fin des crimes et atrocités dans la partie orientale du pays, il faut que tous les responsables puissent répondre de leurs actes devant une juridiction internationale.

Mali: l’armée dit enquêter sur les accusations d’exactions contre des militaires | 5 November 2021 | MaliWeb

L’armée malienne a affirmé jeudi mener des enquêtes sur les nombreuses allégations d’exactions commises par des militaires depuis le début du conflit en 2012, dénonçant certaines allégations “qui n’ont aucun sens”.

US issues warnings over China plan for military bases in Kenya | 5 November 2021 | Business Daily

The US has raised the alarm over alleged plans by China to establish a military base in Kenya and extend its grip beyond economic and investment ties. It claimed that the planned base in Kenya is part of China’s pursuit of a global military logistics network to counter the existing interests of superpower nations, including the US.

Armée malienne : La justice militaire au centre de la communication de la DIRPA | 5 November 2021 | MaliWeb

Le directeur par intérim de la DIRPA, le colonel Mariam Sagara et le colonel Major Issa Coulibaly ont ensemble passé en revue toutes les activés menées par les FAMA, la marche de la justice militaire. C’était en présence des compagnons d’armes de la DIRPA, du représentant de l’EUTEM, de Barkane, dans la salle de réunion dudit service, le jeudi 4 novembre 2021.

Gunmen ambush and kill 69 in Niger’s troubled borderlands | 4 November 2021 | The Guardian

Niger: de nombreux membres d’un comité d’autodéfense tombent dans une embuscade jihadiste | 3 November 2021 | RFI

Gunmen killed 69 people including a local mayor in a jihadist attack in a remote area of south-west Niger, the country’s interior minister has confirmed, amid a wave of violence against civilians that has swept the country this year.

Djugu: deux centres de santé saccagés et pillés par la milice CODECO | 4 November 2021 | Radio Okapi

Un groupe des miliciens de la CODECO a vandalisé deux structures sanitaires mercredi 3 novembre dans le groupement Malabo à environ 30 kilomètres au nord de Bunia dans le territoire de Djugu (Ituri). La société civile locale condamne ces violences, qui accentuent la vulnérabilité de la population déjà paupérisée par la guerre. Elle invite les autorités militaires à garantir la sécurité dans la région.

Le Tchad, un allié précieux de la France, face à la menace islamiste | 4 November 2021 | Atlantico

Le Tchad est un pays stratégique dans la lutte contre le terrorisme islamiste. Mahamat Déby, le fils de Idriss Déby, reste un partenaire tout désigné, mais il doit assurer, en toute légalité, le processus de transition qu’il a amorcé.

The fractious future of the Islamic State in West Africa | 3 November 2021 | War on the Rocks

Africa was supposed to be the Islamic State’s success story. Observers saw the group’s rising attacks there as proof that the continent had become the new center of global jihad. In August 2021, the United Nations even declared that “the most alarming development in recent months is [the Islamic State’s] relentless spread across the African continent.”

UN urges Mali to end hereditary slavery | 2 November 2021 | DefenceWeb

UN human rights experts on Friday called on Mali to crack down on hereditary slavery after a series of violent attacks against people born into servitude.

La société Wagner ou la nébuleuse russe du Mali | 2 November 2021 | MaliWeb

On a beau tenter d’arracher aux autorités maliennes la reconnaissance d’un deal avec Wagner, elles seront restées imperméables et de marbre jusqu’au bout. Sur la question, le Premier ministre Choguel Maïga n’a jamais été aussi constant.

How armed conflict over pasture in North Rift has been resolved by pastoralists | 2 November 2021 | Business Daily

Dispute over pasture and water has been the main source of armed conflicts among pastoralists in Northern Kenya that has led to the loss of human lives and property. However, the perennial issue is now being resolved. The solution has been found by encouraging residents to embrace fodder production to manage the availability of feeds for their animals throughout the year especially during the dry spells, and reduce the rampant cases of conflicts over grazing fields.

Ituri : la communauté Lendu condamne les récentes attaques des miliciens de la CODECO dans plusieurs entités du territoire de Djugu | 2 November 2021 | MediaCongo.net

Dans une déclaration ce lundi 1er novembre 2021 à Bunia, l’association culturelle LORI, regroupant le peuple Lendu,a condamné les attaques généralisées des miliciens de la CODECO sur plusieurs entités du territoire de Djugu ,dont les plus récentes ont été signalées dans les groupements Malabo, Lopa, Luvangire, Sala, Limani, Pimbo, Njubu, Penyi et au centre de négoce de Nizi.

RCA : les mercenaires russes à la tête une gigantesque mafia à Bangui | 1 November 2021 | CorbeauNews

Les mercenaires russes de la société Wagner ont mis en place un système mafieux ignoble qui leur permet de siphonner les caisses de l’État centrafricain sous l’œil bienveillant du gouvernement. Avec la complicité des commerçants libanais, le trésor public centrafricain leur débourse de grosses sommes d’argent qui échappent à tout contrôle.

UN accuses Congo army of beating human rights defender to death | 1 November 2021 | Reuters

The United Nations on Monday accused Democratic Republic of Congo’s army of beating to death a human rights activist protesting illegal taxes in the war-torn east of the country.

Lack of planning, finances crippling Congo’s state of siege: report | 30 October 2021 | Reuters

Poor planning, a lack of objectives and insufficient funding have hobbled President Felix Tshisekedi’s pledge to end the bloodshed in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo, according to a confidential parliamentary report seen by Reuters on Friday.

Sudan coup could offer boon for Moscow | 28 October 2021 | al-Monitor

The Sudanese military detained the country’s prime minister, Abdalla Hamdok, on Monday along with several other members of the government. Lt. Gen. Abdel Fattah al-Burhan, who led the coup and alongside Hamdok headed the transitional military-civilian government, announced on state television the introduction of a state of emergency in the country and the dissolution of the country’s so-called Transitional Sovereign Council and the government. As protests erupted in Khartoum and world capitals condemned the coup, the events in Sudan were greeted with restrained optimism in Moscow. Russian officials to this point have refrained from recognizing the change of power in Khartoum as a military coup.

Russian mercenaries harass civilians in Central African Republic: UN | 28 October 2021 | TRT World

UN Experts Urge CAR to Drop Russia’s Wagner Group | 27 October 2021 | The Defense Post

UN experts asserted that the Wagner Group, which works closely with police and the CAR army, has been committing systemic human rights and international humanitarian law violations.

US worries over possible ‘Russian mercenaries’ in Mali | 27 October 2021 | WION

US ambassador to United Nations Linda Thomas-Greenfield, as per a statement issued on Tuesday, has expressed ‘grave concerns’ that Russian mercenaries may be deployed to Mali and undermine international efforts to defeat violent extremism

Biden Should Support the War and Economic Crimes Court for Liberia | 26 October 2021 | The National Interest

In 1990, just prior to the start of its civil war, the West African nation of Sierra Leone had a population of just over four million people. Over the next eleven years, more than 50,000 civilians died in a civil war that began when the Revolutionary United Front (RUF), backed by Charles Taylor’s National Patriotic Front of Liberia, launched a violent campaign to oust President Joseph Momoh’s government.

IS claims responsibility for bomb attack in Uganda | 25 October 2021 | Reuters

Islamic state claimed responsibility for a bomb attack that killed at least one person in Uganda’s capital Kampala on Saturday night, the militant group said in a statement posted in an affiliated Telegram channel late on Sunday.

Sudan’s civilian leaders arrested amid coup reports | 25 October 2021 | BBC News

Members of Sudan’s transitional government and other civilian leaders have been arrested amid reports of a military coup. Prime Minister Abdallah Hamdok is among those reported to have been put under house arrest by unidentified soldiers.

RCA : colère et stupéfaction au sein de l’armée nationale, plusieurs officiers interpellés par les mercenaires russes | 24 October 2021 | CorbeauNews

Après l’arrestation par les mercenaires russes du général Ludovic Ngaïfei, ancien chef d’État major de l’armée, puis celle du colonel Moussa Kitoko, commandant de zone de défense du nord-ouest, en suite celle du capitaine chef du détachement des FACA à Bria, vient le tour du colonel Rodongo, chef du bataillon de transmission, détaché à Kaga-Bandoro, mais aussi de l’adjudant-chef Guetel, chef de la maison d’arrêt de Berberati.

Profit from illicit mining, not political power, behind insurgency in Great Lakes | 24 October 2021 | The East African

Huge profits from smuggling of minerals is the main reason behind a surge in rebel movements in the Great Lakes Region of Africa. And in what could provide further evidence that natural resources, rather than a search for political power is behind insurgencies, a UN Special Envoy this week said countries connected by trade must be involved in ending the fighting.

Russian mercenaries leave trail of destruction in the Central African Republic | 22 October 2021 | Financial Times

When the tattooed Russian fighters arrived in Alindao, a town in the southern Central African Republic (CAR), the rebels fled — and the people rejoiced. “They were white. They were very big,” said Fatima, 32. “They looked so strange, they had tattoos everywhere — snakes, skulls, human heads . . .[but] they were going to help.”

La présence de Wagner en Centrafrique viole-t-elle le dispositif de l’embargo imposé par le conseil de sécurité ? | 21 October 2021 | CorbeauNews

Dans une interview accordée au magazine panafricain jeune Afrique le 20 septembre dernier, le chef de l’État centrafricain, le professeur Faustin Archange Touadera disait n’avoir pas eu connaissance de l’activité de l’entreprise de mercenariat russe Wagner en Centrafrique. Or, son homologue français, quatre mois plutôt, affirme dans une interview accordée au journal du dimanche que son homologue centrafricain Faustin Archange Touadera est désormais otage du groupe Wagner.

Mali : la neutralisation par l’armée française du commandant d’une importante katiba proche d’Al-Qaida | 21 October 2021 | Sahel Intelligence

L’armée française a annoncé, jeudi, la neutralisation au Mali, de Nasser Al Tergui, chef de la katiba du Gourma du Rassemblement pour la victoire de l’Islam et des musulmans (RVIM), proche d’Al-Qaïda.

