IPIS Briefing June/July 2021 – War on Terror in Eastern Congo? The fear of international observers

The IPIS briefing offers a selection of articles, news and updates on natural resources, armed conflict, Business & Human Rights and arms trade.  Every month, an editorial and related publications shed a light on a specific topic in IPIS’ areas of research.

In focus: War on Terror in Eastern Congo? The fear of international observers.

In the news: Tensions rise over definition of conflict diamonds; Interim government of Tigray flees as rebels seize capital; New report sheds light on the conflict in Mozambique; Isis-linked groups open up new fronts across sub-Saharan Africa.

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This briefing is produced with the financial assistance of the European Union. The contents of this document are the sole responsibility of IPIS and can under no circumstances be regarded as reflecting the position of the European Union.


Guillaume de Brier

On March 10, 2021, the State of department designated the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria- Democratic Republic of Congo (ISIS-DRC) as a Foreign Terrorist Organisation. Such a group does not exist, but the press release gave this name to the ADF – Alliance of the Democratic Forces – to stress the presence of ISIS in Eastern Africa.

The Department of State relies on the 2021 Bridgeway Foundation and George Washington University report “The Islamic State in Congo”. Two of the authors were affiliated with the NGO Invisible Children, which became famous in 2012 after their controversial “Kony 2012” campaign video that aimed at arresting the leader Kony of the Lord Resistance Army (LRA). Thanks to its advocacy, the Obama administration passed  the 2010 Lord’s Resistance Army Disarmament and Northern Uganda Recovery Act, which called for the development of a military strategy to end the crisis. Some critics have raised concerns that the Bridgeway Foundation uses the same “aggressive communication” to lure the Biden administration in a similar venture even if evidence of the alliance ADF- ISIS is lacking.

In-depth research demonstrates that the authors of “Islamic State in Congo” are the only researchers arguing the presence of ISIS in Eastern DRC, and their report is the only source used to document it. It is also interesting to note that none of the authors are specialists on the DRC. The authors are either affiliated to Bridgeway Foundation and gained knowledge of Uganda, or they came from the Program on Extremism of the Washington University as specialists in terrorism and ISIS. It is relevant to highlight this, because most of the DRC researchers have expressed doubts about the presence of Islamic State in Eastern Congo. They believe that recent actions by ADF and ISIS, such as the public communication of their allegiance through video, as well as claiming the responsibility for the massacres in North Kivu by ISIS in April 2019, should be considered as a win-win promotion for each organization. By announcing their alliance, both ADF and ISIS exaggerate their importance, and especially after having experienced military defeats in North Kivu for the ADF, in Iraq and Syria for ISIS. Furthermore, from a regional perspective, exaggerating the ADF threat and equating it with an enemy group of the Western world could be a calculation by the DRC and Ugandan governments to demand more military resources. Africa Confidential wrote in May 2019 that UN and diplomatic sources said that the ISIS claim was exaggerated and a convenient narrative for President Yoweri Museveni, who pushed the Islamic State narrative through US philanthropist Bridgeway Foundation, which itself has close ties to the US military.

Despite this cross-promotion, evidence of IS involvement in Eastern Congo is lacking. The UN Group of Experts stated in June 2019 not having found evidence of any link between IS  and ADF and reiterated this statement in December 20219, June 2020, December 2020, and again in June 2021, after the ADF was listed on the US State Departments’ terrorist list. Experts on the DRC also contest the findings of the “Islamic State in Congo” report. Amongst other criticisms, academics dispute the report’s argument that ADF have switched their objectives and methods. Other experts distrust the interviews of former ADF members obtained by the Bridgeway Foundation, because they were conducted by Ugandan officials notorious for kidnapping, torture and forcing prisoners to make false confessions about belonging to ADF. The Congo Research Group, which had access to the interview recordings of the Bridgeway Foundation, also pinpoints that none of the interviewees were part of the decision-making process of the organization, making it difficult to infer the ADF’s overall strategy, alliances, and motivations.

Whether or not ISIS is involved in the violence in Eastern Congo is not a semantic battle or a frivolous academic dispute. It is a fundamental question as it can determine the next peace building policies in the Eastern Congo.

First of all, many international observers are concerned that a discourse that recognizes the link between the ADF and the Islamic State is a way of privileging a military solution at the expense of dialogue or more complex options such as programmes to demobilise militia fighters, and of repeating the French mistakes in the Sahel or the American mistakes in Afghanistan and Iraq.

Secondly, how certain is it that peace will be restored after the elimination of the ADF? The “ISIS-DRC” narrative flattens the multilayered reality of violence in Beni into a one-dimensional storyline of “violent Islamist extremism”. In reality there are many other armed groups in the region (ADF-Nalu – to be distinguished from the ADF, Mai-Mai Simba, Mai-Mai Mazembe, Nduma Defence of Congo, Mai-Mai Kyandega). Many of these, including undisciplined elements of the Armed Forces of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (FARDC), manage to pass off their crimes as ADF actions.

Finally, a militarization of the response would close all doors to dialogue, which would push the ADF even further into extremism. Researchers on terrorism and radicalism have showed that terrorists and radicalised groups resemble an iceberg. Only a small minority of radicals use strategic violence. Below the water level, there is a support base which occasionally agrees with the actions of the most committed militants and an even larger “silent minority” with a distaste for targeting non-combatants. Hence, counterterrorism must target the visible part of the iceberg. As explained by an expert in peacebuilding in the DRC, the first step to (peacefully) demobilize and disarm an armed group is to identify the “intermediaries” to open a dialogue with the group. These intermediaries are found within the “silent minority”. Furthermore, as a rule for North Kivu, she says, it is considered that all armed group’s members are prepared to hear opportunities to leave the group. Despite the little we know about ADF, this reasoning should also apply to them. In fact, in 2015, an ideological split developed between ADF commanders regarding the violence against the local population.

By listing ADF as a terrorist organization, the state shuts down all possibilities for dialogue. Local CSOs fear that ADF members willing to leave will ultimately stay with the group if their only option after disarmament is imprisonment. Without putting numbers on it, it is a fact that many ADF fighters are ordinary Congolese citizens (including children) who have been kidnapped and seek a way out. A military rather than a diplomatic solution would make it more difficult for them to desert or to demobilize and will make it more likely that they continue fighting. One advocate of dialogue reminds us that all military operations have failed in the last 10 years. Therefore, he suggests a DDR programme for Congolese ADF fighters and repatriation of foreign members to their own country, and if needed, amnesty for the combatants. Despite MONUSCO’s engagement and public outreach through distribution of leaflets, large scale targeted DDR programs towards ADF have never taken place after 2015.

Some CSOs in Beni support the military actions against ADF, since ADF’s extreme indiscriminate violence and their propensity for mass murder clearly distinguish them from other Congolese armed groups. On the basis of these criteria, the CSOs have called the ADF a “terrorist group”, without the need to link it to the Islamic State. When CSOs engage in peace building, they consider that it is too soon to suggest a DDR because the ADF remains strong as it has not yet experienced a major defeat on the battlefield. Furthermore, ADF has never expressed an objective, a revendication, therefore their motives for blind massacres remain unknown, so it is impossible to know what they want to negotiate.

CSOs and the international experts concur that the motives, and identity of ADF’s leaders and fighters are a mystery.

Regarding the motives, CSOs based in Beni think that the ADF has economic interests. The ADF kills blindly to frighten and displace communities in order to lay claim on natural resources. The region is indeed rich in timber, gold, cocoa and oil. The ADF has been active in the illegal exploitation and trade of these goods through Uganda. Secondly, in 2017, Africa Confidential wrote that the root of the massacres in the Beni area from 2014 onwards need to be understood as a personal dispute between President Kabila and politician Mbusa Nyamwisi, exiled in Tanzania, over how much of his trans-border smuggling trade he should hand over to the president when he would become a government minister. The ADF has become a pawn as part of a proxy war between these two sides. Other observers disagree and claim that the massacres by ADF often occur after heavy attacks by the Congolese army, and must be seen as retaliation to discourage locals to support the FARDC. The message is that ADF will stop the mass killings when the army halts operations against it.

The difficulty to identity ADF fighters and leaders represents one of the biggest obstacles for Congolese CSOs to open dialogue. Simply put, they do not know who can speak for the ADF. They also recognize that “ADF membership” is not as clear cut as it appears. Should the moto-taxi drivers riding for ADF be considered a member? What about the gold traders? CSOs admit that the ADF receive occasional support from the local population: should they fear to be considered as terrorists? Moreover, one CSO member highlights the absence of hierarchy in the ADF. Hence, without refuting the link between ISIS and ADF, it is likely no-one within the ADF is aware of the organization’s strategy, with the exception of its top leaders.

In conclusion, this short insight demonstrates the importance to accurately assess the ADF.  Overestimating this armed group could neglect the other drivers for violence, such as the presence of other armed groups, and solutions based on dialogue and diplomacy. On the contrary, underestimating the ADF’s blind violence against civilians can be understood by local communities as a denial of their suffering. It is therefore fundamental to continue and increase the sensitization work carried out by local CSOs, in order to dissociate the local population from all armed groups and to discourage new recruits from joining.

Note: For the briefing, IPIS has contacted 7 local CSOs based in Beni and 2 international organizations active in Beni. For security reasons, they cannot be named.

This briefing has been modified on August 12th, 2021. The authors of the “Islamic State in Congo” report no longer work for Invisible Children. As such, Invisible Children was not involved in the writing of this report.

Source Photo: MONUSCO



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While recent years have seen the non-judicial grievance mechanism established to hear complaints against multi-nationals under the Guidelines become increasingly prominent, there is still room for stakeholders to improve awareness and understanding of the Guidelines’ purpose and process. We explore the Guidelines and NCPs, how they work and why multi-national enterprises should be aware of them.

New Sustainable Diamond Certification Standard Provides Scientific Proof Of Origin And Builds Consumer Trust | 27 July 2021 | Forbes

Wouldn’t it be great if the process of buying conflict-free, environmentally sustainable and ethically produced diamonds, or diamond jewelry, was as clear as an internally flawless diamond?

RDC : l’armée traduit en justice deux chinois et leurs complices militaires congolais pour avoir maltraité des creuseurs artisanaux dans une mine de Kolwezi | 24 July 2021 |

L’incident survenu le mardi 20 juillet dernier dans la mine de « Comis » à Mosonoi (Kolwezi) dans la province de Lualaba, a fait réagir les Forces armées de la République démocratique du Congo. En effet, une vidéo ayant fait le tour de la toile montre deux militaires fouetter, maltraiter deux creuseurs artisanaux sur ordre de deux chinois responsables de la mine précitée.

The True Environmental and Social Costs of Mined Diamonds | 23 July 2021 | Blue & Green Tomorrow

Eco-friendly and ethical consumers have a lot of things to think about. We think about the environmental and human impact of products that we buy every day. However, we don’t give as much consideration to things like diamonds, since we purchase them far less regularly.

Cobalt blues: Congolese miners, and China’s role in improving their conditions | 17 July 2021 | South China Morning Post

In the Democratic Republic of Congo, thousands of residents of this resource-rich central African nation, including children, toil and even fight to extract metals like cobalt – an essential component for making lithium-ion batteries that power smartphones, laptops and electric cars.

EU Guidance on Forced Labour in Supply Chains | 16 July 2021 | Jenner & Block LLP | Consumer Law Round-Up

EU Publishes Due Diligence Guidance on Forced Labor Risk in Supply Chains | 16 July 2021 | Mayer Brown

Earlier this week, the European Commission published its Guidance “On Due Diligence For EU Businesses To Address The Risk Of Forced Labour In Their Operations And Supply Chains”.