Le Mali et le repositionnement militaire français | 21 October 2021 | RFI

L’annonce du repositionnement de l’armée française au Sahel a été diversement accueillie par les États de la région. Quatre mois après cette annonce, ce qui devait être une simple reconfiguration du dispositif militaire français s’est transformée en une sorte de déflagration politico-militaire, occasionnant une crise particulièrement vive avec le Mali. Entretien avec Nicolas Normand, chercheur associé à l’Institut de relations internationales et stratégiques (Iris).

Mali: publication de deux rapports sur l’impunité et la gouvernance de la transition | 21 October 2021 | MaliWeb

Système Intégré d’Alerte, de Rapportage et d’Analyse

Les responsables de l’observatoire citoyen contre l’impunité et pour la redevabilité (OCCIPRE) ont publié, lors d’une conférence presse tenue hier à Bamako, les deux rapports sur la situation de l’impunité. Les statistiques de sondage de droits de l’Homme au Mali et la gestion de la transition visent à informer sur la situation que prévaut.

Children in Mali, Niger, Burkina Faso face greater risk of recruitment by armed groups | 20 October 2021 | Save the Children | ReliefWeb

Children living in conflict zones in the Central Sahel region across Mali, Burkina Faso and Niger are facing a greater risk of illegal recruitment by non-state armed groups on a drive to attract young people after thousands of schools closed in the past two years due to increasing violence and COVID-19.

Mali: le gouvernement veut négocier, les jihadistes accepteront-ils? | 20 October 2021 | RFI

Au Mali, l’information fait grand bruit depuis le début de la semaine, le gouvernement de transition a donné mandat au Haut conseil islamique pour amorcer un dialogue avec les groupes jihadistes maliens qui sévissent dans le pays. Le Jnim (Groupe de soutien à l’Islam et aux musulmans) d’Iyad Ag Ghaly, et la Katiba Macina d’Amadou Koufa, qui en est une composante. Il ne s’agit pour l’instant que d’une « mission de bons offices » qui doit établir le contact. L’objectif final, c’est de trouver des positions communes pour mettre un terme aux attaques et aux combats qui ensanglantent le pays depuis près de dix ans.

Security Council Presidential Statement on Great Lakes Urges Concerted Efforts against Armed Groups’ Illicit Funding from Pillaged Natural Resources | 20 October 2021 | UNSC | UN News

Through a presidential statement, the Security Council urged signatory states of the Peace, Security and Cooperation Framework for the Democratic Republic of the Congo, as well as regional organizations and the international community, to coordinate their efforts to undercut the economic lifelines of armed groups that benefit from the illegal exploitation and trade in natural resources, and to prevent the exploitation of women and children in the trade of these resources.

Continued Attacks by Illegal Armed Groups in Central African Republic Thwarting Progress towards Implementing Peace Agreement, Special Representative Tells Security Council | 18 October 2021 | UNSC | UN News

Unabating attacks by illegal armed groups in the Central African Republic are exacerbating the already fragile security situation and undermining valuable progress made in establishing institutional stability, the Head of the United Nations peacekeeping mission there told the Security Council today, as members examined the situation ahead of an imminent vote on renewing the Mission’s mandate, which expires on 15 November.

RCA : arrestation à Bria par les mercenaires russes de l’autoproclamé général Papa Bobiri, un proche du ministre Hassan Bouba | 18 October 2021 | CorbeauNews

Après l’attaque des positions des soldats FACA dans la ville de Bria par un groupe des hommes lourdement armés identifiés formellement comme des éléments rebelles de l’unité pour la paix en Centrafrique (UPC), les mercenaires russes de la société Wagner ont procédé à des interpellations massives et aveugles de plusieurs personnes, dont l’autoproclamé général de l’UPC Papa Bobiri, proche du ministre de l’Élevage Hassan Bouba.

RCA : la déclaration de soutien de Sarandji aux mercenaires russes suscite de controverse | 18 October 2021 | CorbeauNews

Dans une lettre de félicitations adressée aux « communautés des officiers russes en Centrafrique », le Président de l’Assemblée nationale, Monsieur Simplice Mathieu Sarandji tient à remercier et encourager tous les mercenaires de la société Wagner pour leur bravoure ainsi que son encouragement soutenu pour la poursuite de leur « noble » mission en Centrafrique. Or, pour l’opposition démocratique, cette lettre de félicitations est sans doute une sorte de pied de nez fait à l’encontre des victimes civiles qui leur est imputé dans des faits encore sous investigation.

Kidnapping Becomes Mozambican Flourishing Business | 18 October 2021 | Pressenza

While Mozambique is fighting militant attacks by deploying regional force, the frequency of kidnapping for ransom money, especially local and foreign business executives, presents serious signs of the deteriorating security situation and has negative effects of business climate in country.

West Africa: Terror in the Backyard … West Africa’s Security Headaches (1) | 18 October 2021 | Ghanaian Times | AllAfrica

The 9/11 terror attacks in the United States of America (USA) in 2001, and the fallouts from the global war on terror have had a profound influence on the global security landscape. The dislocation and relocation of terrorist cells and training camps; the declared intention by terrorist organisations to strike targets that represent the interests of Western countries and their allies; the emergence of new terrorist groups; alliances formed by various global terrorist franchises and the increasing incidence of terrorist attacks, have altogether redefined the global security terrain profoundly.

Nord-Kivu : l’armée rwandaise a fait incursion à Kibumba, ouvert le feu et pillé les biens des civils | 18 October 2021 | Politico.cd

L’armée rwandaise a fait une incursion sur le territoire congolais ce lundi 18 octobre 2021, jusqu’à vouloir contrôler au moins six villages du territoire de Nyiragongo, alertait la société civile sur place, tôt le matin.

Société Wagner : Jean-Yves Le Drian s’en prend au rôle des paramilitaires russes en Centrafrique | 18 October 2021 | TV5Monde

Le chef de la diplomatie française Jean-Yves Le Drian a accusé dimanche soir les mercenaires du groupe privé russe Wagner de se “substituer” à l’autorité de l’État en Centrafrique et d’en “confisquer la capacité fiscale”. Un message clairement adressé aux nouvelles autorités maliennes actuellement en discussion avec la compagnie proche du Kremlin.

Ituri : l’auditeur supérieur militaire scelle trois barrières installées illégalement par les services étatiques à Bunia | 17 October 2021 | Politico.cd

L’auditeur supérieur militaire, le Colonel Joseph Makelele, a scellé ce samedi 16 octobre trois barrières installées illégalement par les services étatiques dans la province de l’Ituri précisément dans la ville de Bunia.

Wagner: Putin’s secret weapon on the way to Mali? | 16 October 2021 | Modern Diplomacy

France is outraged at the prospect of Russian mercenaries from the Wagner group arriving in Mali. However, Paris is seeking a way out of an unwinnable conflict.

Central African Republic: Report of the Secretary-General (S/2021/867) | 15 October 2021 | UNSC | ReliefWeb

By its resolution 2552 (2020), the Security Council extended the mandate of the United Nations Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in the Central African Republic (MINUSCA) until 15 November 2021 and requested the Secretary-General to report on its implementation every four months. The present report provides an update on major developments in the Central African Republic since the previous report of the Secretary-General of 16 June 2021 (S/2021/571) and on the reinforcement of MINUSCA authorized in resolution 2566 (2021).

La Centrafrique recadre sa coopération avec la Russie autour de ses douanes | 14 October 2021 | Afriqinfos

Bangui sonne la fin des «experts russes» déployés aux différents postes de douanes du pays. Les autorités centrafricaines via un courrier adressé à la Mission économique russe, souhaitent réévaluer cette forme de coopération avec Moscou. La présence russe dans le pays à travers les compagnies privées de sécurité et les accords économiques y afférents notamment dans les mines et les douanes font l’objet de vives polémiques ces derniers mois.

ECOWAS in Guinea: Tough on coups, tame on the causes of coups | 14 October 2021 | African Arguments

Despite Guinea and Mali both experiencing coups in recent months, it would be wrong to herald the dawn of a new trend of military overthrows in West Africa. Reoccurring instability is contained to a handful of states. What is a real and worrying trend, however, is the region’s consistent failure to address the conditions that spark coups in the first place.

The Sentry: Sanctioned businessmen bag multibillion-dollar contracts with South Sudan government | 14 October 2021 | Radio Tamazuj

The government of South Sudan is awarding billions of dollars in contracts to companies that appear to be controlled by sanctioned persons close to the president, warns The Sentry in a new investigative report released on Thursday.

Six arrested in Rwanda for spreading rumours to cause ‘uprising’ | 13 October 2021 | Al Jazeera

Rwandan authorities have arrested six people including a journalist and members of an opposition party accused of publishing rumours allegedly intended to start an uprising, the investigation bureau said.

Why the condemnation by EU of Rwanda’s judgement on Rusesabagina is questionable | 13 October 2021 | Igihe

Rwanda: Rusesabagina case rebounds! | 12 October 2021 | The Rwandan

This October 7, 2021, by a resolution taken almost unanimously, the European Parliament (EP) asks Kigali to repatriate Paul Rusesabagina, sentenced to 25 years in prison. Kigali rants and cries out for neocolonialism. A diplomatic game that thrills!

U.N. court rules in favor of Somalia over Kenya in long-running maritime dispute | 12 October 2021 | The Washington Post

The United Nations’ highest court ruled Tuesday in favor of Somalia in a years-long dispute with Kenya about their maritime border, a decision that could worsen the already fragile relationship between the neighboring countries.

Central African Republic war crimes suspect ‘beat’ prisoners, ICC prosecutor says | 12 October 2021 | Reuters

A former Central African Republic “Seleka” faction commander took part in beatings and mistreatment of prisoners suspected of supporting ousted President Francois Bozize, an International Criminal Court prosecutor said on Tuesday.

Nord-Kivu : arrestation d’un présumé ADF commanditaire des massacres de Komanda | 11 October 2021 | Politico.cd

Les forces Armées de la République démocratique du Congo ont annoncé ce week-end avoir mis la main, jeudi, sur un combattant Adf, identifié comme cerveau moteur dans le commandement du récent massacre de commanda en territoire d’Irumu, dans la province de l’Ituri.

Rwandan Genocide Kingpin Dies in Mali Jail | 11 October 2021 | HRW

Late last month, Malian officials announced that a former Rwandan army colonel convicted of masterminding the slaughter of at least half a million people during the 1994 genocide had died. Théoneste Bagosora, who was 80, was serving a 35-year sentence after being found guilty of crimes against humanity by the then International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR).

RCA : les hommes de Wagner font planer à nouveau des menaces sur Bria, le Préfet affirme être en prison | 11 October 2021 | CorbeauNews

À Bria, capitale provinciale de la Haute-Kotto, les hommes de Wagner ne passent plus par quatre chemins pour montrer leur visage criminel, voir sadique à toute la jeunesse de cette localité. Même le préfet, le plus haut représentant de l’État dans la région, se dit aussi être en prison à ciel ouvert, dont les hommes de Wagner assurent la garde.

RCA : écartée de la douane, la société Wagner exige une compensation financière au chef de l’État | 11 October 2021 | CorbeauNews

Il ne fait aucun doute, Wagner tente de secouer le pays avec des rumeurs. L’objectif, faire peur aux autorités que leur survie est entre leurs mains et non celles d’autres personnes. En plus, ils tentent d’attiser le climat de méfiance au plus haut sommet de l’État. C’est pourquoi le lundi dernier, ils ont accusé ouvertement le Premier ministre Henri-Marie Dondra de vouloir faire tomber le chef de l’État.

RCA : les mercenaires russes de la société Wagner ont-ils signé une entente avec les rebelles ? | 10 October 2021 | CorbeauNews

Selon les rumeurs qui circulent depuis trois jours dans la capitale centrafricaine, les mercenaires russes de la société Wagner, qui combattent les rebelles au côté de l’armée nationale, auraient signé un deal avec les rebelles de la coalition des patriotes pour le changement (CPC) et ceux de l’unité pour la paix en Centrafrique (UPC). Raisons évoquées, mécontentement suite au dernier rapport de la commission spéciale sur les présumées exactions commises sur la population, mais également la suspension par le gouvernement de la mission d’assistance technique de Wagner auprès des différents postes de la Douane centrafricaine le 10 octobre prochain.

La Cour de justice de la Cédéao suspend le Mali et la Guinée | 10 October 2021 | MaliWeb

La Cour de justice de la Communauté économique des Etats de l’Afrique de l’Ouest (Cédéao) a suspendu toutes les procédures concernant le Mali et la Guinée, deux pays membres dirigés par des militaires.

Breakaway SPLA-IO faction accused of planning attacks in Upper Nile | 8 October 2021 | Radio Tamazuj

The Sudan People’s Liberation Army in Opposition (SPLA-IO) under First Vice President Riek Machar says its breakaway faction, popularly known as the Ki Gwang Declaration is planning to carry out attacks on its positions in Upper Nile State.

SSPDF, SPLA-IO forces yet to vacate Tambura town | 8 October 2021 | Radio Tamazuj

The South Sudan People’s Defense Forces (SSPDF) and the Sudan People’s Liberation Army in Opposition (SPLA-IO) forces in Tambura County of Western Equatoria State have yet to be relocated weeks after the Joint Defense Board (JDB) ordered their evacuation, a move expected to restore security to the troubled area.

Ituri : 6 morts dans des affrontements entre l’armée et la coalition rebelle FPIC-CODECO près de Bunia | 7 October 2021 | MediaCongo

Des affrontements violents ont opposé, ce mercredi 06 octobre 2021, les Forces Armées de la de la République Démocratique du Congo (FARDC) à la coalition des miliciens FPIC et CODECO, dans l’agglomération de Ngongo, village située à 18 kilomètres au nord-ouest de Bunia, dans la province de l’Ituri.

UN: ‘Transitional Justice’ Key to Unblocking Vicious Cycle of Violence in DR Congo | 7 October 2021 | VoA

A report by U.N. human rights chief Michele Bachelet finds some progress has been made in the human rights situation in the Democratic Republic of Congo. However, the report finds extensive violations and abuses continue unabated in North Kivu and Ituri provinces. Bachelet is calling for a system of what the U.N. calls “transitional justice” to address the situation.

WAGNER en Centrafrique : des similitudes troublantes entre la propagande de l’EX URSS et celle des sociétés militaires privées russes | 7 October 2021 | CorbeauNews

La présence des SMP russes en Centrafrique n’est plus à prouver, de même que les exactions qu’elles commettent sur la population et les forces armées locales. Mais en observant d’un peu plus près leurs méthodes, on peut vite s’apercevoir qu’elles sont historiquement bien connues, et bien retranscrites.

Guerre au Sahel : l’armée russe annonce l’arrivée prochaine de plusieurs milliers de soldats russes au Mali | 7 October 2021 | Le Courrier du Soir

Alexander Ivanov, chef des instructeurs russes en République Centrafricaine, a fait savoir ce 6 octobre dans une interview accordée à Sputnik et relayée par l’agence de presse ANI que des milliers de soldats russes devraient débarquer au Mali prochainement

République centrafricaine : un expert de l’ONU dénonce les assauts des rebelles de la CPC | 7 October 2021 | UN News

Un Expert indépendant des Nations Unies a condamné avec fermeté les agissements de certains groupes armés en République centrafricaine (RCA), notamment ceux de la Coalition des patriotes pour le changement (CPC).

Inter-communal violence leaves 30 dead in South Sudan | 7 October 2021 | Monitor (Uganda)

Inter-communal violence in South Sudan’s Warrap State has left over 30 people dead and 80 wounded.

Uvira : l’armée arrête plus de 30 burundais présumés voleurs des vaches et recrues des groupes armés | 6 October 2021 | Politico.cd

L’information a été donnée à POLITICO.CD par l’armée à travers le secteur opérationnel Sokola 2 sud du Sud-Kivu. Selon cette source, plus de 30 sujets burundais ont été arrêtés la nuit du 5 au 6 octobre 2021 au village Rusabagi, situé tout près de la frontière congolo-burundaise, dans le territoire d’Uvira.

Ituri : l’armée arrête une « ravitailleuse » des ADF et détentrice de deux nationalités | 6 October 2021 | Politico.cd

L’armée affirme avoir arrêté une femme, âgée de 56 ans, et considérée comme “ravitalleuse” des rebelles étrangers des Allied Democratic Force (ADF). Présentée ce mercredi 6 octobre, au gouverneur militaire de la province de l’ituri, cette femme a été arrêtéd à Mahagi, il y a près d’une semaine, avec 5 cartes d’identité, dont une Ougandaise et 4 Congolaises, portant des noms différents.

Beja Nazirs insist on cancellation of Eastern Sudan peace protocol | 6 October 2021 | Dabanga (Sudan)

The High Council of Beja Nazirs and Independent Chieftains will adhere to their demands for the cancellation of the Eastern Sudan Track, as agreed on in the 2020 Juba Peace Agreement and the formation of a ‘government of technocrats’ as stipulated in the Constitutional Document.

Libya Mission Finds Evidence of Crimes Against Humanity and War Crimes | 6 October 2021 | ASIL

On October 4, 2021, the Independent Fact-Finding Mission on Libya stated that there are reasonable grounds to believe that crimes against humanity and war crimes have been committed in Libya. The UN Human Rights Council established the Mission by resolution 43/39 to investigate human rights violations and abuses in Libya since the beginning of 2016. Following its investigation, the Mission shared its report which included findings on conduct of hostilities, extrajudicial killings, violations in the context of deprivation of liberty, sexual and gender-based violence, and the situation of migrants, women, children, and internally displaced persons.

Meurtre des experts de l’ONU : le prévenu Tshibuabua Tshibert décédé en pleine audience | 6 October 2021 | Politico.cd

Jugé depuis 4 ans devant le Tribunal Miliaire de Kananga dans l’affaire de meurtre des experts de l’ONU au Kasaï, détenu au cachot de l’Auditorat, le prévenu Tshibuabua Tshibert est décédé en pleine audience publique tenue le mardi 5 octobre 2021.

Ituri : affrontements à Mwanga entre les FARDC et la coalition FRPI-CODECO | 6 October 2021 | Radio Okapi

Des affrontements à l’arme lourde ont opposé mercredi 6 octobre, vers 04 heures du matin, l’armée aux combattants de la coalition, de la Force patriotique et intégrationniste du Congo (FPIC) et de la CODECO, à Ngongo, village situé à 18 Kilomètres au nord-ouest de Bunia (Ituri).

The Role of Peacekeeping in Africa | 5 October 2021 | Council on Foreign Relations

Africa continues to have more peacekeeping missions than any other continent. As conflict-stricken countries increasingly look outside the United Nations for support, experts say reforms are necessary to improve peacebuilding.

Children ‘indoctrinated’ to fight for insurgents in Mozambique: UNICEF | 5 October 2021 | UN News

In northern Mozambique, worrying reports emerged on Tuesday that children as young as five have been shown how to handle weapons and indoctrinated to fight with insurgents.

Mali, RCA… Pourquoi la Russie s’intéresse-t-elle de plus en plus à l’Afrique subsaharienne ? | 4 October 2021 | Cameroon Magazine

Après le sommet de Sotchi en 2019, les accords de coopération bilatérale entre la Russie et les pays d’Afrique subsaharienne se sont multipliés… Après la République centrafricaine, le Mali est au centre des attentions, notamment la livraison jeudi dernier de quatre hélicoptères russes et des discussions avec le groupe Wagner.

Mali’s Proposed Deal With Russia’s Wagner Group Could Light up the Sahel | 4 October 2021 | SOFREP

Mali’s discussions with the Russian Wagner Group have sparked intense debate among the European Union members deployed to Mali under a French-led coalition to defeat Islamic jihadists. The Wagner Group mercenary company is owned by Yevgeny Prigozhin, a businessman with close links to Russian President Vladimir Putin.