Suffocating enablers of Zimbabwe’s vision is the new plot | 15 July 2021 | Bulawayo24

When the European Union and its big brother, the US, imposed sanctions on Zimbabwe, the central object as the then US Assistant Secretary of State for African Affairs, Chester Crocker put it, was to make the economy scream so as to separate Zimbabweans from Zanu-PF. The sanctions were a means to an end.

How do we make business respect human rights? | 13 July 2021 | SwissInfo

Another long session of the UN Human Rights Council has ended in Geneva. The highlights, if we can call them that, have been country specific reports on Belarus, Syria, Myanmar, or Venezuela. Then there have been very important debates on specific forms of violation and discrimination: Michelle Bachelet’s hugely important and long awaited report into discrimination against people of African descent called for reparations for slavery, and urged countries to address their colonial past and the attitudes which are its legacy.

Conflict minerals and the challenge of not funding human rights abuses | 13 July 2021 |

Our annual assessment expands to look at larger issues around responsible mineral sourcing and Amazon’s dismal track record on disclosure.

UK venture aims to raise the bar on responsible sourcing | 9 July 2021 | Financial Times

Charlie and Dan Betts are brothers on a mission: to improve responsible sourcing in the jewellery sector, by changing the mining industry. Through their Single Mine Origin brand, the two Britons aim to provide a mass-market service that addresses the traceability of gold.

The New Corporate Due Diligence Act: Potential Liability under Civil Law and Administrative Law | 9 July 2021 | White & Case LLP | JD Supra

The key aspects of the German Act on Corporate Due Diligence Obligations in Supply Chains (“LkSG” or “Act”) have already been explained in our previous Client Alert. In the following, we will take a closer look at the liability consequences in the event of a violation of the obligations set out in the LkSG.

Nano Nano! Alrosa Unveils New Diamond Tracking System | 7 July 2021 | JCK Online

Alrosa has unveiled a new diamond tracking system that uses nanotechnology to engrave gems, potentially allowing them to be traced from the mine all the way to the consumer.

WDC: Diamond Industry Will Have “Two Distinct Value Chains” | 5 July 2021 | Israeli Diamond Industry

The World Diamond Council (WDC) has projected that the diamond industry will likely have two distinct value chains – “one for responsibly sourced diamonds and the other that does not”, IDEX Online reports.

Zimbabwe Villagers Fight Chinese Coal Mining Project Near Wildlife Reserve | 5 July 2021 | VoA

Conservationists in Zimbabwe are trying to rally opposition to a Chinese coal mining project planned in a district within the country’s biggest national park. Critics say locals and wildlife will be affected and are urging authorities to move away from coal production toward renewable energies.

Tensions Rise over Definition of Conflict Diamonds | 5 July 2021 | Rapaport

A recent global meeting of the Kimberley Process (KP) ended in controversy as Chinese delegates allegedly clashed with a representative of nonprofit organizations on the issue of conflict diamonds.

DRC: Oil exploitation in the Virunga Park divides | 5 July 2021 | Afrik21

The oil exploitation project in the Virunga Park, in the east of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), is arousing the anger of the local populations. In a short film entitled “Virunga Zero Fossil”, posted online on July 1st, 2021 by the organization, these populations reiterate their concerns about the impacts of the oil project on the environment and their livelihoods.

Supreme Court Narrows Ability to Hold U.S. Corporations Accountable for Facilitating Human Rights Abuses Abroad | 1 July 2021 | Electronic Frontier Foundation

People around the world have been horrified at the role that technology companies like Cisco, Yahoo!, and Sandvine have played in helping governments commit gross human rights abuses. That’s why EFF has consistently called out technology companies, and American companies in particular, that allow their internet surveillance and censorship products and services to be used as tools of repression and persecution, rather than tools to uplift humanity. Yet legal mechanisms to hold companies accountable for their roles in human rights violations are few and far between.

Update on German Compliance Legislation: Supply Chain Due Diligence Act is Adopted, Corporate Sanctioning Act Fails | 1 July 2021 | Morrison & Foerster LLP

At the end of the legislative period, important decisions on central compliance legislative proposals of the German Federal Government were made…

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Codes of Conduct (“Code”) are an important tool for companies to mitigate legal and reputational risk by promoting ethical and responsible conduct of their employees. Aside from serving as a marketing tool to demonstrate good governance to external stakeholders, Codes also offer an opportunity to define a company’s mission, its values and core principles concerning the conduct of its business.

Human rights and mining wrongs: what do miners still have to do? | 30 June 2021 | Mining Technology

The world’s miners are being held accountable for their conduct like never before, from ensuring safe working conditions for their employees and minimising environmental damage, to protecting worker rights and human rights.

Zimbabwe: States Frustrate Civil Society Efforts to Stem ‘Blood Diamond’ Sale | 29 June 2021 | 263Chat | AllAfrica

Kimberley Process meeting ends in chaos | 29 June 2021 | Mining Review

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Big corporations’ fresh lobbying push for a new EU legal regime | 28 June 2021 | EU Observer

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Mining holds the key to a green future – no wonder human rights activists are worried | 27 June 2021 | The Guardian

Renewable energy will rely heavily on an industry already berated for human rights violations.

Responsible Minerals Regulation | 25 June 2021 | Department of the Environment, Climate and Communications | Government of Ireland

The minerals tin (Sn), tantalum (Ta), tungsten (W) and gold (Au) are found in large volumes in the African Great Lakes Region and especially in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Although they hold great potential for development, natural mineral resources can, in conflict-affected or high-risk areas, be a cause of dispute where their revenues fuel the outbreak or continuation of violent conflict.

International Treaty against Workplace Violence Goes into Legal Effect | 24 June 2021 | HRW

On June 25, the International Labour Organization (ILO) Violence and Harassment Convention goes into legal effect under international law. This is a critical step to ending gender-based violence at work, which has been powerfully exposed through the global #MeToo movement.

Avoidance of DRC and its cobalt won’t solve persisting ethical problems | 24 June 2021 | Mining Review

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Diamond sector must meet consumers’ demand for responsibly sourced diamonds, says WDC president | 21 June 2021 | Mining Weekly

Trade Seeks to Broaden Kimberley Process Agenda | 24 June 2021 | Rapaport

Diamond Provenance: Asscher Warns of Two Value Chains | 30 June 2021 | IDEX

With the modern-day consumer demanding greater accountability and sustainability, the Kimberley Process (KP) must not be left behind, says World Diamond Council (WDC) president Edward Asscher.

The Surprisingly Broad Implications of Nestlé USA, Inc. v. Doe for Human Rights Litigation and Extraterritoriality | 18 June 2021 | Just Security

Nestlé Supreme Court ruling further limits accountability for company actions abroad | 18 June 2021 | SwissInfo

Supreme Court Opinion Suggests US Corporations Are Not Immune From Liability Under the Alien Tort Statute | 23 June 2021 | Seyfarth Shaw LLP

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FIDH Launches Website Guiding Victims Faced with Corporate Human Rights Abuses | 17 June 2021 | FIDH

For the 10-year anniversary of the adoption of UN Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights, FIDH is pleased to announce the publication of an updated version of its long standing resource “Corporate Accountability for Human Rights Abuses: A Guide for Victims and NGOs on Recourse Mechanisms.” The guide has been revamped in the form of an interactive website to become more accessible and widely used and can be found at

Business and human rights; what to expect from a 10-year-old | 17 June 2021 | UNDP

When my daughter turned 10 a few months ago, my wife and I decided to mark this milestone with something special and unconventional. Unable to organize a real party because of the COVID-19 pandemic we reached out to all those who have been important in Victoria’s life and asked them to send her a video message. We stitched all the clips into one, added some elevator music and matched it with a chocolate birthday cake with 10 candles. She said; “The excitement has just begun, wait for what’s to come!”

Germany Introduces New Human Rights and Environmental Responsibilities for Parties in B2B-Relationships | 16 June 2021 | Steptoe & Johnson LLP

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Can a new German law protect human rights in global supply chains? | 16 June 2021 | Reuters

A bill requiring firms with over 3,000 employees to comply with supply chain standards by 2023 was “watered down,” say campaigners who fear the legislation won’t end worker exploitation.

Former Kimberley Process Chair Can’t Enter United States | 16 June 2021 | JCKOnline

Bernhardt Esau, who chaired the Kimberley Process (KP) when it split over the issue of Zimbabwe exports, has been barred from entering the United States because of his involvement in “significant corruption,” according to a June 15 release from the U.S. Department of State.

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To mark the 10th anniversary of Human Rights Council’s endorsement of the UN Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights, the UN Working Group on Business and Human Rights is releasing an assessment of the first ten years of implementation by States and businesses. Looking ahead to the next 10 years, the experts call on States and businesses to increase their efforts, and they issue the following statement…

Germany’s New Supply Chain Act – Part 1 of 4 – Introduction | 15 June 2021 | Allen & Overy LLP | JD Supra

Germany’s New Supply Chain Act – Part 2 of 4 – Compliance | 22 June 2021 | Allen & Overy LLP | JD Supra

Germany’s New Supply Chain Act – Part 3 of 4 – Litigation | 29 June 2021 | Allen & Overy LLP | JD Supra

On 11 June 2021, the German parliament approved the Federal Act on Entrepreneurial Due Diligence Obligations in Supply Chains (“Gesetz über die unternehmerischen Sorgfaltspflichten zur Vermeidung von Menschenrechtsverletzungen in Lieferketten – Lieferkettensorgfaltspflichtengesetz – LkSG”) – German Supply Chain Due Diligence Act.

Findings of the independent Board Sub-Committee investigation into alleged breaches of human rights at the Williamson Diamond Mine in Tanzania | 12 June 2021 | Petra Diamonds Ltd

Petra Diamonds Limited (the “Group”, “PDL”, “Petra” or “the Company”) today issues the findings of its independent Board Sub-Committee in relation to alleged breaches of human rights at the Williamson Diamond Mine (“the Mine”) in Tanzania raised by the UK law firm, Leigh Day and the independent NGO, Rights and Accountability In Development (“RAID”). The Mine is operated by Williamson Diamonds Limited (“WDL”), which is 25% owned by the Government of Tanzania and 75% owned by Petra. Petra acquired its majority interest in WDL in 2009.

Business and Human Rights – Germany passes Mandatory Human Rights Due Diligence Law | 11 June 2021 | Mayer Brown

On June 11, 2021, the German parliament passed the “Law on corporate due diligence in supply chains” (“Supply Chain Law”) (“Lieferkettensorgfaltspflichtengesetz”). It requires companies to take steps to prevent human rights violations in their supply chains. This builds on the growing momentum for mandatory human rights due diligence (see our previous blog posts here and here).

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Global momentum is growing for a collective meaningful effort to be made to tackle the increasing urgency of the climate emergency. In corporate boardrooms, shifting business priorities can be seen in recent shareholder action at ExxonMobil, Chevron and Total. International organisations are weighing in, with expert publications such as the International Energy Agency’s ‘Net Zero by 2050‘ report serving as a reminder that the clock is ticking towards the targets set by the Paris Agreement and the IPCC’s ‘Special Report on Global Warming of 1.5° C‘. In courts across the world, the ripples caused by early climate-related cases such as Urgenda and Friends of the Irish Environment have turned into a tidal wave of climate litigation with 53 cases filed already in 2021, including most recently a constitutional claim against Guyana reported on 1 June 2021 and a lawsuit against the Italian government reported on 5 June 2021.