Kenya’s Manda Bay now a naval base | 4 October 2021 | DefenceWeb

Kenyan President Uhuru Kenyatta has upgraded Naval Station Manda Bay to a naval base due to its strategic importance in enhancing counter-terrorism efforts and maritime security.

Libya: War crimes likely committed since 2016, UN probe finds | 4 October 2021 | UN News

War crimes and crimes against humanity have likely been committed in Libya by all parties to conflict since 2016 including by external actors, a Human Rights Council-appointed probe said on Monday.

Russia’s Wagner Group committed atrocities in Central African Republic | 4 October 2021 | The Times

Russian mercenaries committed atrocities in the Central African Republic as the government tried to defend itself against rebels, the regime has admitted.

How we helped investigators in the WHO sex abuse scandal probe | 4 October 2021 | The New Humanitarian

The independent commission tasked to look into claims of sexual abuse and exploitation against World Health Organization workers during the Ebola response in the Democratic Republic of Congo – which released its findings last week – was appointed one month after The New Humanitarian and the Thomson Reuters Foundation revealed those claims.

Cameroon’s community violence adds to Lake Chad Basin security woes | 4 October 2021 | ISS | DefenceWeb

The Lake Chad Basin region is plagued by insecurity. In addition to the terror inflicted by Boko Haram, organised crime and kidnappings for ransom in the area, it’s feared that Cameroon’s community conflicts could spread, further destabilising the entire region.

Children and Armed Conflict Monthly Update – October 2021 | 4 October 2021 | Watchlist | ReliefWeb

Thirteen parties are listed in the annexes of the SG’s 2021 annual report on CAAC for grave violations against children, including the Armed Forces of the DRC (FARDC) for rape and other forms of sexual violence. This year, CODECO was newly listed for killing and maiming children and attacks on schools and hospitals, Mai Mai Apa Na Pale was newly listed for recruitment and use and abductions, and Nduma défense du Congo-Rénové was listed for rape and sexual violence (in addition to recruitment and use and killing and maiming, for which it was previously listed).

Ituri : un Général des FARDC fait sa déposition dans l’affaire détournement des fonds alloués à l’état de siège| 3 October 2021 | Politico.cd

Soucieux d’éclairer la Cour Militaire de l’Ituri dans l’affaire opposant le ministère public contre certains officiers supérieurs de l’armée et de la police nationale congolaise, le Commandant secteur opérationnel adjoint en charge de l’administration et logistique, le Général de Brigade, Jean-Claude Bokolombe a fait sa déposition comme renseignant au procès.

Swiss investigators go to Gambia for Sonko case | 3 October 2021 | SwissInfo.ch

Former Gambian Interior Minister Ousman Sonko, suspected of crimes against humanity, is to stay in a Swiss jail until at least the end of October, after his appeal was rejected by the Federal Criminal Court, media reports said on Sunday.

As Kenyan president mounted anti-corruption comeback, his family’s secret fortune expanded offshore | 3 October 2021 | ICIJ

The Kenyatta family has ruled one of Africa’s largest economies for decades. But to the Swiss advisers who helped them funnel wealth into tax havens, they were ‘Client 13173’.

Rapport Mapping : ICJP appelle le Gouvernement à agir avec célérité en faveur d’une politique nationale de justice transitionnelle | 2 October 2021 | MediaCongo.net

Dans une déclaration signée par son Coordonnateur, Raphael Wakenge, ICJP fustige l’impunité des auteurs des massacres, notamment ceux répertoriés dans ce rapport, suite à l’absence des mécanismes de justice tant au niveau national qu’international.

Abus sexuels d’agents de l’OMS en RDC: Tshisekedi appelle à une collaboration judiciaire «franche» | 2 October 2021 | RFI

Le président congolais Félix Tshisekedi appelle à une collaboration judiciaire « franche » entre les instances nationales congolaises et les instances internationales pour « faire toute la lumière » sur les violences sexuelles commises par des agents de l’Organisation mondiale de la santé en République démocratique du Congo, entre 2018 et 2020, lors de la riposte contre l’épidémie d’Ebola.

Does the split within the SPLA-IO have any impact on the R-ARCSS? | 2 October 2021 | Radio Tamazuj

Now I am with my children on the Magenis Mountain without food or shelter, and it is raining heavily on us. Our situation is very bad. I watched with my own eyes children dying of hunger,” Martha Batholomew is one of the victims of the recent clashes in the Magenis area of Upper Nile State.

Rwanda arrests 13 suspected of plotting ‘terrorist’ attacks | 1 October 2021 | CGTN

Rwandan police said on Friday they had arrested 13 people suspected of plotting “terrorist” attacks in the capital Kigali and paraded them before the media.

The UK’s criticism of a Russian mercenary group smacks of hypocrisy | 1 October 2021 | The Canary

The UK’s minister for Africa has condemned talks between the Malian government and a Russian mercenary firm. In a statement, Vicky Ford said the Wagner Group was “a driver of conflict”. She added that one of the organisation’s key funders, Yevgeniy Viktorovich Prigozhin, is subject to sanctions for his past actions. But the whole thing smacks of hypocrisy.

La Centrafrique affirme que des exactions ont été perpétrées par des rebelles, mais aussi par sa propre armée et des « instructeurs russes » alliés | 1 October 2021 | Le Monde

Lors de la publication du rapport de l’ONU, le gouvernement centrafricain avait considéré que ces accusations étaient de « simples dénonciations ».

Groupe Wagner : le Mali risque gros | 30 September 2021 | La Nouvelle République

Si le Mali engage un partenariat avec des mercenaires, le Mali s’isolera, il perdra le soutien de la communauté internationale, qui est pourtant très engagée dans ce pays, a lancé la ministre des Armées Florence Parly mercredi au Sénat.

Tanzania: President Samia Suluhu Calls for More Transparency, Accountability to NGOs | 30 September 2021 | Tanzania Daily News | AllAfrica

President Samia Suluhu Hassan is calling on non-governmental organizations (NGOs) to be more transparent and accountable in discharging their duties across the country.

ETHIOPIA-TIGRAY CONFLICT

Ethiopia launches taskforce to address violations in Tigray war | 30 November 2021 | The East African

The Ethiopian government has launched a taskforce to address the human rights violations in the Tigray conflict. The rights violations were recorded earlier in the year in a previous joint investigation report between local and UN rights bodies.

Tigray Government Letter to UN Secretary about Tigrayan Mass Arrest in Ethiopia (pdf) | 29 November 2021 | The Government of National Regional State of Tigray | Aiga Forum

Tigray Government Letter to UN Secretary about UAE, Iran and Turkey Support to the Abiy Government to Commit Genocide in Tigray (pdf) | 29 November 2021 | The Government of National Regional State of Tigray | Aiga Forum

Tigray Government sent two letters to the UN Secretary about the ongoing genocidal campaign by the Abiy regime and the wide-scale mass arrest of Tigrayans in Ethiopia, the continued support by UAE, Iran, and Turkey to arm the Abiy regime to commit genocide. The government asked the Secretary-General to use his good office to help stop the ongoing genocidal campaign in Tigray.

Ethiopia Dismisses Reports Of Fatal Attack On Sudanese Forces, Says Measures Taken On Infiltrators | 29 November 2021 | Addis Standard

State Minister of Government Communication Service Selamawit Kassa in the Ministry’s routine presser has dismissed recent media reports that Ethiopian forces have attacked Sudanese forces during clashes bordering the two countries. However, Selamawit said the government had cracked down on militants who had recently infiltrated through Sudan.

Sexual violence as weapon of war spreads to new regions in Ethiopia | 29 November 2021 | The Globe and Mail

As Tigrayan fighters march relentlessly closer to Addis Ababa in a military offensive that threatens to topple the Ethiopian government, disturbing evidence of brutal abuses is emerging from some of the towns and villages captured by the rebels.

Éthiopie : l’évêque d’Adigrat dénonce «une guerre génocidaire» au Tigré. Les faits | 29 November 2021 | La Croix Africa

Catholic Diocese of Adigrat warns of current impact of war in Tigray | 25 November 2021 | Agenzia Fides

Privé de moyens de communication depuis plusieurs mois, Mgr Tesfaselassie Medhin, l’évêque de l’éparchie catholique d’Adigrat (Tigré), a dénoncé « une guerre génocidaire » et critiqué le rapport conjoint de la commission éthiopienne des droits de l’homme (EHRC) et du Haut Commissariat aux droits de l’homme des Nations unies sur la situation dans la région du Tigré.

The Ethiopian War and Academic Freedom | 29 November 2021 | African Arguments

The war in Ethiopia has produced a toxic and contested landscape of contradictory narratives. Attempts to control and limit information are not new in Ethiopia, although the intensity and global reach of the current dynamics is a worrying evolution of previous tendencies.

Africa’s civil society unites in call to avert ‘looming genocide’ in Ethiopia | 29 November 2021 | The East African

A group of African civil society advocates have appealed to the United Nations (UN) to take immediate action to prevent looming genocide in Ethiopia.

L’Éthiopie, le prochain Rwanda ? | 29 November 2021 | La Presse

Une guerre civile qui s’enlise. Un premier ministre qui prend les armes. Des exactions de part et d’autre. La menace d’une épuration ethnique. L’Éthiopie pourrait-elle être le prochain Rwanda ?

Tigray: Suspicion and sacrifice as Ethiopia fighting spreads | 29 November 2021 | BBC

After dark, in a residential neighbourhood in Ethiopia’s capital, Addis Ababa, dozens of civilian volunteers were busy patrolling their streets one night last week, stopping and searching cars and checking documents.

Briton released from death row accused of inciting genocide in Ethiopia | 28 November 2021 | The Telegraph

A British citizen who was released from death row in Ethiopia after a high-profile government lobbying effort has been accused of telling soldiers to carry out genocide in the East African nation’s bloody civil war.