European and UK Critical Raw Materials (CRM) Supply Chains – Building Resilience – The American Way | 10 June 2021 | Vivien & Associés

President Biden’s Executive Order 14017 of 24 February 2021 directed U.S. government agencies to undertake a 100 day comprehensive review of critical U.S. supply chains (including CRM supply chains) to identify risks, address vulnerabilities and develop a strategy to promote resilience. On 8 June 2021, The White House published the findings from the supply chain review in “Building Resilient Supply Chains. Revitalizing American Manufacturing, and Fostering Broad-Based Growth” (“the Report”).

Canadian Modern Slavery Bill Would Cast a Wide Net on Supply Chain Transparency Practices | 9 June 2021 | Stikeman Elliott LLP

On March 31, 2021, Bill S-216, An Act to enact the Modern Slavery Act and amend the Customs Tariff (the “Bill”), passed its Second Reading in the Senate and was referred to the Standing Senate Committee on Banking, Trade and Commerce for further study. Originally introduced in the Senate on October 29, 2020, the Bill is an update of two prior modern slavery bills that were never enacted: Bill S-211, introduced in the Senate in 2020 and Bill C-423, introduced in the House of Commons in 2018.

Business and Human Rights – Analysing modern slavery risks in portfolio companies: practical considerations for investors | 9 June 2021 | Mayer Brown

In May 2021, the International Federation for Human Rights (FIDH) published a report setting out a series of tools investors can use to identify and address human rights risks, including modern slavery risks, in their portfolio companies. The report includes a sectoral analysis of modern slavery rights in four sectors – Tourism, Construction, Food and Beverage, and Textile and Footwear – and adds to the growing toolkit of ESG-related resources available to investors (see, for example, our briefing Asset Managers: Mastering Non-Financial Risk – The Evolution of Human Rights Due Diligence).

Human Rights and International Mining Disputes | 9 June 2021 | Global Arbitration Review

The Guide to Mining Arbitrations – Second Edition | June 2021 | Global Arbitration Review

The mining industry can have positive, long-term beneficial effects generating economic and social benefits for local communities and wider society. Equally, it is necessarily accompanied by a high risk of adverse impacts on human rights. Mining operations are complex, and managing the associated risks is challenging, but failing to do so effectively increases the potential for disputes.

Business and Human Rights: Global Developments | 9 June 2021 | Covington & Burling LLP

Human rights continue to be a growing area of focus for the international business community. Since Covington’s last global update in October 2020, there have been numerous legal and policy developments affecting the business and human rights landscape. This update provides an overview of key developments.

DOJ Indicts Two Former Diplomats from Chad for Taking a $2 Million Bribe | 8 June 2021 | JD Supra

Over the last ten years, we have seen a steady increase in the coordination and cooperation among international prosecutors and law enforcement to prosecute bribery cases. In a recent example, the Justice Department unsealed criminal charges against two former diplomats from Chad for taking a $2 million bribe from Griffiths Energy International, Inc., a Canadian energy company. The indictment was originally returned in 2019 and remained under seal until recently.

Sustainable Development made justiciable: The German Constitutional Court’s climate ruling on intra- and inter-generational equity | 8 June 2021 | EJIL: Talk!

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Chinese miners kidnapped in Niger | 7 June 2021 | DW

The men were abducted near the country’s border with Mali and Burkina Faso, a hotbed for Islamists. China, which mines uranium, gold and oil in the country, has expanded its operations across Africa.

Antwerpen schittert niet langer als diamantstad | 7 June 2021 | Apache

Dubai staat op het punt om Antwerpen te verdringen als leidend diamantcentrum. De havenstad betaalt de tol van strenge Belgische controles op conflictdiamanten. Toch kleven er nog altijd bloedsporen aan de diamanten die in Antwerpen circuleren. Tot die bevinding komt het onderzoeksinstituut IPIS in een nieuw rapport over de sector.

How Petra Diamonds Ended Up in a Human Rights Mess | 4 June 2021 | JCK

Hans Merket, a researcher with the International Peace Information Service (IPIS), says he didn’t go into Tanzania expecting to learn about people getting hurt and killed. His group simply wanted to measure how mines were viewed by surrounding communities.

Cobalt must be included in Swiss responsible business legislation | 4 June 2021 | SwissInfo

Business and human rights experts argue that Switzerland should seize the opportunity to require responsible sourcing of cobalt, an in-demand mineral whose risks to human rights are often overlooked.

Milieudefensie v Shell: Do oil corporations hold a duty to mitigate climate change? | 3 June 2021 | EJIL:Talk!

The impact of a revolutionary Dutch climate change judgment on companies worldwide | 3 June 2021 | CMS Netherlands

On 26 May 2021, the District Court of the Hague passed a judgment recognizing an obligation of Royal Dutch Shell to mitigate climate change. Shell was ordered to reduce all carbon dioxide (CO2) resulting from its global operations—including those from the combustion of oil-and-gas products by its customers—by 45 percent by 2030, compared with 2019. It is the first time a court has imposed on a corporation such a broad mitigation obligation. The judgment is based on tort law and includes references to human rights and climate treaties. This note presents a few preliminary, sceptical, but constructive thoughts about the Court’s analysis.

Hurdles on the journey to European mandatory human rights due diligence | 1 June 2021 |

Herbert Smith Freehills LLP

The EU Commission is delaying publication of its proposal for corporate human rights and environmental due diligence to the fall. Meanwhile, the draft German Supply Chain Law is finally moving to Bundestag vote after a last minute compromise was reached.

(E)ESG – Why It Matters to Employment Experts | 1 June 2021 | Bryan Cave Leighton Paisner | JD Supra

In our hyper-transparent and increasingly joined up world, the concepts of corporate social responsibility and socially responsible investing are gaining greater currency. Over the last decade, and catalysed by COVID-19 over the last year, Boards and General Counsel have focused on the role of ESG in driving responsible and sustainable business conduct approaches which acknowledge that the purpose of a company should be amplified beyond just shareholders to also explicitly include their employees, clients and the communities in which they operate. In fact, the Chief Justice of the Delaware Supreme Court, the Honourable Judge Leo Strine in a piece he wrote for the Financial Times, has already suggested the next generation acronym – EESG: Employees, Environment, Social and Governance.


Former Glencore trader pleads guilty in New York over Nigerian oil bribery scheme | 27 July 2021 | Reuters

A former U.K.-based trader for Glencore Plc pleaded guilty on Monday over what U.S. prosecutors called his role in a scheme to bribe officials in Nigeria in exchange for favorable contracts from that country’s state-owned oil company.

Le Burundi suspend les opérations des multinationales minières | 23 July 2021 | | CorbeauNews

Le Burundi a suspendu les opérations de plusieurs sociétés minières internationales, estimant ne pas bénéficier d’une juste part dans les revenu générés par l’extraction des richesses de son sol.

Mining licence issued for the Lofdal heavy rare earth project in Namibia | 22 July 2021 | Kitco News

Namibia Critical Metals (TSXV:NMI) today announced that the Mining Licence (ML 200) has been issued for the Lofdal heavy rare earth dysprosium-terbium project by the Republic of Namibia Ministry of Mines and Energy.

In Marange, illegal diamond trade thrives – for the politically-connected | 20 July 2021 |

There is little law enforcement in the city of Mutare, dubbed the diamond city. Foreign nationals here form a syndicates with locals and corrupt members of the Zimbabwe Republic Police: a criminal, politically-connected enterprise operating almost publicly.

Uganda Now Transiting from Exploration to Development Phase | 18 July 2021 | Oil & Gas Republic

Uganda is now transiting from the exploration phase to the development phase of its oilfields. With about three projects coming up, the country expects to develop those of its oilfields where it has some discoveries.

U.K. Fraud Unit Finds Alleged Bribe Network Behind Cobalt Hub | 15 July 2021 | Bloomberg

RDC: la justice suisse reconnait des détournements dans l’affaire Gertler | 17 July 2021 | RFI

‘Bribe Totaling $360m’: Docs Presented by Israeli Billionaire Dan Gertler Embroil Him in One of Biggest Graft Probes Ever | 15 July 2021 | Haaretz

UK Fraud Watchdog Digs into Alleged Mine Bribes in DR Congo | 23 July 2021 | OCCRP

U.K. prosecutors have told Swiss authorities they have proof of an alleged money-laundering ring spanning from Africa to Europe that paid almost $380 million in cash bribes to authorities in the Democratic Republic of Congo.

Nigeria and Cameroon must confront timber trafficking together | 15 July 2021 | ISS | DefenceWeb

Stopping the billion-dollar illegal trade will require both countries taking existing and new law enforcement efforts more seriously.

Congo’s cobalt monopoly to set price floor for artisanal miners | 15 July 2021 | Mining Weekly

The Democratic Republic of Congo’s state cobalt buyer will put in place a price floor of $30,000 a tonne for the cobalt it buys from artisanal miners, Entreprise Generale du Cobalt (EGC) director-general Jean-Dominique Takis told Reuters.

En pleine idylle avec Moscou, Bangui veut nationaliser le négoce des diamants | 14 July 2021 | Corbeaunews Centrafrique

Le gouvernement centrafricain s’apprête à remodeler son code minier. Au cœur de cette reforme très attendue, la création d’une société controversée qui prendrait le contrôle de l’ensemble de mouvement d’achat et de vente du secteur. Un projet qui suscite l’ire de plusieurs acteurs, qui y voient l’ombre des intérêts russes.

DR Congo plans to lift logging moratorium amid forest protection talks | 14 July 2021 | Climate Change News

The government is ending a decade-old ban on new forestry concessions, to the horror of campaigners who say the move is incompatible with climate targets

Could rare earths peak in Tanzania? | 14 July 2021 | Mining Technology

A fast-growing staple of the green energy revolution, rare earth elements are used to produce electric magnets found in everything from electric vehicles (EVs) to direct drive wind turbines. With tightening global emissions restrictions driving up demand for EVs, cashing in on deposits of rare earth materials is a savvy way to secure a seat at the table of the blossoming green economy, and finding alternative sources to China has become a priority amidst continued trade tensions.

Mapping the rise of resource nationalism in Africa | 12 July 2021 | Mining Technology

With African nations among usual suspects for resource nationalism, we look at risk and what regulatory changes could be in the works.

Going for gold in western Mali threatens human security | 8 July 2021 | ISS Today

Mali’s artisanal gold mining sector regularly uses chemicals and dredges rivers, despite these practices being prohibited. The consequences for human health, environmental sustainability and local stability are dire.

Transnational governance of natural resources for the 21st century | 7 July 2021 | Brookings

Natural resources—whether they are water, land, underground, or in the air—should be seen as common goods, meant to be shared by all. That means their governance arrangements—to be tailored according to the specific property of each resource—should be in harmony at the local, national, regional, and global levels to ensure they are used sustainably and in a way that protects the environment and the people who depend on them. This has proven to be very complex.

Zimbabwe plans to register gold miners to curb smuggling | 7 July 2021 | MiningWeekly

Zimbabwe is drafting legislation which will compel small-scale gold miners to register their operations as the southern African nation seeks to curb gold smuggling according to John Mangudya, central bank governor.

Nigeria Oil Region Forum Rejects New Petroleum Bill | 5 July 2021 | BloombergQuint

A representative body for Nigeria’s crude-producing region has criticized a new oil law in the West African nation and demanded an immediate review in a letter sent to lawmakers Monday.

Zimbabwe Got Mines From Company Linked to Sanctioned Tycoon | 5 July 2021 | Bloomberg

Kuvimba Mining House Ltd., which the Zimbabwean government says it controls, said it bought its assets from a company linked to a tycoon sanctioned by the U.S., giving the first details on how the state firm was formed.

Le trafic d’or en constante augmentation en Afrique australe, selon un rapport | 5 July 2021 | RFI

Illicit gold markets in East and Southern Africa | 16 May 2021 | Global Initiative Against Transnational Organized Crime

L’ONG de lutte contre le crime organisé Global Initiative vient de publier une étude sur le trafic d’or en Afrique orientale et australe (Soudan du Sud, Ouganda, Kenya, Zimbabwe, Afrique du Sud). Des pays producteurs dont les marchés illicites sont interconnectés et dont l’or finit souvent par atterrir à Dubaï. Si les États ont fait des efforts concernant leur arsenal juridique, la corruption et l’implication d’acteurs politiques, militaires ou économiques haut placés permettent à ce trafic d’augmenter chaque année.

Tackling illicit financial flows, a matter of survival for Africa’s development | 3 July 2021 | Modern Ghana

Tackling corruption, particularly illicit financial flows (IFFs) is a matter of survival for Africa’s development and must be treated with urgency. There is broad consensus that the funds being bled out of Africa, could be channeled towards the continent’s development if successfully retained.

Criminals in Central Africa Profit from New Surge in Gold Prices | 2 July 2021 | OCCRP

Illegal gold mining in Central Africa | 30 June 2021 | Interpol

The COVID-19 pandemic has unleashed a new gold rush in Central Africa, with organized groups cashing in on the surge in the commodity’s price and smuggling illicit gold to neighboring countries via air or inland, Interpol said Wednesday in a new report.

Nigeria : la vie en Ogoniland, pollué par l’exploitation pétrolière | 2 July 2021 | France24

Le 10 novembre 1995, l’écrivain et militant écologiste nigérian Ken Saro-Wiwa et huit compagnons d’infortune étaient exécutés par la junte du président Sani Abacha à l’issue d’un procès controversé. Fondateur du Mouvement pour la survie du peuple ogoni (Mosop) au début des années 1990, Ken Saro-Wiwa avait alerté l’opinion mondiale sur les désastres écologiques liés à l’exploitation du pétrole dans le delta du Niger, fédérant autour de lui des dizaines de milliers de personnes dans des communautés ogonis peu habituées jusque là à manifester pour leurs droits.

Mining: Halting raw materials export only way to benefit from natural sources | 1 July 2021 | The Sun (Nigeria)

Vice President Yemi Osinbajo has said Nigeria must do everything to discourage the export of raw minerals, adding that refining, processing, or beneficiation is the only real way to maximize the country’s mineral wealth and create good-paying jobs and opportunities for the people.

Côte d’Ivoire: Création d’un groupement spécial de répression de l’orpaillage illégal | 1 July 2021 | Agence Ivoirienne de Presse

Le Conseil national de la sécurité (CNS) a autorisé la création d’un Groupement Spécial de Répression de l’Orpaillage Illégal, lors de sa réunion, jeudi 01er juillet 2021, en présence du Président de la République, Alassane Ouattara, indique un communiqué.

Tanzania to revive port project in Bagamoyo amid China’s hope to ease ‘Malacca Dilemma’ | 1 July 2021 |

Tanzania’s decision to resuscitate a USD 10 billion port project in Bagamoyo has set off guesswork that China, the port’s main financier, is seeking a foothold on the East African coast.

Has Recycled Gold Become “Eco Theater”? | 25 June 2021 | JCK Online

Last week, The Washington Post wrote about “hygiene theater”—which it called “the deployment of symbolic tactics that do little to prevent the spread of the coronavirus but may make some anxious consumers feel safer.” And now, in the jewelry industry, we are perhaps seeing “eco theater”—which I’d call the deployment of symbolic tactics that likely do little to halt climate change but make concerned consumers feel good. And, of course, they also make companies look good.

SADC to trade in ivory without UN wild trade agency control | 25 June 2021 | The Independent (Zimbabwe)

It seems the ongoing appeals to the elephant overpopulated Sadc countries to establish an independent international ivory trading body, without being controlled by the United Nations wild trade regulating agency Cites are increasingly being listened to.

DRC: Tshisekedi to review ‘Chinese’ mining contracts, will allies agree? | 24 June 2021 | The Africa Report

DRC’s President Félix Tshisekedi hopes to persuade foreign mining companies to review contracts that they finalised under Joseph Kabila. To win the upcoming battle, he will also have to convince his own political friends, most of whom are involved in joint ventures, that his approach is a valid one.

Members of Congress urge investigation into Okavango oil exploration | 23 June 2021 | National Geographic

Two members of the United States Congress have sent a plea to the secretary of state, the attorney general, and other top officials urging a “thorough and coordinated investigation” into concerns raised by a series of National Geographic articles about oil and gas exploration in southern Africa’s spectacular and delicate Okavango region.

Congo seizes gold worth $1.9 million in Okapi wildlife reserve | 22 June 2021 | Reuters

Congolese authorities have seized 31 kg of gold, worth around $1.9 million, in the Okapi Wildlife Reserve in the country’s northeast, in a rare loss for smugglers who fraudulently bring tonnes of Congolese gold into the global market each year.

America’s Critical Strategic Vulnerability: Rare Earth Elements | 22 June 2021 | Foreign Policy Research Institute

The People’s Republic of China’s (PRC) dominance over global critical mineral supply chains presents one of the largest strategic vulnerabilities to the United States and her allies since the Arab oil embargo-triggered energy security crisis of the 1970s. The embargo, which coincided with dwindling U.S. reserves and a devaluation of the dollar, brought devastating impacts: high inflation coupled with economic stagnation (stagflation), and a quadrupling of oil prices.

Congo says Israeli investor Gertler’s oil permits no longer valid | 20 June 2021 | Reuters

Democratic Republic of Congo said exploration permits from companies controlled by Israeli investor Dan Gertler for two huge oil concessions near the eastern border with Uganda were no longer valid, but the companies said they still held the rights.

The Delusion of Infinite Economic Growth | 20 June 2021 | Scientific American

The electric vehicle (EV) has become one of the great modern symbols of a world awakened to the profound challenges of unsustainability and climate change. So much so that we may well imagine that Deep Thought’s answer today to Life, the Universe and Everything might plausibly be “EV.” But, as Douglas Adams would surely have asked, if electric vehicles are the answer, what is the question?

La Belgique en Forêt Congolaise : Est-ce le Grand Retour ? | 18 June 2021 |

C’est passé inaperçu il y a neuf mois : au moment où la République démocratique du Congo (RDC) tentait péniblement de démarrer un processus d’aménagement du territoire, le ministre de l’Environnement de l’époque Claude Nyamugabo a réglé le sort d’une forêt grande comme la moitié de la Belgique en la concédant à un entrepreneur belge.

Poaching declines in Tanzania following prosecution of ivory trafficking ringleaders | 17 June 2021 | MongaBay

Tanzania’s “Ivory Queen” denied release after appeal | 17 June 2021 | MongaBay

Once known as the world’s elephant killing fields, Tanzania appears to have halted the worst ivory poaching within its borders, making more than 2,300 arrests of poachers and traffickers over five years.

Sudan signs nine concession deals for gold, copper mining | 17 June 2021 | Reuters

Sudan on Thursday signed nine concession agreements for gold and copper mining with eight local and foreign companies, the state news agency SUNA said.

Tanzania: Kabwe Port Boosts Cross-Border Trade With DR Congo | 17 June 2021 | Tanzania Daily News | AllAfrica

Traders and farmers in Nkasi District are optimistic of future prospects as a newly constructed Kabwe port in Rukwa Region is boosting cross-border trade with DR Congo and Burundi.

China’s relationship with Africa goes deeper than just resource extraction | 16 June 2021 | The Africa Report

We’ve all heard the impressive statistics before on Chinese state media: 10,000km of Chinese-built roads and 6,000km of Chinese-built rail across Africa. It always sounds impressive. But what does it actually mean? Here’s one clue. It’s equivalent to just under 20% of the length of the nine highways in the Trans-African Highway network, or just larger than the length of Liberia’s entire road network. Similarly, it’s equivalent to just under 10% of Africa’s current rail network, or just under a third of South Africa’s entire rail network.

Summary of White House Supply Chain Review | 15 June 2021 | McGuireWoods Consulting | JD Supra

On June 8, 2021 the administration released a report detailing its findings from a 100-day review of vulnerabilities within the supply chains of four critical products: semiconductors; large capacity batteries; critical minerals and materials; and pharmaceuticals.

Eastinco Mining forms new joint venture in Southern Rwanda | 15 June 2021 | VoxMarkets

Eastinco Mining (EM.P) said it has formally signed a new joint venture agreement with a Rwandan entity to expand its portfolio and strengthen its exploration holdings in the area. Under the terms of the Agreement, Eastinco will incorporate a new JV Company, Kinunga Mining (“KML” or “JVCo”), in Rwanda and hold 70% of the issued share capital in Kinunga.

Ore Billionaire Sets Sights on Reviving Congo’s Hydro Vision | 15 June 2021 | Bloomberg

Iron ore magnate Andrew Forrest is looking to help revive a long-delayed multi-billion dollar hydroelectric project in Africa as part of his strategy to move into green energy.

Les Emirats Arabes Unis et la Belgique sont les principales destinations des diamants camerounais (BEAC) | 10 June 2021 | Cameroon Magazine

Bien qu’encore très petit producteur de diamants à l’échelle mondiale, le Cameroun, en attendant l’exploitation des gisements qu’il abrite, est déjà présent sur le marché international de ces pierres précieuses. Selon la Banque des États de l’Afrique centrale (Beac), les pierres du Cameroun sont particulièrement appréciées des Émirats et des diamantaires belges.

EU should promote moratorium on deep-sea mining, lawmakers say | 9 June 2021 | Reuters

The European Union should promote a moratorium on deep seabed mining until its effects on the environment are better understood and can be managed, the European Parliament said on Wednesday, adding to calls for a pause on the nascent industry.

Mine d’or de Ndassima : Touadéra cherche un compromis avec la société canadienne Axmin | 8 June 2021 | CorbeauNews

L’Etat centrafricain et l’entreprise minière canadienne Axmin, dirigée par la femme d’affaires chinoise Lucy Yan, ont entamé de discrètes négociations en vue de clore le contentieux autour de la mine d’or de Ndassima et d’éviter une coûteuse procédure arbitrale. Un épineux dossier derrière lequel plane l’ombre de Moscou.

World Needs Congo Copper to Kick Fossil Fuels, Billionaire Says | 8 June 2021 | Bloomberg

An African nation emerging from decades of conflict and corruption holds the key to greening the global economy. That’s the view of mining magnate Robert Friedland, whose Kamoa-Kakula venture just started producing copper in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. After scouring 59 countries over more than three decades, the Canadian billionaire says Congo has the world’s best deposits of the metal used in everything from electric cars to solar panels and power grids.

Without Uganda’s backing, Kisumu is a dormant ‘great port’ | 7 June 2021 | The East African

There was euphoria in Kenya this past week during the 58th anniversary for attaining self-rule as the country’s leadership commissioned the refurbished Kisumu Port, billed as a game-changer in regional logistics.

New Lamu Port officially commissioned | 7 June 2021 | DredgingToday

After several years of dredging and construction, Kenyan President, Uhuru Kenyatta has officially inaugurated the first berth of the New Lamu Port. During the ceremony, which was held on 20th May, 2021, the President witnessed the offloading and loading of two ships simultaneously.