Denouncing Addis Ababa University’s Recent Statement and Warning to Revoke Academic Degrees of Individuals Based on their Political Opinion (pdf) | 28 November 2021 | The Global Society of Tigray Scholars and Professionals | AigaForum

Addis Abeba University Warns To Take Measures Against Graduate Academics Supporting Tplf; Measures May Include Revocation Of Academic Degrees | 26 November 2021 | Addis Standard

The Global Society of Tigray Scholars and Professionals (GSTS) is extremely shocked by Addis Ababa University’s (AAU) recent politically motivated statement and unprecedented threat to retroactively revoke the academic degrees of individuals deemed to be supporting specific political parties. This is an extremely troubling step for several reasons and one which is emotionally distressing for many of our members whose academic and professional careers started at AAU.

Ethiopia heading to genocide due to leaders’ violent hate speech: UN | 27 November 2021 | Business Standard

Statement by Alice Wairimu Nderitu, Special Adviser of the Secretary-General on the Prevention of Genocide, on the situation in Ethiopia (pdf) | 8 November 2021 | UN Office on Genocide Prevention and the Responsibility to Protect

Calls to arms and violent hate speech by irresponsible leaders are heading Ethiopia to the risk of genocide, the UN special adviser on the prevention of genocide, Alice Wairimu Nderitu said.

Ethiopia’s Breakup Doesn’t Have to Be Violent | 27 November 2021 | Foreign Policy

A confederation of states must choose whether to follow the bloody path of the former Yugoslavia or the prosperous model of the European Union.

The warning signs are there for genocide in Ethiopia – the world must act to prevent it | 26 November 2021 | The Guardian

Genocide happens when warning signs are not heeded. The world looks away, refusing to believe that mass ethnic killing is possible. We hope that the worst will be avoided. But to prevent genocide, we must sound the alarm before we arrive at certainty.

Ethiopia restricts information sharing about war | 26 November 2021 | Reuters

Ethiopia has announced new restrictions on the sharing of information about the war in the north of the country which stipulate that battlefront updates can only come from the government. “Disseminating information on military maneuvers, war front updates and results via any medium is forbidden,” except for information provided by a joint civilian-military command set up to oversee a state of emergency, the government’s communication service said late on Thursday.

Éthiopie: depuis le front, Abiy Ahmed promet «d’enterrer l’ennemi» | 26 November 2021 | RFI

En Éthiopie, le Premier ministre a été montré à la télévision ce vendredi 26 novembre, quatre jours après avoir annoncé qu’il se rendrait sur le front pour prendre le commandement des opérations militaires. Entretemps, à Addis-Abeba, les autorités ont pris de nouvelles mesures draconiennes, dans le cadre de l’état d’urgence décrété le 2 novembre, alors que de durs combats continuent sur plusieurs fronts.

Ethiopia asks US to stop spreading false information on war | 26 November 2021 | DefenceWeb

Ethiopia’s government has asked the United States to stop spreading falsehoods against the country, the state minister of communication said on Thursday, after the US State Department issued an alert about potential “terrorist attacks”.

Ethiopia’s Civil War Fueled by Weapons from UN’s Big Powers | 25 November 2021 | Inter Press Service

In Hollywood movies, the legendary Wild West was routinely portrayed with gunslingers, lawmen and villains—resulting in the ultimate showdown between the “good guys and the bad guys”.

UAE air bridge provides military support to Ethiopia gov’t | 25 November 2021 | al-Jazeera

UAE Air Bridge To Ethiopia Continues Unabated – Surpassing 100 Flights | 19 November 2021 | Oryx

Satellite images obtained by Al Jazeera show the UAE is providing extensive support to Ethiopian army in fight against Tigrayan forces.

There is need for a truly independent probe into Ethiopia abuses | 24 November 2021 | al-Jazeera

The joint OHCHR/EHRC investigation into alleged atrocities in Tigray failed to establish a path towards accountability and justice for victims.

Foreigners in Ethiopia advised to leave as Tigrayan rebels edge closer to Addis Ababa | 24 November 2021 | France24

International alarm mounted on Tuesday over the escalating war in Ethiopia as Tigrayan rebels claimed to be edging closer to the capital Addis Ababa and more foreign citizens were told to leave.

Military moves in Ethiopia risk undermining progress toward peace talks -U.S. envoy | 24 November 2021 | Reuters

The U.S. Special Envoy for the Horn of Africa said on Tuesday that “nascent progress” toward getting all parties to Ethiopia’s conflict into negotiations on a ceasefire risks being outpaced by an “alarming” increase in military operations.

Ethiopian government says Prime Minister Abiy has gone to frontline of civil war | 24 November 2021 | France24

Ethiopia’s Nobel Peace Prize-winning prime minister has gone to the battlefront, his government announced Wednesday, after the leader said martyrdom might be necessary in the yearlong war with rival fighters approaching the capital.

Ethiopia expels four Irish diplomats as Tigray conflict escalates | 24 November 2021 | The Jerusalem Post

Ethiopia has expelled four of six Irish diplomats from the country because of Ireland’s stance on the conflict there, Irish Foreign Minister Simon Coveney said on Wednesday.

Ethiopia’s Tigray conflict: What are Facebook and Twitter doing about hate speech? | 23 November 2021 | BBC

Social media giants Facebook and Twitter have come under fire over their roles in the ongoing conflict in Ethiopia. Critics say they are not doing enough to prevent the spread of hate speech and incitement to violence on their platforms, but that has been rejected by the companies. We’ve looked at some examples and what is being done to deal with them.

Ethiopian PM vows to lead troops in war against rebels | 22 November 2021 | The Guardian

Ethiopia’s prime minister, Abiy Ahmed, has vowed to lead his country’s troops “from the battlefront”, the latest dramatic step by the Nobel Peace prize winner in a devastating year-long war with rebel groups.

Four scenarios and the funeral(s): Ethiopian powder keg is ready to explode in tragic ways | 22 November 2021 | Daily Maverick

Abiy’s plan, if there is one, is to continue his belligerent rhetoric imploring sacrifice (of others) in the name of an uncertain vision which seems to be based around not returning the country to the type of rule of former Prime Minister Meles Zenawi, a Tigrayan, who died in 2012 after nearly 20 years in charge, during which time the TPLF gained a disproportionate share of political power and economic opportunities.

Ethiopia’s civil war: Five reasons why history won’t repeat itself | 21 November 2021 | The Conversation

One year after the outbreak of civil war in Ethiopia the spectre of regime change looms over Africa’s second most populous nation. The tides of the military conflict pitting Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed and his allies against the rebel Tigray Defence Forces and Oromo Liberation Army changed after a government offensive failed to push back their enemies in October. Instead the insurgents made important territorial gains over the past weeks, vowing to take the capital Addis Ababa.

New Imagery Suggests Continued Usage Of Surface-To-Air Missiles By Tigray Forces | 21 November 2021 | Oryx

Satellite imagery from the 19th of October 2021 indicates that the S-125 surface-to-air missile (SAM) site located northeast of Mekelle has returned to active duty. The reactivation of the SAM site comes as the Ethiopian Air Force (ETAF) has deployed its newly-acquired Wing Loong unmanned combat aerial vehicles (UCAVs) over Mekelle to designate targets for Su-27 fighter aircraft, resulting in a number of civilian casualties as the bombs dropped by the Su-27s missed their intended targets and fell on civilian areas instead.

Ethiopia’s Tigray conflict: Mass arrests and ethnic profiling haunt Addis Ababa | 21 November 2021 | BBC

The arrest of two prominent professors in Ethiopia’s capital has given new focus to allegations that the authorities are engaged in a ruthless crackdown against ethnic Tigrayan civilians, as the country plunges deeper into a conflict that began over a year ago in the northern state of Tigray.

Ethiopia puts on notice 4 international media over their reporting on Tigray conflict | 20 November 2021 | The East African

The Ethiopian media watch has threatened to revoke licences of four foreign media houses against taking sides on their reporting in the ongoing violence in the country.

Olusegun Obasanjo meets TPLF chiefs as Ethiopia claims new war victory | 20 November 2021 | The East African

Former Nigerian President Olusegun Obasanjo on Friday met with the leader of the Tigray People’s Liberation Front (TPLF) in his second attempt to broker peace with the Ethiopian government, even as Addis Ababa declared victory over a battlefield in Amhara region.

Foreign powers are intervening in Ethiopia. They may only make the conflict worse | 19 November 2021 | The Washington Post

Amid the violence in Ethiopia, Eritrea and the United States have engaged in an escalating war of words. On Nov. 12, Washington imposed fresh sanctions as punishment for human rights abuses committed by Eritrean troops fighting alongside the Ethiopian army in a bloody civil conflict, with the U.S. Treasury announcing that it would blacklist the Eritrean military and ruling party. The Eritrean Information Ministry responded by alleging that the “illicit and immoral sanctions” were designed to harm the Eritrean people.

L’Ethiopie accuse des forces extérieures de soutenir le TPLF | 18 November 2021 | Journal du Tchad

Le gouvernement éthiopien a affirmé détenir des preuves crédibles que des « forces extérieures » soutiennent les rebelles dans la guerre au nord du pays.Le ministre éthiopien des Finances, le Dr Eyob Tekalign, a déclaré mercredi à un média indien que « des forces extérieures sont engagées dans une guerre par procuration contre l’Ethiopie en soutenant les rebelles du Front populaire de libération du Tigré (TPLF) ».

Ethiopia releases 6 UN staff and all 70 plus drivers | 18 November 2021 | The Associated Press

The United Nations announced Thursday that six U.N. staff members detained by the Ethiopian government were released and that all of the more than 70 detained truck drivers waiting to deliver aid to war-torn Tigray have also been freed.

Unfit For Service: Ethiopia’s Troublesome Iranian Mohajer-6 UCAVs | 18 November 2021 | Oryx

The Tigray Defence Forces’ ambitious counter-offensive on Ethiopia’s capital Addis Ababa finally appears to have come to a halt. This was not in the least achieved through the extensive deployment of Chinese-made unmanned combat aerial vehicles (UCAVs) on the side of the Ethiopian government. Types so far confirmed to have been acquired by Ethiopia include Chinese Wing Loong Is, a VTOL type of UCAV supplied by the UAE and Iranian Mohajer-6s.