First Cobalt: Will The DRC’s Action Give The Company A Lift? | 7 June 2021 | The Deep Dive

In late May, the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) reinstated an export ban on cobalt concentrates. However, the DRC government will allow miners which receive waivers to continue to ship product. The DRC mined about 100,000 tonnes of the brittle metal with strong magnetic properties in 2019, or about 70% of the amount mined worldwide.

DR Congo diamond mining giant struggles to revive its glory days | 7 June 2021 | The Citizen (Tanzania)

Mbuji-Mayi. Once the home of Democratic Republic of Congo’s state diamond company Miba, the town used to be filled with free-spending miners and their families, who brought a giddy touch of prosperity to remote Kasai-Oriental province.

Experts warn that US and EU attempts to break free from dependence on China would spark global competition for rare earths | 6 June 2021 | Market Research Telecast

In a study aforementioned By the South China Morning Post, analysts from the British think tank Overseas Development Institute (ODI) write that “it is likely” that Beijing’s dominance in the field of rare earths “will erode in the short term.” They link it to attempts by the US and the European Union to emancipate themselves from Chinese exports due to “growing geopolitical tensions.”

The Race for Copper, the Metal of the Future | 5 June 2021 | ETF Trends

The International Energy Agency (IEA) was founded in 1974 in response to oil embargos the previous year that caused the global price of oil to surge 300% from $3 per barrel to $12 per barrel. From the start, the IEA’s mission has been to help member nations deal with major oil supply disruptions.

The ocean economy is booming: who is making money, who is paying the price? Podcast | 3 June 2021 | The Conversation

From deep-sea mining, to fishing, to oil and gas exploration, the ocean economy is booming. This is one of the themes that’s emerged from a series The Conversation has been running over the past few months called Oceans 21, examining the history and future of the world’s oceans. A key question here is what the economic exploitation of our oceans is doing to the ocean environment.

Uganda joins the rights-of-nature movement but won’t stop oil drilling | 2 June 2021 | National Geographic

Carving through equatorial East Africa, the Albertine Rift supports some of the greatest biodiversity on the planet. This colossal network of mountains, valleys, wetlands, and savannah comprises just over one percent of the African continent’s landmass, yet claims more than half of its birds, 40 percent of its mammals, and some 500 species of plant and animal found nowhere else.

DRC Concentrate Export Ban Threatens Global Copper and Cobalt Supply | 2 June 2021 | MiningFeeds

In 2013, the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) banned exports of concentrates to encourage miners to process and refine ore locally in the country. As the world’s biggest cobalt producer and Africa’s largest copper miner, this had a pretty significant impact on the industry and how companies operated in the region.

China’s Journey To The Center Of The Earth – For Rare Minerals | 2 June 2021 | Forbes

The recent $3 billion sale of Chile’s Compañía General de Electricidad to China’s State Grid Corporation brought total Chinese control of electricity transmission in Chile up to 57%. Similar PRC acquisitions and projects are currently being advanced in Ecuador, Bolivia, Argentina, Honduras, Peru, and Columbia, where corporations are building hydropower, wind, and solar power stations. But China’s energy push into Latin America is not limited to infrastructure. This is fast becoming a multi-pronged approach that also includes the securing of critical minerals, particularly rare earth elements (REEs). The United States, meanwhile, is mum.

Ivanhoe’s Congo copper JV inks 10-year processing deal with nearby smelter | 2 June 2021 | Reuters

Ivanhoe Mines said on Wednesday its copper mining joint venture in the Democratic Republic of Congo, which started production last week, had signed a 10-year deal to process some of its copper concentrate at a nearby smelter.

Electric Vehicle Demand Already Creating Substantial Lithium Supply Issue | 2 June 2021 | Baystreet

Lithium is running into a severe supply-demand situation. All thanks to electric vehicle (EV) demand growing much faster than anyone expected. “By 2030, the world will see 125 million EVs on the road, which will only drive further demand for lithium supply. In fact, “It is anticipated demand for vehicle battery metal will increase sharply over the next several years as automakers abandon internal combustion engines for EVs,” says Resource World.

The Race For Copper, The Metal Of The Future | 1 June 2021 | Forbes

The International Energy Agency (IEA) was founded in 1974 in response to oil embargos the previous year that caused the global price of oil to surge 300% from $3 per barrel to $12 per barrel. From the start, the IEA’s mission has been to help member nations deal with major oil supply disruptions.

Clean energy and pro-mining | 1 June 2021 | BBN Times

One approach to the goal of reducing carbon emissions is sometimes called “electrification of everything,” a phrase which is a shorthand for an agenda of using electricity from carbon-free sources–including solar and wind–to replace fossil fuels.

Geopolitical dimensions of the EU‘s future supply of critical raw materials | 1 June 2021 | Euractiv

Neither the creation of a circular economy nor any other single measure alone won’t offer a silver bullet solution to the rising demand of critical raw materials (CRMs), argues Frank Umbach.

Tanzania, Kenya earn praise after deal on trade barriers | 1 June 2021 | The Citizen (Tanzania)

Members of the business community yesterday commended Tanzania and Kenya for agreeing to scrap a host of trade barriers. During a ministerial meeting held here at the weekend, the two countries agreed to resolve 30 out of 64 barriers impeding cross-border business.

Si riche, si pauvre : les chemins de la prospérité au Congo | 20 May 2021 | Congo Research Group

Le 13 mai, le président Félix Tshisekedi a prononcé un discours de défi à Kolwezi, l’une des capitales minières du pays : « Des investisseurs étrangers arrivent ici les poches vides et repartent milliardaires. Pendant ce temps, nous, nous restons toujours pauvres. À partir de maintenant, les contrats seront gagnants-gagnants.»


Proposed U.S. arms sale to Nigeria on ‘hold’ over human rights concerns | 30 July 2021 | Reuters

U.S. lawmakers have put on hold a proposal to sell almost $1 billion of weapons to Nigeria over concerns about possible human rights abuses by the government, three sources familiar with the matter said on Thursday.

Kenyan army to get 118 Turkish Katmerciler Hizir tactical armored vehicles | 29 July 2021 | ArmyRecognition

According to Daily Sabah, Katmerciler has signed a contract with Kenya’s Defense Ministry to provide the African country with 118 armored vehicles including the wheeled tactical armored 4×4 vehicle Hizir, the company said in a press release on 28 July. The contract worth $91.4 million was dubbed the company’s largest single export deal.

Stolen ammo poses security threat amid failure to protect high-risk consignments | 23 July 2021 | Mail & Guardian

The theft of some 1.5-million rounds of ammunition in Durban last week has raised questions about why harbour authorities, the South African Revenue Service and the South African Police Service (SAPS) were unable to protect the high-risk consignment in the current volatile environment in KwaZulu-Natal.

RCA : est-il temps de lever l’embargo sur les armes ? | 21 July 2021 | Afriquemedia

Le conflit armé de 2013 a entraîné une augmentation de la violence et des violations généralisées des droits humains dans la République, de sorte que l’embargo semblait être une mesure appropriée à l’époque. Mais fonctionne-t-il toujours pour améliorer la situation dans le pays ?

Le groupe Wagner, outil géopolitique à risque pour Moscou ? | 21 July 2021 | CorbeauNews

Vladimir Poutine le soulignait en 2012 devant la Douma : « une corporation d’entreprises militaires privées serait un outil efficace pour réaliser les objectifs nationaux sans faire appel à la participation directe de l’Etat russe ». Huit ans plus tard, les private military companies – PMC russes sont impliquées à des degrés divers dans une myriade de conflits de plus ou moins haute intensité à travers le monde. Parmi ces firmes qui déploient des paramilitaires et autres contractors sur le terrain, le Groupe Wagner est la plus emblématique et « le secret le moins bien gardé de Russie ». Quel statut et quelle pérennité des PMC dans la dynamique d’ingérence croissante de la Russie de Vladimir Poutine dans de multiples théâtres à travers le monde ?

SIPRI warns arms for Mozambique will not necessarily end insurgency | 8 July 2021 | DefenceWeb

As the Southern African Development Community (SADC) mulls options with regard to military intervention in Mozambique, the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI) maintains adding new armament to the Mozambican armed forces (FADM) arsenal is not necessarily in the interests of ending violence in the northern part of the east African country.

Who Is Arming The Terrorists? Games The Pentagon Plays | 4 July 2021 | Leadership

Modern warfare is waged with high-tech weapons. Each battle fought eats up loads of ammunition and modern weapons systems need spare parts and fuel. All this meaning that no military action is possible without an advanced economy and supplies. Even terrorist organizations forced to go deep into the underground have to set up laboratories and workshops to produce homemade explosives and weapons.

Egypt’s Sisi opens naval base close to border with Libya | 4 July 2021 | Reuters

Egyptian President Abdel Fattah al-Sisi inaugurated a large naval base on Saturday 135 km from the border with Libya, flanked by close ally Abu Dhabi Crown Prince Sheikh Mohammed bin Zayed al-Nahyan and Libya’s unity president.

Armscor’s used defence equipment stock boosted by UK materiel | 1 July 2021 | DefenceWeb

The continuously declining South African defence budget means acquisition of new military equipment for the national defence force has, of necessity, been put on the backburner and Armscor is now moving strongly into what was previously a service rather than a business focus.

Nigeria: Senate Amends Sanctions for Illegal Importation, Sale of Firearms | 30 June 2021 | Premium Times | AllAfrica

The Senate increased the fine from N1,000 to N5 million or imprisonment for three years, or both. The Senate on Wednesday passed a bill that seeks to increase the fine and punishment for illegal importation and sales of firearms in Nigeria.

Importations d’armes de la France: Le Sénégal a dépensé 237 milliards Fcfa | 29 June 2021 | Rewmi

Le Sénégal a passé depuis 2011 des commandes en armement à la France d’un montant global de 361,3 millions d’euros, soit 237,017 milliards FCFA.

Ituri : deux militaires FARDC accusés de perte d’armes, condamnés à 5 ans et 3 ans de servitude pénale | 27 June 2021 |

L’auditeur militaire supérieur de la cour militaire de l’Ituri à Bunia a requis une peine de cinq ans de servitude pénale principale à l’encontre du Lieutenant Colonel Jean-Lambert Munano et trois ans contre l’adjudant première classe Bienvenue Ngwanga qui étaient poursuivis pour perte de cinq armes de guerre par “négligence”.

Sud-Kivu: les FARDC ont démantelé un réseau de trafic d’armes et de munitions de guerre à Minembwe | 26 June 2021 |

Fizi: les FARDC ont démantelé un réseau de trafic d’armes et munitions, mis en place par Makanika à Minembwe | 26 June 2021 |

Séraphine Tulugu Kutuna, vice-ministre de la défense nationale et anciens combattants, a fait le point sur la situation sécuritaire du pays, au cours du Conseil des ministres du vendredi 26 juin. Pour ce qui est la province du Sud-Kivu, la vice-ministre a fait savoir que les FARDC ont démantelé un réseau de trafic d’armes et munitions de guerre à Minembwe, mis en place par les combattants Twirwaneho de sieur Rugunda alias Makanika.

Russian government approves agreement on Russian navy logistics center in Sudan | 25 June 2021 | TASS

Russia’s government has approved an agreement with Sudan on establishing a Russian navy logistics center in Sudan, the agreement will be submitted to the president, according to a government resolution posted on the official website of legal information on Friday.

Kenya: Inside the Government’s Failed Disarmament in Banditry-Prone North Rift | 23 June 2021 | Daily Nation | AllAfrica

When the government launched a massive disarmament in the banditry-prone counties in the North Rift five months ago, elders and professionals from the targeted areas saw it as an exercise in futility.

Zambia showcases new military hardware during military parade | 22 June 2021 | DefenceWeb

The Zambia National Defence Force paraded previously unseen military hardware during a parade in the capital Lusaka, including truck-mounted mortars and armoured personnel carriers.

Take inventory of small arms and light weapons in circulation – Government told | 19 June 2021 | GhanaWeb

The Government of Ghana has been told to take stock of the Small Arms and Light Weapons that are currently in circulation in the country.

Trans-border crimes and lingering security challenges in Nigeria | 18 June 2021 | PremiumTimes (Nigeria)

The failure of the Nigerian government to manage its borders affects domestic and international economic activities and also poses threats to national sovereignty and the security of the country. Nonetheless, the problem associated with poverty, illiteracy and corruption in the country should be the first place to begin with in addressing the problem of border crimes in Nigeria.

Final report of the Group of Experts submitted in accordance with paragraph 4 of resolution 2528 (2020) | 10 June 2021 | Group of Experts on the Democratic Republic of the Congo | UN Security Council

Perpetual violence in eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo continued to be borne by the civilian population, who manifested their desperation in part through mob violence and demonstrations against the United Nations Organization Stabilization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (MONUSCO), the international community and the authorities of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, notably since March 2021. Armed groups continued to operate with near impunity in eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo during the reporting period.

Kenya burns over 5,000 illegal firearms to fight crime | 10 June 2021 | Xinhua

Kenyan President Uhuru Kenyatta on Wednesday set on fire some 5,144 illegal weapons as well as obsolete state-owned small arms and light weapons as part of efforts to fight crime. Kenyatta noted that the recovery of illicit small arms and light weapons is in tandem with the African Union’s call for Silencing the Guns in Africa by the year 2020.

Court bid to halt South African arms exports ‘fuelling war in Yemen’ | 9 June 2021 | The Citizen

Profiting from misery: South Africa’s complicity in war crimes in Yemen | 3 March 2021 | Open Secrets

Open Secrets released a report looking at how South African arms companies had been cashing in on the sale of weapons to Saudi Arabia and the UAE.

Rosoboronexport highlights sub-Saharan African order book | 7 June 2021 | DefenceWeb

Over the last year, Russian state holding company Rosoboronexport signed more than $1.7 billion worth of contracts in sub-Saharan Africa and it continues to pursue opportunities on the continent.

Control of Illicit Arms Proliferation – Stakeholders Propose Gender-Inclusive Approach | 7 June 2021 | Cameroon Tribune

Government institutions and Civil Society Organisations who met in a national workshop on “Gender consideration in Cameroon’s arms control policies,” in Yaounde from May 31 to June 3, 2021 have come up with a series of propositions to strengthen policies, programmes and actions for the efficient control of small arms using a gender-based framework.


Mozambique Says Influx of African Troops Will Target Cabo Delgado Insurgents | 31 July 2021 | VoA

Mozambique’s defense minister says South African troops are expected this week to join operations meant to counter insurgents in northern Cabo Delgado province.

Nord-Kivu : enquêtes sur les crimes commis par des militaires à Lubero, 23 personnes déjà entendues | 29 July 2021 | Radio Okapi

L’auditorat militaire de Butembo poursuit ses enquêtes sur des crimes graves des droits de l’homme commis par les Forces armées de la RDC (FARDC) et des policiers entre 2019-2021 dans la partie Sud de Lubero. Débutées depuis mardi 27 juillet, ces enquêtes concernent également les membres des différents groupes armés, et des auteurs des graves violations.

Paoua, les mercenaires de Wagner accusés d’outrage public à la pudeur | 29 July 2021 | CorbeauNews

La sous-fédération de la ligue des droits de femmes et la section des agressions sexuelles de l’association centrafricaine pour la protection des droits de l’homme de Paoua ont annoncé leur intention de porter plainte contre les mercenaires russes et Syriens de la société russe Wagner pour des actions indécentes : harcèlement criminel, outrage public à la pudeur des personnes âgées de moins de 16 ans, et de plus de 16 ans.

Djugu : 20 éléments de la CODECO condamnés à des peines allant de la perpétuité à 10 ans de prison ferme | 29 July 2021 | Radio Okapi

Le tribunal militaire de garnison de l’Ituri a rendu ce jeudi 29 juillet à Iga (Djugu) deux verdicts dans les dossiers de vingt assaillants de la milice CODECO.

Witchcraft killings of people with albinism rose during pandemic – UN expert | 28 July 2021 | OHCHR

Killings of people with albinism have increased during the COVID-19 pandemic, as some people plunged into poverty turned to witchcraft in hopes of gaining quick wealth, Ikponwosa Ero, the outgoing UN independent expert on the rights of people with albinism, said today.

Peter Fabricius: Violence in Africa is a Catch-22 | 28 July 2021 | BusinessDay

Dec. 31, 2020 came and went without the AU meeting its deadline — set in 2013 — of Silencing the Guns by 2020. No-one was surprised. The AU then extended the deadline to 2030 and committed itself to renewed efforts to achieve it.

RCA : un renfort des mercenaires de Wagner tombé dans une embuscade au Nord-ouest, quatre morts | 28 July 2021 | CorbeauNews

Un renfort d’au moins deux véhicules des mercenaires de la société russe Wagner est tombé dans une embuscade des rebelles de 3R dans la localité de Ndongué douane , faisant quatre morts et trois blessés, a-t-on appris des sources sécuritaires locales.

42 killed in extrajudicial killings in South Sudan, UN says | 27 July 2021 | Radio Tamazuj

The United Nations on Monday demanded an end to extrajudicial killings in South Sudan after the grisly execution of at least 42 people, including boys, in lawless parts of the country.

Mozambican, Rwandan Troops Overrun Major Insurgents Base in Cabo Delgado | 27 July 2021 | The New Times | AllAfrica

Mozambican and Rwandan troops have overrun one of the main bases of the Islamic States-linked terrorist organisation operating in Cabo Delgado, the northernmost province of Mozambique, according to reports.

Ethiopia: The Oromo Liberation Army is not a terrorist organisation | 27 July 2021 | The Africa Report

This piece is a response to the article “Ethiopia: Victory for the Oromo will come from winning hearts and minds, not terrorising people” that was written by Nagesso Dube.

Mozambique: fears of escalating conflict as foreign troops clash with Islamists | 26 July 2021 | The Guardian

Foreign troops sent to reinforce local security forces in Mozambique have clashed with Islamist militants for the first time, as the conflict in the east African country moves into a new and potentially dangerous phase.

Why ADF has outlived other rebels fighting Museveni’s government | 25 July 2021 | Daily Monitor

The now DR Congo-based Allied Democratic Forces (ADF) rebel have been back in the news since gunmen waylaid and wounded Works minister, Gen Edward Katumba Wamala, in Kisaasi, a Kampala suburb.

Ituri : l’armée libère plus de 100 civils otages des ADF | 24 July 2021 |

Les Forces armées de la République démocratique du Congo (FARDC) ont libéré près de 150 civils pris en otage par le groupe rebelle ougandais d’Alllied Demicratic Forces (ADF) dans les chefferies de Bahema-Boga et Banyali-Tchabi, en Ituri.

Eight killed in army offensive on DR Congo gorilla park | 24 July 2021 | Punch

Two Pygmies and six militiamen were killed in a DR Congo army offensive to dislodge them from a national park which houses the world’s largest gorilla species, officials said Saturday.

Increased jihadist attacks in Burkina Faso spark record-breaking displacement | 23 July 2021 | UN News

Rising violent attacks by jihadist groups in Burkina Faso are forcing record-breaking numbers of people to flee both inside the country and across international borders, the UN refugee agency, UNHCR, reported on Friday.

Ituri : 20 miliciens de la CODECO jugés par le Tribunal militaire à Djugu | 22 July 2021 | Radio Okapi

Le Tribunal de garnison militaire de l’Ituri a débuté, mardi 20 juillet, des audiences en chambre foraine contre vingt (20) présumés miliciens dont une femme, membres du groupe armé CODECO. Ces personnes sont jugées au centre commercial d’Iga Barriere à 27 kilomètres de Bunia dans le territoire de Djugu.

Welcome to Joe Biden’s Somalia war | 21 July 2021 | National Security Daily | Politico

President JOE BIDEN’s war in Somalia has begun, and he didn’t even launch it. On Tuesday, U.S. Africa Command chief Gen. Stephen Townsend authorized a single drone strike against al-Shabaab militants attacking an American-trained elite Somali force known as the Danab. While no U.S. troops accompanied the Somalis during the operation near Galkayo, Pentagon spokesperson Cindi King told NatSec Daily that Townsend has the authority under Article 51 of the U.N. Charter “to conduct collective self-defense of partner forces.”

Rights experts condemn ‘dramatic rise’ in attacks on so-called slaves in Mali | 19 July 2021 | UN News

Attacks against so-called slaves in Mali are on the rise and authorities must do more to prevent them, two independent UN human rights experts said on Monday. Although Mali outlawed slavery in 1905, a system of “descent-based slavery” persists, where some people are considered slaves because their ancestors were allegedly enslaved by the families of so-called masters.

Beni : 13 chefs des villages présumés collaborateurs des ADF et plusieurs poseurs des bombes arrêtés par les FARDC | 16 July 2021 |

Plus de 20 collaborateurs des rebelles Ougandais ADF sont aux arrêts en ville de Beni, dans la province du Nord-Kivu. Ces collaborateurs permis lesquels les poseurs des bombes artisanales ont été présentés à la presse ce jeudi 15 juillet 2021 par le porte-parole des opérations Sukola 1, le Lieutenant Antony Mwalushayi qui précise qu’il s’agit d’un réseau composé de 3 groupes dont les poseurs des bombes, des chefs des localités et villages collaborateurs des ADF ainsi que des dames qui avaient pour objectif d’éliminer les cheick et imams.

Tchad : l’opération anti-banditisme lancée à N’Djamena inquiète l’ADHET | 16 July 2021 | Journal du Tchad

Dans un communiqué de presse du 15 juillet 2021, l’Alliance des Défenseurs des Droits Humains et de l’Environnement au Tchad (ADHET) s’inquiète du sort des personnes arretés le week-end dernier.

South Sudan: 10 years of independence, violence, disease and dire needs | 16 July 2021 | MSF

On 9 July 2021, the Republic of South Sudan marked its 10th birthday. This significant milestone is also marred by the bloody legacy of its first decade, including a five-year civil war.

Hintergründe des Militärputsches in Mali von Mai 2021 | 15 July 2021 | Wissenschaftliche Dienste | Deutscher Bundestag

Am 24. Mai 2021 entmachtete das malische Militär unter Führung des Übergangs-Vizepräsidenten Assimi Goïta den Übergangspräsidenten Bah N’Daw sowie den Premierminister Moctar Ouane. Diese standen zuvor einer Interimsregierung vor, die in Folge des erst im August 2020 vorausgegangenen Staatsstreichs eingesetzt worden war, um Neuwahlen vorzubereiten. Es han- delt sich somit gewissermaßen um einen Putsch im Putsch.

Sexual violence in the Democratic Republic of Congo | 15 July 2021 | MSF

Year after year, Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) teams are first-hand witnesses of the scale and impact of sexual violence in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC).