US warns pilots of weapon fire as war nears Ethiopia capital | 18 November 2021 | The Associated Press

The United States is warning pilots that planes operating at one of Africa’s busiest airports could be “directly or indirectly exposed to ground weapons fire and/or surface-to-air fire” as Ethiopia’s war nears the capital, Addis Ababa.

Ethiopia’s Tigray conflict: How the TPLF has outflanked the army | 18 November 2021 | BBC

Once a formidable force that commanded the respect of the US, the Ethiopian army has suffered such heavy losses on the front lines that the government has taken the extraordinary step of calling on ordinary citizens to join the war against the Tigrayan rebels.

Satellite Images Show Ethiopia’s Expanding Drone Buildup | 17 November 2021 | Oryx

After we first reported on the acquisition of three Wing Loong I unmanned combat aerial vehicles (UCAVs) by Ethiopia in mid-September, it took until early October before the type was first sighted in the skies over Tigray. While the Ethiopian military attemped to hide the acquisition of the three UCAVs by hastily moving them to a nearby hangar during their delivery to avoid their detection by prying eyes (an effort which nonetheless failed), the presence of Wing Loong Is at Harar Meda air base has now been revealed on satellite imagery as well.

There’s a brutal conflict in Ethiopia. My family there ask: why does no one hear us? | 17 November 2021 | The Guardian

On 4 November 2020 the world was occupied with the results of the US election. For myself and many others with family and friends in the Tigray region of Ethiopia, however, that day marked the beginning of a year-long nightmare. And it’s one which the world has, for the most part, ignored.

Mass Detentions of Civilians Fan ‘Climate of Fear’ in Ethiopia | 17 November 2021 | The New York Times

Mass arbitrary arrests target Tigrayans, says UN rights office | 16 November 2021 | UN News

An ethnically motivated detention campaign largely targeting Ethiopians of Tigrayan descent threatens to further unravel Africa’s second-most populous country a year into a civil war.

Ethiopia’s Tigray Conflict Demands International Attention. Time Is Running Out | 16 November 2021 | Time

When Abiy Ahmed, Ethiopia’s prime minister, launched an attack on the restive region of Tigray in his country’s north last November, he promised it would be a swift victory for his forces. The goal, Abiy said, was to punish leaders of the Tigrayan People’s Liberation Front (TPLF) for an attack on a federal military installation.

Addis set to deploy Turkish combat drones against Tigray rebels’ offensive (paywall) | 15 November 2021 | Africa Intelligence

In the wake of an August military aid accord struck by Turkish President Erdogan and Ethiopian Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed, in recent weeks the Ethiopian army has taken possession of at least six Bayraktar TB2 combat drones. The unmanned aircraft will boost the defences of a capital threatened by Tigrayan forces.

Tigray forces may seize Djibouti corridor – ICG expert warns | 15 November 2021 | Africa News

Tigrayan forces battling the Ethiopian government could be poised to seize the country’s main trade route, the Djibouti corridor, a top expert on the conflict said Monday. Will Davison of the International Crisis Group said such a move would put significant economic pressure on the government in Addis Ababa.

How Violence and Incompetence Stole Ethiopia’s Transition | 15 November 2021 | African Arguments

I live in Ethiopia, a volatile political society in the volatile region of Eastern Africa. This region is disproportionately producing new states: I’m older than both Eritrea and South Sudan. In the Horn, Puntland and Somaliland, after breaking away from Somalia, still struggle for international recognition. As I write, it is unclear if Ethiopia will disintegrate and break into multiple weaker states as well. The war in the northern region and the insurgencies in the west of Ethiopia reinforce the fear of disintegration.

Tigrayan forces say they will ‘hunt down’ foreign mercenaries | 15 November 2021 | DefenceWeb

Rebellious Tigrayan forces threatened on Friday to “hunt down” foreigners they said were supporting the Ethiopian government as mercenaries and technical experts in a year-long war.

‘You can’t even cry loudly’: Counting Ethiopia’s war dead | 15 November 2021 | The Associated Press

The man who counts the dead sees them everywhere. They’re in the handwritten lists of names smuggled out of a region cut off from the world by war. They’re in the images of people shot and tossed off a cliff, tortured and pushed into a river, left unburied for days. They’re announced by grieving families in social media posts.

Ethiopia’s Oromia Region Imposes Curfew Due to Tigray Conflict | 14 November 2021 | Bloomberg

Ethiopia’s Oromia region, which surrounds the capital Addis Ababa, imposed a nocturnal curfew amid the ongoing conflict between government forces and those from the northern Tigray region.

U.S. blacklists Eritrea military, warns of more action on Ethiopia | 13 November 2021 | Reuters

Eritrea condemns new U.S. sanctions | 13 November 2021 | Reuters

U.S. Warns Ethiopia May Implode, Sanctions Eritrean Entities | 12 November 2021 | Bloomberg

The United States on Friday imposed sanctions on the Eritrean military and other Eritrea-based individuals and entities, as Washington warned it was prepared to take action against other parties to the conflict in Ethiopia as it steps up pressure to try to bring an end to fighting.

Deadly Ineffective: Chinese-Made Wing Loong UAVs Designate Targets For Ethiopian Su-27 Bombers | 13 November 2021 | Oryx

Ethiopia’s use of Su-27 fighter aircraft as bombers against targets in the Tigray Region could count on international condemnation for the numerous civilian casualties caused by the inaccurate strikes. In one instance, the dumb bombs dropped by a Su-27 missed their intended target by a kilometre away. Originally designed as an interceptor and never upgraded to carry guided weaponry in Ethiopian service, the use of Su-27s (which’s pilots were never trained to deploy bombs) to strike targets even as large as the Northern Command’s headquarters had little chance of success to begin with.

Ethiopia detains 72 World Food Programme drivers | 12 November 2021 | Mail & Guardian

The United Nations said on Wednesday that Ethiopia had detained 72 drivers working for the World Food Programme (WFP) in the country’s conflict-torn north. The news, which came a day after the UN reported the arrests of 22 employees in the capital Addis Ababa, is likely to further inflame tensions with the government following a decision in September to expel seven senior UN officials for “meddling” in the country’s affairs.

A Blueprint for Peace in Ethiopia | 12 November 2021 | Foreign Policy

A year after Tigray People’s Liberation Front (TPLF) forces launched a self-styled preemptive attack on the Northern Command of the Ethiopian National Defense Forces (ENDF), the war has left a trail of death, destruction, and humanitarian catastrophe.

Tigrayans targeted in fresh wave of ethnically motivated detentions in Addis Ababa | 12 November 2021 | Amnesty International

Security forces in the Ethiopian capital, Addis Ababa, have targeted Tigrayans, including children and older persons, with arbitrary arrests and mass detentions as part of an escalating crackdown, Amnesty International said today. Most detainees are being held without charge or access to a lawyer.

Ethiopia rounds up high-profile Tigrayans, U.N. Staff | 11 November 2021 | Reuters

Ethiopia rounds up high-profile Tigrayans (video) | 11 November 2021 | Reuters

Ethiopian authorities have rounded up high-profile Tigrayans – from a bank CEO to priests as well as United Nations staff – in a mass crackdown on suspected supporters of rebellious northern forces, according to people linked to the detainees.

What’s happening in Ethiopia? Here’s what the rebel advance toward Addis Ababa could mean | 11 November 2021 | The Washington Post

The two main rebel groups fighting Ethiopia’s government made significant advances toward the capital this month, just as the current conflict there marked its one-year anniversary.

Ethiopia Acquires Chinese TL-2 Missiles For Its Wing Loong I UCAVs | 10 November 2021 | Oryx

This website earlier reported on the acquisition of Chinese-made Wing Loong I unmanned combat aerial vehicles (UCAVs) by Ethiopia and their subsequent sighting over Mekelle, the capital of the Tigray Region. As the Tigray War appears to be slowly spiralling out of control for the Ethiopian government, the Ethiopian Air Force (ETAF) has now acquired weaponry for the three Wing Loong Is it purchased in mid-September 2021. The first batch of 50 TL-2 air-to-ground missiles arrived to Ethiopia on the 3rd of November.

Ethiopia Seizes Dozens of U.N. Workers as Civil War Spreads and Famine Looms | 9 November 2021 | The New York Times

Ethiopia detains 16 UN workers and accuses them of ‘terror act’ | 10 November 2021 | The Guardian

Ethiopia says U.N. staff will face penalties if they break the law | 12 November 2021 | Reuters

The detentions aggravated the already tense relations between the United Nations and the Ethiopian government over war and hunger in the country’s rebel-held Tigray region.

Leader of Ethiopia’s Oromo rebels sees victory ‘very soon’ | 9 November 2021 | Arab News

A rebel leader fighting Ethiopia’s government says his troops are near the capital and preparing another attack, predicting the war would end “very soon” as diplomats rush to negotiate a ceasefire.

Survivors of TPLF attack in Amhara describe gang rape, looting and physical assaults | 9 November 2021 | Amnesty International

Response to Amnesty International’s Report on Sexual Violence in Amhara Region (pdf) | 11 November 2021 | Tigray External Affairs Office | Aiga Forum

Sixteen women from the town of Nifas Mewcha in Ethiopia’s Amhara region told Amnesty International they were raped by fighters from the Tigray People’s Liberation Front (TPLF) during the group’s attack on the town in mid-August 2021.

Future of Tigray and Horn of Africa ‘in grave uncertainty’ | 8 November 2021 | UN News

A year-long conflict in the Tigray region of Ethiopia has reached “disastrous proportions”, the UN political chief told the Security Council on Monday, warning of “grave uncertainty” surrounding the future of the country and stability of the whole Horn of Africa region.

Ethiopians denounce U.S. at rally to back military campaign | 8 November 2021 | Reuters

Tens of thousands of Ethiopians rallied in Addis Ababa on Sunday to support Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed’s government as federal troops fight rebellious forces threatening to march on the capital.