Les pays du G5 Sahel s’inquiètent des 30 mille hommes armés qui combattaient en Libye | 14 July 2021 | MaliWeb

Les 5 pays du G5 Sahel (Mauritanie, Mali, Niger, Tchad et Burkina Faso) ont exprimé leur inquiétude le vendredi dernier à propos des 30.000 hommes, fortement armés qui combattaient en Libye et qui doivent être évacués, suivant l’accord de paix signé en Libye. Une situation que ces pays considèrent comme une menace pour eux.

Deadly Rioting Continues in South Africa | 14 July 2021 | VoA

Worst of SA’s unrest still to come | 14 July 2021 | DefenceWeb

Why violence is engulfing South Africa | 15 July 2021 | DefenceWeb

South Africa unrest was ‘planned’, says President Ramaphosa | 16 July 2021 | RFI

Rioting and looting in South Africa continued Wednesday, raising the death toll to more than 70 as defiant protesters ignored government demands to end violence. The unrest was sparked last week when former president Jacob Zuma began serving a 15-month jail sentence for contempt of court after he failed to attend a hearing to answer questions about corruption allegations.

The Growing Complexity of Farmer-Herder Conflict in West and Central Africa | 13 July 2021 | ACSS | ReliefWeb

The rise of farmer-herder violence in Africa is more pernicious than fatality figures alone since it is often amplified by the emotionally potent issues of ethnicity, religion, culture, and land.

Mozambique: EU Approves Military Training Mission | 13 July 2021 | AIM | AllAfrica

Foreign Ministers from the European Union on 12 July agreed to set up a military training mission in Mozambique (EUTM Mozambique).

Ituri: les groupements Utcha et Dirokpa sous contrôle de la milice CODECO | 12 July 2021 | Radio Okapi

La société civile du groupement Utcha dans le territoire de Djugu (Ituri) dénonce l’occupation des deux groupements dans la chefferie de Bahema Nord par les miliciens de la CODECO. Elle l’a fait savoir dimanche 11 juillet lors d’une déclaration à Radio Okapi. C’est depuis plus d’une semaine que ces miliciens règnent en rois dans plusieurs localités, où ils ont instauré leur administration, selon cette structure citoyenne. Ils tuent, incendient des maisons et empêchent les habitants d’accéder à leurs champs.

In the Central African Republic, the devastating price women and girls pay for war | 12 July 2021 | UNFPA | ReliefWeb

Not far from the airfield in Bambari is Aviation Camp for internally displaced persons, where dilapidated straw dwellings house people who have fled conflict that has plagued Ouaka prefecture. Some have been here since 2014, though the violence broke out two years earlier, its end nowhere in sight.

ADF : le Gouvernement reconnaît la persistance des poches d’insécurité dans la partie Est | 11 July 2021 |

Lors de la onzième réunion du conseil des ministres, le Ministre de la Défense Nationale et Anciens Combattants, est revenu sur la situation sécuritaire de la République Démocratique du Congo qui a été jugée de relativement calme en général.

Violence and Abuse Wreak Havoc in Central African Republic | 10 July 2021 | VoA

A human rights lawyer appointed by the United Nations Human Rights Council reported to the body Friday that the war-torn Central African Republic’s civilian population is being battered by both armed groups and security forces meant to protect them.

Bria, un officier de FACA pourchassé par les mercenaires de Wagner, s’est réfugié dans la base de la Minusca| 9 July 2021 | CorbeauNews

Soupçonné d’avoir vendu des armes et munitions aux jeunes de Bria, un capitaine de l’armée nationale a failli être arrêté par les mercenaires russes de la société Wagner. Il est actuellement en fuite, et refuge de subir les mêmes tortures que celles faites au colonel Kitocko, commandant de la zone de défense du nord.

Russian Mercenaries in Africa Aren’t Just There for the Money | 9 July 2021 | Foreign Policy

I will never forget the moment I saw a photo of the journalist Alexander Rastorguev’s body. Sasha, as we called him, was a fixture on the Moscow documentary filmmaking scene and a warm-hearted mentor to my then-husband, whose films I produced. Sasha was a man who loved to tease you in public but a stalwart and generous friend in private.

G5 Sahel: «Les pays côtiers font feu de tout bois pour prévenir l’expansion de la menace jihadiste» | 9 July 2021 | RFI

Un sommet du G5 Sahel a lieu ce vendredi 9 juillet en visioconférence. Mais la menace jihadiste s’étend depuis plusieurs années aux pays côtiers. Le Bénin a été touché en 2019. La Côte d’Ivoire, elle, a fait face à plusieurs attaques depuis un an, dont la dernière à la mi-juin, une attaque qui a provoqué la mort de trois soldats ivoiriens. Quelles sont les zones de ces pays qui sont touchées ? Les États font-ils le nécessaire pour lutter efficacement contre ces groupes ? Des questions que Pierre Firtion a posées à William Assanvo, chercheur à l’Institut d’études de sécurité, l’ISS, basé à Abidjan.

Congo officials claim that a rebel group is tied to the Islamic State. That could backfire. | 8 July 2021 | Washington Post

Beni, a city in eastern Congo, is experiencing a wave of violence. Bomb attacks in late June killed one and injured two others. On June 28, Beni’s mayor closed all schools and markets, banned public gatherings and established a curfew. These moves couldn’t prevent a July 1 attack, which left nine civilians dead.

Beni : le Commissaire provincial de la PNC exhorte les policiers qui ont des frères rebelles à leur demander de quitter la brousse | 8 July 2021 |

Ce message fort a été lancé ce jeudi 8 juillet 2021 par le Commissaire provincial adjoint en charge de la police administrative au Nord-Kivu, Kasongo Ngoy Van, lors de son adresse aux éléments de la PNC/commissariat de Kyondo.

Five men with Congo rebel ties charged over attempted murder of Uganda minister | 8 July 2021 | DevDiscourse

Uganda on Thursday charged five more men linked to a Congo-based Islamist rebel group with murder, terrorism and attempted murder offences related to a foiled plot last month to assassinate a minister who is the country’s former military chief. Men riding on motorcycles fired dozens of rounds into a vehicle carrying the minister, Katumba Wamala, as he drove through a suburb of the capital Kampala in the early morning hours of June 1.

On the trail of the DR Congo’s dreaded ADF militia | 8 July 2021 | AfricaNews

For more than twenty years, the Beni region of the eastern Democratic Republic of Congo has been engulfed in conflict between rival rebel groups. Over the years, one group has become more feared than the rest: the Allied Democratic Forces. Frequently referred to as the ADF, they are accused of the massacre of several thousand civilians.

Eswatini protests: ‘we are fighting a liberation struggle’ | 8 July 2021 | The Guardian

Authorities in Eswatini have promised a “national dialogue” in an attempt to avert further unrest after dozens died and hundreds of businesses were burned down in weeks of protest in Africa’s only remaining absolute monarchy.

Targeting infidel ‘crusaders’: DR Congo’s dreaded ADF militia | 7 July 2021 | France24

Mado was worshipping at an evangelical church in the town of Ndalya in February when her life changed forever. Gunmen burst in, killed her two-month-old daughter at point-blank range, ordered her to leave the baby’s body on the ground and follow them out along with the other worshippers.

Ituri : cinq bastions des ADF détruits par des frappes aériennes des FARDC au sud d’Irumu | 6 July 2021 |

Les forces armées de la RDC ont détruit au moins cinq bases de rebelles ougandais de l’ADF situés au sud du territoire d’Irumu la journée de lundi 05 juillet 2021.

Belgium Begins Long Road to Returning Looted Congolese Art Works | 6 July 2021 | VoA

Belgium’s Africa Museum, once a celebration of the country’s colonial rule, will begin a multi-year process of returning stolen art to Democratic Republic of Congo, the Belgian government said on Tuesday.

Russia’s Wagner Group Doesn’t Actually Exist | 6 July 2021 | Foreign Policy

Over the past seven years, reports have trickled out of war zones and fragile countries around the world about shadowy groups of mercenaries operating under the rubric of the Russian private military contractor Wagner.

UN voices deep concern over reported deaths of protesters in Kingdom of Eswatini | 6 July 2021 | UN News

The eruption of violence in the Kingdom of Eswatini in recent days is “deeply concerning”, amid reports that dozens of people have been killed or injured during protests calling for democratic reforms, the UN human rights office, OHCHR, said on Tuesday. In a statement later in the day, the UN chief called for “inclusive and meaningful dialogue”, to end the violence.

Police territoriale : La CMA en fera une force pour combattre l’armée | 6 July 2021 | MaliWeb

Depuis un moment, une loi relative à la création d’une police territoriale fait le tour des réseaux sociaux. Une précision de taille, la loi n’a pas encore passé au CNT, probablement à la plénière prochaine, les conseillers du CNT vont en débattre.

Violations et atteintes aux droits humains : Les groupes armés et les FAMAs sur le banc des accusés | 6 July 2021 | MaliWeb

La Division des droits de l’Homme et de la protection de la Mission de l’ONU au Mali (MINUSMA) a enregistré 617 atteintes aux droits de l’homme commises par des groupes armés entre janvier et juin 2021, dont 165 homicides (147 hommes, 9 femmes, 7 garçons et 2 filles). Cela représente une augmentation de 37% par rapport aux 449 atteintes aux droits de l’homme, dont 121 homicides, documentés d’août à décembre 2020.

How developing border region in Sudan could ignite Africa’s next conflict | 6 July 2021 | BusinessLive

The development of the patch of land could be a boon for Sudan’s struggling economy, but could also fuel a growing feud between it and Ethiopia.

Former Congo PM has immunity lifted over corruption allegations | 6 July 2021 | Reuters

Democratic Republic of Congo’s former prime minister Matata Ponyo Mapon’s parliamentary immunity was lifted on Monday, as the Senate leadership announced it had authorised a criminal investigation into allegations he misappropriated $140 million.

RCA : deux civils froidement abattus par les mercenaires russes dans la localité de Kabo | 5 July 2021 | CorbeauNews

Les faits se sont produits ce lundi 5 juillet 2021 dans la localité de Kabo, non loin de la frontière avec le Tchad, dans la préfecture de l’Ouham-Fafa, au nord-ouest de la République centrafricaine.

RCA : au moins 3 personnes tuées, un camion et 6 motos incendiés par les rebelles de la CPC dans le Nord-ouest | 5 July 2021 | CorbeauNews

La sécurité n’existe désormais nulle part dans les préfectures de l’Ouham-Péndé et de Lim-Pendé. Les régions sont en train de sombrer. La coalition des patriotes pour le changement (CPC) n’épargne maintenant personne, encore moins les camions et les motos. Les rebelles exécutent, pillent et incendient les camions des marchandises en désordre.

Rapports Duclert et Muse: le pouvoir français face à la crise rwandaise | 5 July 2021 | Telos

Le 26 mars dernier, puis le 19 avril, ont été publiés les rapports Duclert et Muse, respectivement en France au Rwanda. Ces derniers n’ont guère été l’objet de comparaisons approfondies, les commentaires ayant été surtout basés sur la conclusion du premier et la synthèse du second en langue française.

Mali: les groupes armés signataires se réunissent à Kidal, en présence de ministres | 5 July 2021 | RFI

Une rencontre importante s’est tenue à Kidal ce week-end : la première du Cadre stratégique permanent (CSP), créé il y a trois mois par les groupes armés signataires de l’accord de paix de 2015. En présence d’une délégation officielle nigérienne, de représentants de la médiation internationale, de la Mission de l’ONU, et d’une délégation de ministres maliens du gouvernement de transition venus afficher leur soutien à cette initiative.