Ethiopia responds to Tigray rumors, threatens foreign embassies | 7 November 2021 | Egypt Today

Ethiopia stated on Friday that it will have to take strict measures against the foreign embassies that called on their nationals to depart the country, on the background of rumors that the Tigray Liberation Front is besieging the capital, Addis Ababa.

US orders non-emergency employees out of Ethiopia due to ‘armed conflict’ and ‘potential for terrorism and kidnapping’ | 6 November 2021 | Business Insider

The United States Department of State on Saturday urged all non-emergency government workers living in the country to evacuate amid the ongoing civil unrest there.

Alliance of Ethiopian factions puts government at risk of overthrow | 5 November 2021 | The Guardian

An anti-government alliance is formed in Ethiopia (video) | 5 November 2021 | Reuters

Nine anti-government factions in Ethiopia have said they had formed an alliance amid growing fears that they will attempt to overthrow the government of Abiy Ahmed by marching on the country’s capital, Addis Ababa.

These images do not show Eritrean troops fighting Tigray rebels near Ethiopian border town | 5 November 2021 | AFP

Two images of troops wearing combat uniforms have been shared on Facebook in Ethiopia alongside a claim that they show Tigray rebels fighting Eritrean soldiers in an Ethiopian border town on November 1, 2021. But the claim is false: the first photo shows Saudi Arabian soldiers keeping watch along the country’s border with Yemen in 2010. Although AFP Fact Check was unable to verify the source of the second image, it has circulated on social media at least since March 2021.

Could Ethiopia’s capital fall to Tigrayan and allied forces? | 5 November 2021 | Reuters

Rebellious forces from Ethiopia’s Tigray region have pushed to within a day’s drive of the capital Addis Ababa and are threatening to march on the city of 5 million people.

Ethiopia compares Tigray forces to ‘rat’ as war marks 1 year | 5 November 2021 | The Associated Press

Ethiopia’s government marked a year of war by lashing out Thursday in response to international alarm about hate speech, comparing the rival Tigray forces to “a rat that strays far from its hole” and saying the country is close to “burying the evil forces.”

Ethiopian Government Claims Victory is Near in Northern Tigray Region | 4 November 2021 | VoA

The Ethiopian government marked the one-year anniversary of fighting between its forces and rebels in the northern Tigray region by suggesting its military is nearing victory.

Facebook removes post by Ethiopian PM for ‘inciting violence’ | 4 November 2021 | The Guardian

Facebook fails to curb the spread of hate speech in Ethiopia | 22 November 2021 | Mail & Guardian

Facebook has removed a post by Ethiopia’s prime minister for “inciting and supporting violence” as diplomats stepped up attempts to instigate a ceasefire in the country’s year-long civil war.

Gérard Prunier: en Éthiopie, «il faut multilatéraliser le changement de régime» | 4 November 2021 | RFI

En Éthiopie, le 4 novembre 2020, les rebelles tigréens attaquaient une base de l’armée fédérale à Mékélé et déclenchaient la guerre. Un an plus tard, après bien des renversements de situation, les mêmes rebelles menacent de marcher sur la capitale. Va-t-on vers une nouvelle monopolisation du pouvoir par les Tigréens, comme il y a 30 ans ? Gérard Prunier, chercheur émérite au CNRS, a dirigé le Centre français des études éthiopiennes à Addis-Abeba. Il est l’invité de RFI.

Ethiopia-Turkey pact fuels speculation about drone use in Tigray war | 4 November 2021 | The Guardian

Ethiopia’s government has forged an alliance with Turkey amid reports that it wants to deploy armed Turkish drones in its bitter war against forces from the Tigray region.

Bachelet urges end to ‘reckless ’ war as Tigray conflict escalates | 3 November 2021 | OHCHR

With the conflict in the Ethiopian region of Tigray escalating, the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights, Michelle Bachelet, has today made an impassioned plea for all parties to end the violence and prioritise the protection of civilians and full respect for their human rights.

U.S. ‘gravely concerned’ by escalating violence in Ethiopia ahead of envoy’s visit | 3 November 2021 | Reuters

The United States is “gravely concerned” about escalating violence in Ethiopia and the expansion of hostilities and has repeated on Wednesday its call to all parties in the conflict to stop military operations and begin ceasefire talks.

Ethiopia’s war also takes toll on its cultural heritage | 3 November 2021 | Reuters

The year-old conflict in northern Ethiopia has taken a toll on the country’s ancient cultural heritage sites as well as inflictng an enormous human cost.

Tigray conflict: Report calls for accountability for violations and abuses by all parties | 3 November 2021 | OHCHR

Report of the Ethiopian Human Rights Commission (EHRC)/Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) Joint Investigation into Alleged Violations of International Human Rights, Humanitarian and Refugee Law Committed by all Parties (pdf) | 3 November 2021 | OHCHR | ReliefWeb

A statement of concern on the joint investigation of OHCHR and EHRC | 3 November 2021 | Tigray Human Rights Forum | Ethiopia Insight

Omna Tigray: On the Flawed UN OHCHR and EHRC Joint Investigation into Crimes Committed in Tigray | 3 November 2021 | Omna Tigray

War in Ethiopia: what chance of justice for serious crimes? | 18 November 2021 | JusticeInfo.net

A joint investigation by the Ethiopian Human Rights Commission (EHRC) and the UN Human Rights Office has found that there are reasonable grounds to believe that all parties to the conflict in Tigray have, to varying degrees, committed violations of international human rights, humanitarian and refugee law, some of which may amount to war crimes and crimes against humanity.

Ethiopia tried to limit rare UN report on Tigray war abuses | 2 November 2021 | The Associated Press

The findings of the only human rights investigation allowed in Ethiopia’s blockaded Tigray region will be released Wednesday, a year after war began there. But people with knowledge of the probe say it has been limited by authorities who recently expelled a U.N. staffer helping to lead it.

UN chief extremely concerned by escalation of violence in Ethiopia | 2 November 2021 | UN News

The UN Secretary-General, António Guterres, is extremely concerned by the escalation of violence in Ethiopia and the recent declaration of a state of emergency. 

Ethiopia on verge of losing access to lucrative US trade program over human rights violations | 2 November 2021 | CNN

Ethiopia will lose access to a lucrative US trade program due to human rights violations unless it takes significant steps toward ending the ongoing conflict and alleviating the humanitarian crisis by the start of 2022, senior administration officials said Tuesday.

Ethiopians mobilize as advance of rebel groups toward capital threatens wider civil war | 2 November 2021 | The Washington Post

The two largest rebel groups fighting Ethiopia’s government have “linked up” on a front line about 230 miles north of the capital this week, according to their spokesmen, both of whom said that as the war nears its one-year mark, a peaceful solution to the conflict was off the table.

Ethiopia declares state of emergency as Tigrayan rebels gain ground | 2 November 2021 | The Guardian

Ethiopia has declared a state of emergency after forces from the northern region of Tigray said they were gaining territory and considering marching on the capital Addis Ababa.

Tigrayan forces’ capture of two towns raises fears for Ethiopian capital | 1 November 2021 | The Guardian

The weekend seizure of two key towns on the main road to Addis Ababa has alarmed Ethiopian leaders who fear that the rapid advances by Tigrayan rebel forces may soon threaten the capital itself.

A Deterrent Undone: Tigray’s Last Missile Elements | 1 November 2021 | Oryx

Tigray’s missile war with Ethiopia and Eritrea was a rare instance of a non-state actor capturing short-range ballistic missiles (SRBMs) and long-range guided rockets and subsequently using them to attack targets in Ethiopia and the capital of a different country entirely: Eritrea. Despite being a notable event in modern history, the Tigray missile war nonetheless received very little attention in international media. And as quickly as the attacks occurred, the threat subsided again, with Ethiopian and Eritrean forces apparently quickly destroying or recapturing the launchers and their missiles.

The Cargo Cleared For Print: UAE Wartime Deliveries To Ethiopia | 31 October 2021 | Oryx

The number of cargo flights between the United Arab Emirates and Ethiopia has left little doubt that the UAE has taken an active role in supporting the Ethiopian military in its fight against Tigray forces in the northern parts of Ethiopia. In two months, some 70 Il-76 cargo aircraft flying out of the UAE landed in Ethiopia. While some of the large cargo aircraft appear to have landed at Addis Ababa international airport, in most other cases they landed at Harar Meda air base, undoubtedly to unload their military cargo away from prying eyes and cameras.

Tigrayan forces say they took town in Amhara region, Ethiopia denies it | 30 October 2021 | Reuters

Rebellious Tigrayan forces said on Saturday they had seized the strategic town of Dessie in Ethiopia’s Amhara region where tens of thousands of ethnic Amharas have sought refuge from an escalation in fighting, but the government denied this.

We thought he was dead”: Tigrayans speak of torture in detention | 26 October 2021 | African Arguments

Tigrayans recently released from a military camp in the Afar region of Ethiopia say they faced torture and inhumane conditions. After the Tigray Defence Forces, led by the Tigray People’s Liberation Front (TPLF), retook the regional capital Mekelle in late-June, hundreds if not thousands of ethnic Tigrayans were arbitrarily detained by Ethiopian authorities across the country and transferred to undisclosed locations.

Tigray: One thing the warring parties and outside powers must unite on | 19 October 2021 | African Arguments

Ethiopia’s internal war has multiple facets which warrant the attention of the international community, but none more so than the looming threat of famine. Already, millions are or soon will be vulnerable to man-made famine of epic proportion, warns the UN.

UN chief ‘deeply concerned’ at reported air strikes on Tigray capital | 18 October 2021 | UN News

The United Nations has received alarming reports of aerial attacks in the residential areas of Tigray’s capital, Mekelle, on Monday morning local time.

The U.S. Wants to Turn Ethiopia Into Bosnia | 18 October 2021 | Andrew Korybko’s blog | Russian International Affairs Council

(How two information portals hide their ties to the Russian News Agency Inforos | June 2020 | EU DesInfoLab)

(Ethiopia’s Tigray conflict and the battle to control information | 16 February 2021 | al Jazeera)

(One World, One Author, One Chain of Command | 2 December 2019 | euvsdisinfo)

It was earlier feared that the American hybrid war on Ethiopia aims to turn the country into Yugoslavia, which implies its full dissolution along regional lines. Arminka Helić, member of the British House of Lords and served as special adviser to Foreign Secretary William Hague from 2010 to 2014, deceitfully claimed that Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed risked advancing this scenario through the Ethiopian National Defense Forces’ (ENDF) ongoing anti-terrorist operation in the northern Tigray Region in an article that she published at Politico in August titled “In Ethiopia, Echoes Of Yugoslavia”. In reality, it is those U.S.-backed foreign forces, including corrupt UN officials, that are meddling in the Horn of Africa country who are the ones pushing this outcome. PM Abiy is, in fact, counteracting their efforts to advance the Yugoslav scenario in Ethiopia.

How Social Media Became a Battleground in the Tigray Conflict | 17 October 2021 | VoA

When Ethiopian federal forces and the Tigray People’s Liberation Front (TPLF) started fighting in November 2020, a second front quickly opened online, where both sides seek to control the narrative.

Why Ethiopia’s Tigray region is starving, but no famine declared | 17 October 2021 | BBC

Despite mass starvation occurring in Ethiopia’s northern region of Tigray, senior international aid officials are tiptoeing around declaring a famine nearly a year after the civil war erupted.

Turkey expands armed drone sales to Ethiopia and Morocco | 15 October 2021 | DefenceWeb

Turkey has expanded its exports of armed drones by negotiating sales deals with Morocco and Ethiopia after their successful use in international conflicts, according to four sources familiar with the agreements.

Will Victory Against Tigray Be Worth The Cost? | 15 October 2021 | Bloomberg

Ethiopia’s prime minister has begun a fresh offensive against rebel forces from the Tigray province. But Abiy Ahmed may find that even if he does win, and that isn’t a foregone conclusion given the setbacks suffered in recent months, the victory may be Pyrrhic.

Tigray forces say Ethiopia has launched a major offensive | 11 October 2021 | The Associated Press

Ethiopia’s Tigray crisis: Army launches offensive on all fronts – rebels | 12 October 2021 | BBC

Ethiopian attack in two northern regions intensifies, Tigrayan forces say | 13 October 2021 | Reuters

Tigray forces say Ethiopia’s government has launched its threatened major military offensive against them in an attempt to end a nearly year-old war.

Airstrikes against Tigrayan forces intensify in Ethiopia’s Amhara region -TPLF spokesman | 9 October 2021 | Reuters

Airstrikes against Tigrayan forces in Ethiopia’s northern region of Amhara have intensified, a spokesman for the Tigrayan forces said on Friday, which he said could presage a ground push against the Tigrayan forces by the Ethiopian military and its allies.

UN chief takes on Ethiopia over expelled staff: show me proof | 7 October 2021 | DefenceWeb

UN Secretary-General Antonio Guterres hit back at Ethiopia on Wednesday over the government’s expulsion of seven UN staff, demanding proof of accusations against them raised by Ethiopia’s UN ambassador during a Security Council meeting.

Ethiopia used its flagship commercial airline to transport weapons during war in Tigray | 6 October 2021 | CNN

Ethiopia’s government has used the country’s flagship commercial airline to shuttle weapons to and from neighboring Eritrea during the civil war in Ethiopia’s Tigray region, a CNN investigation has found.

Why the U.S. should call the famine and violence in Tigray a genocide | 6 October 2021 | The Washington Post

Over the past 11 months, Ethiopian Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed’s government has killed, raped and tortured ethnic-minority Tigrayans en masse. Will the Biden administration label these acts a genocide and impose appropriate consequences? If not, the United States will effectively greenlight genocide for any leader ruthless enough to follow Abiy’s playbook of secrecy, sexual violence and starvation as weapons of war.

UAE Combat Drones Break Cover In Ethiopia | 5 October 2021 | Oryx

The deployment of Emirati unmanned combat aerial vehicles (UCAVs) on behalf of the Ethiopian government has been speculated on ever since the beginning of hostilities with the rebellious Tigray Region in November 2020. “

Ethiopia: Declaration by the High Representative on behalf of the European Union on the decision to expel seven United Nations officials | 5 October 2021 | EU | ReliefWeb

The EU and its member states strongly condemn the decision taken by the Government of Ethiopia on 30 September 2021 to expel seven United Nations (UN) officials from the country. The EU stands in full solidarity by the UN, and in particular OCHA, OHCHR and UNICEF directly targeted by the decision, and expresses strong support for their operations in Ethiopia, which are conducted on a neutral and impartial basis.

Sworn in for new term, Ethiopia leader promises to fend off foreign pressure | 5 October 2021 | Reuters

Ethiopian Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed was sworn in for a new five-year term on Monday, telling a crowd of thousands he would protect the country from foreign interference, amid global criticism over the war in the northern region of Tigray.

Continued crackdown on Tigrayans in Addis Abeba leave many out of business; afraid to talk, hopeless | 5 October 2021 | Addis Standard

Tigrayans business owners in the capital Addis Abeba told Addis Standard that their places of business were closed and now face serious challenges after reopening. Hana (name changed based on request by witness) told Addis Standard, “I’m an owner of a small restaurant and it is the main source of my income,” she continued, “It was closed for months, when I asked for explanations, none were offered.

Tigray: Food aid reaches Afar and Amhara, but situation still ‘dire’ | 5 October 2021 | UN News

The first round of food distributions to people in Afar and Amhara regions impacted by the spread of the conflict in northern Ethiopia has been completed, the World Food Programme (WFP) said on Tuesday.

Ethiopia conflict sees hunger and atrocities spread from Tigray to Amhara | 4 October 2021 | The New Humanitarian

Rebels from Ethiopia’s Tigray have taken their fight into the neighbouring Amhara region, bringing with them reports of deadly clashes, abuses against civilians, and fears that fighting could intensify as the grounds for reconciliation with the government recede even further.

Emirati Small Arms in Ethiopia | 4 October 2021 | Oryx

The continued delivery of arms and equipment to the war-thorn country of Ethiopia remains largely unreported on, and its impact on the situation on the ground is at the moment largely unknown. What is known however is that the constant attrition of Ethiopia’s military arsenal has led the country to scrounge the planet for anyone willing to supply it with additional weaponry.

UN is “Bullying” Ethiopia with its Bogus Claims | 4 October 2021 | Borkena

Today is a historical day for the people of Ethiopia. Ethiopians paid an enormous price to establish a democratic system of government in their nation; for the first time in Ethiopia’s history, today, we have established a government for the people, by the people, and the people.

The drone identification plate pointing to Turkish drones being used in Tigray | 4 October 2021 | Eritrea Hub

This drone identification plate was discovered in the Mersa and Haro area by Tigrayan forces. A Turkish manufacturer can be identified from this.

Ethiopia detains former official from Tigray interim government | 3 October 2021 | Reuters

A former senior official in an interim government for Ethiopia’s Tigray region appeared in court on Saturday over allegations of inciting conflict between the Tigrayan people and the central government, and possessing an illegal gun, his lawyer said.

Why Ethiopia wants to expel UN officials sounding the alarm on famine | 2 October 2021 | Vox

The Ethiopian government moved to expel seven United Nations officials from the country on Thursday, in a dramatic move that threatens to exacerbate the region’s ongoing humanitarian crisis.

U.N. chief tells Ethiopia’s Abiy he does not accept staff expulsions | 1 October 2021 | Reuters

The United Nations does not accept Ethiopia’s decision to expel seven senior U.N. officials as famine looms in the war-torn region of Tigray, U.N. Secretary-General Antonio Guterres told Ethiopian Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed on Friday.

The exemplary U.S. sanctions regime for Ethiopia’s Tigray conflict and its limitations | 1 October 2021 | Brookings

On September 17, the Biden administration unveiled a new sanctions regime that in the coming weeks could be applied to a wide set of warring parties in Ethiopia. Its design and the diplomacy surrounding it are exemplars of a constructive U.S. engagement amidst an intensifying war and awful humanitarian situation.

Part II – Crimes Against Humanity and War Crimes in Ethiopia: TPLF, OLF and Abiy Ahmed | 1 October 2021 | Borkena

The Ethiopian government suddenly declared unilateral ceasefire by giving some improbable reason for doing so. And, straightaway, the ENDF left Mekelle leaving government employees, university students and others stranded there. Which was all baffling and totally unanticipated including by the US, the EU and others who were agitating for cessation of hostilities and so on earlier.

A UN insider provides evidence of bias of officials of the UN taking sides in Ethiopia’s ten-month old conflict| 1 October 2021 | Anonymous ‘UN’ Source | Borkena

The article was provided by anonymous writer who claims to be a UN insider. The writer says there is ” bias of officials of the UN taking sides in Ethiopia’s ten-month old conflict.”

Thematisch Ambtsbericht Tigray August 2021 (pdf) | August 2021 | Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affairs

Dit thematisch ambtsbericht is een aanvulling op, en actualisering van, het algemeen ambtsbericht Ethiopië van februari 2021, waarbij specifiek wordt ingegaan op het gewapende conflict dat sinds november 2020 in de regionale deelstaat Tigray gaande is

Thematisch Ambtsbericht Tigray February 2021 (pdf) | February 2021 | Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affairs

In dit algemeen ambtsbericht wordt de situatie in Ethiopië beschreven voor zover deze van belang is voor de beoordeling van asielaanvragen van personen die afkomstig zijn uit dit land en voor de besluitvorming over terugkeer van afgewezen Ethiopische asielzoekers. Dit ambtsbericht is een actualisering van het algemeen ambtsbericht Ethiopië van juli 2018. De verslagperiode beslaat de periode juli 2018, een paar maanden na het aantreden van premier Abiy Ahmed tot en met januari 2021.

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