Reprise de la coopération militaire avec le Mali: «Emmanuel Macron a fini par revenir à la raison» | 4 July 2021 | RFI

La France va reprendre sa coopération militaire avec le Mali, a annoncé le ministère français des Armées vendredi dans la soirée. Une décision réaliste, estime Lemine Ould Salem, journaliste spécialiste du Sahel. L’interruption de cette coopération militaire, annoncée il y a moins d’un mois par Paris, au lendemain du deuxième coup d’État à Bamako, présentait selon lui des risques de radicalisation islamiste au Mali.

Djugu : les miliciens CODECO tuent 13 personnes et détruisent plusieurs maisons | 4 July 2021 | Radio Okapi

Plus de treize personnes ont été tuées et plusieurs maisons détruites lors d’une incursion ce week-end des miliciens de la CODECO, dans la chefferie de Bahema Nord, en territoire de Djugu (Ituri).

eSwatini army called in to curb looting at anti-king riots | 2 July 2021 | DefenceWeb

The government of eSwatini has called in the army to restore order after days of violent protests against its absolute monarch, the acting prime minister said on Thursday.

Ituri : deux militaires condamnés, l’armée parle d’un signal fort | 2 July 2021 |

Le porte-parole des opérations militaires en Ituri, le lieutenant Jules Ngongo Tshikudi, a salué vendredi 2 juillet 2021 la condamnation de deux militaires des Forces armées de la République démocratique du Congo (FARDC) par la Cour militaire de l’Ituri. Pour lui, l’arrêt rendu par la cour est un signal fort qui vient matérialiser l’état de droit.

Cabo Delgado could become Africa’s next jihadist frontier | 2 July 2021 | DefenceWeb

ears are mounting that Mozambique’s Muslim-dominated province of Cabo Delgado could become the next frontier for prolonged jihadist rebellion on the African continent. Since 2017, Mozambican militants, backed by Tanzanians and other foreigners to some degree, have thwarted the weak Mozambican government security forces’ efforts to defeat them.

Violation des droits de l’Homme au Mali : La CNDH invite les autorités à mettre fin à toute mesure « d’assignation à résidence surveillée» | 2 July 2021 | MaliWeb

La Commission Nationale des Droits de l’Homme (CNDH) exprime sa préoccupation et son inquiétude par rapport à la récurrence de cas de violations et d’abus graves des droits de l’Homme dans notre pays, parfois en lien avec la crise sociopolitique récente.

Alindao, les rebelles de l’UPC sont toujours dans la ville, et occupent leur ancienne base, la population paniquée | 1 July 2021 | Corbeaunews

Contrairement à ce qui a été annoncé par l’État major des forces armées centrafricaines (FACA) et la Minusca, les rebelles de l’unité pour la paix en Centrafrique (UPC) ne sont pas en débandade face aux Casques bleus, ni des FACA. Ils ne sont pas loin du centre d’Alindao, mais occupent toujours la mairie et leur ancienne base située derrière le marché central.

Borderlands in West Africa are ungoverned: why this is bad for security | 1 July 2021 | The Conversation

In many parts of the African continent borders are porous. People cross them to visit their kin and for economic reasons such as herding, farming, fishing, hunting and trading. They are also spaces in which human smuggling, human trafficking, gun-running, terrorism and money laundering take place.

Mali : Pourquoi le sentiment anti-français s’amplifie | 1 July 2021 | MaliWeb

La France est au Mali, à l’appel du gouvernement malien (il aime à le rappeler très souvent), mais elle a trahi cette confiance pour s’accoquiner avec les séparatistes qui ont amené dans leur sillage les djihadistes dont elle est venue combattre à nos côtés. C’est pour cette raison que le sentiment anti-français monte de jour en jour au sein du peuple malien.

Nord-Kivu : le groupe armé ADF est composé à 60% de congolais | 1 July 2021 |

La région de Beni fait face à la menace des rebelles ougandais ADF depuis plus de 7 ans. Ces ennemis de la paix parviennent à résister et à faire front sans force aux FARDC grâce à l’appui intérieur de certains congolais et extérieurs des Etats voisins. Dans une conférence de presse animée en ville de Goma le mardi 29 juin dernier, le Gouverneur militaire a indiqué que 60% des ADF est essentiellement composé de congolais.

U.S. Sending Soldiers to Congo to Train Army, Help Find Rebels Who Killed 9 in Attack | 1 July 2021 | Newsweek

The United States pledged to aid the Democratic Republic of Congo in training the Congolese army and police forces as well as helping to find rebels who killed at least nine civilians, including women, in an attack on the eastern city of Beni.

Uganda links Islamist rebels to attempted murder of minister | 1 July 2021 | Reuters

The gunmen who tried to kill a Ugandan minister last month trained in an Islamist rebel camp in Democratic Republic of Congo, police said on Thursday.

AFRICOM: U.S. Forces ‘Commuting to Work’ to Curb Rising Terror Threat in Somalia After Pullout | 1 July 2021 | USNI News

After leaving Somalia in December, U.S. forces are “commuting to work” from other parts of Africa and Europe to combat the rising terrorist threat in Somalia and across the region.

La Russie confirme le déploiement de 600 instructeurs supplémentaires en Centrafrique | 1 July 2021 | TV5Monde

Un total de 600 instructeurs russes devant former les forces centrafricaines sont arrivés récemment à Bangui, a annoncé jeudi à l’AFP la diplomatie russe, portant à 1.135 le nombre d’experts militaires officiellement déployés en Centrafrique.

Zambia Rejects Accusations of Human Rights Abuses | 1 July 2021 | CAJ News | AllAfrica

Zambia has disputed allegations, raised by Amnesty International, that the government was curtailing people’s freedoms in the run-up to August 12 elections.

L’or du Congo au cœur de la coopération RDC-Rwanda: le pari risqué de Félix Tshisekedi? | 1 July 2021 | Sputnik

La RDC et le Rwanda ont conclu trois accords commerciaux dont l’un porte sur l’exploitation de l’or congolais. La démarche s’inscrit dans un esprit de réconciliation et de coopération bilatérale renforcée, cher au Président Tshisekedi. Mais elle n’est pas sans risque d’après l’analyse pour Sputnik de Patrick Mbeko, spécialiste de l’Afrique centrale.

Peace Agreements and Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration (DDR): Insights from the Central African Republic and Libya | 1 July 2021 | Center for Security Studies | Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule Zürich

Based on first-​hand field experience with the UN in Africa, this CSS Mediation Resources by Silke Rusch analyzes how third parties engage armed groups in the negotiation and implementation of peace agreements with DDR provisions. A specific focus lies on this question in extremely fragile contexts, like the Central African Republic and Libya, where the state’s institutions are weak and non-​state armed groups control large territories and natural resources. The study also explores ways forward.

Rebels launch deadly attacks on army positions in the Central African Republic | 1 July 2021 | France24

Rebels killed seven people in coordinated attacks on army positions in the east of the Central African Republic, the UN peacekeeping force in the conflict-ridden country said Wednesday.

Will this week’s joint mission to CAR deliver a change in strategy towards quelling regional conflict? | 30 June 2021 | ISS Today | Daily Maverick

The ongoing conflict in the Central African Republic (CAR) presents a conundrum for all stakeholders to resolve, despite plans and agreements to end it. The creation of the armed Coalition des Patriotes pour le Changement (CPC) — which tried to derail the country’s elections and seize power in Bangui in January 2021 — has further complicated matters.

Central African Republic rejects conclusions of UN experts’ report | 30 June 2021 | AfricaNews

Russians accused of Central African Republic abuses in UN report | 30 June 2021 | DefenceWeb

A United Nations report claimed that members of the FACA and Russian instructors dispatched to the country were guilty of abuses.¨ Central African authorities on Wednesday rejected a U.N. expert report denouncing “violations of international humanitarian law” by Central African military and Russian instructors supporting them against rebels trying to overthrow President Faustin Archange Touadéra.

À Boali, un soldat FACA grièvement agressé par des mercenaires de Wagner | 30 June 2021 | Corbeaunews

Décidément, rien ne va plus entre les soldats FACA et les mercenaires russes et syriens de la société Wagner. Pour un rien, la tension monte, et des altercations s’éclatent. C’est ce qui s’est passé cette semaine à Boali, situé à 95 kilomètres de la capitale Bangui.

RCA : Bambari, les mercenaires de Wagner accusé une nouvelle fois de braquage au village Timbolo | 30 June 2021 | Corbeaunews

Les mercenaires russes de la société Wagner sont à nouveau accusés de braquage des éleveurs peuls au village Timbolo, situé à 20 kilomètres de Bambari, chef-lieu de la préfecture de l’Ouaka, au centre de la République centrafricaine.

Swaziland: l’armée déployée pour réprimer les manifestations anti-monarchie | 29 June 2021 | La Libre Afrique

Le royaume africain d’Eswatini (nouveau nom du Swaziland) a déployé l’armée dans les grandes villes pour réprimer les manifestations pro-démocratie de la jeunesse, ont déclaré mardi des militants et des témoins. Le Premier ministre a démenti la fuite du roi Mswati III, sur le trône depuis 1986.

Biafra separatist leader arrested and extradited to Nigeria | 29 June 2021 | The Guardian

The fugitive leader of a prominent Biafra secessionist group has been arrested and extradited to Nigeria to face trial, in a move likely to inflame separatist unrest in south-east Nigeria.

Children killing children’: Two detained over Burkina Faso village massacre | 29 June 2021 | France24

Two suspected jihadists including a local commander have been detained after a massacre in the village of Solhan in northeast Burkina Faso earlier this month, the public prosecutor said Tuesday. The attack, which claimed at least 132 lives, was mostly conducted by children, said the US ambassador to the UN.

UN rights chief slams ‘rampant impunity’ in Mali, warns of security risk | 29 June 2021 | France24

UN High Commissioner for Human Rights Michelle Bachelet on Tuesday condemned the “rampant impunity” as human rights abuses rise in Mali, warning that accountability was essential for peace and security in the strife-torn West African nation.

U.S. backs initiative to focus anti-ISIS fight on Africa -Blinken | 28 June 2021 | Reuters

U.S. Secretary of State Antony Blinken said on Monday the United States strongly supports Italy’s initiative to focus the fight against the Islamic State militia on Africa.

Two explosions hit Congo’s eastern city of Beni | 28 June 2021 | Associated Press

Congo on Monday banned public gatherings for two days in Beni, after the eastern city was hit by two explosions.

Burundi’s peace hangs by a thread | 27 June 2021 | Mail & Guardian

Nineteen-seventy two was tragic in Burundi. That year, a Hutu-led rebellion erupted in the south, killing thousands of Tutsis. The repression that ensued reached genocidal proportions (the likes of which were only witnessed again in 1993). Six weeks from the start of the rebellion, the Tutsi then-president, Colonel Michel Micombero, admitted in an interview that upwards of 100 000 people had been killed. (Other sources at the time put the figure closer to 150 000.)

DR Congo: Grave consequences for children witnessing ‘appalling violence’, UNICEF reports | 25 June 2021 | Devdiscourse

The UN Children’s Fund, UNICEF, appealed on Thursday for urgent resources to support thousands of people who have fled armed violence in two small towns in the eastern part of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) over the past two months.

Isis-linked groups open up new fronts across sub-Saharan Africa | 25 June 2021 | The Guardian

Islamic State’s affiliates in Africa are set for major expansion after a series of significant victories, new alliances and shifts in strategy reinforced their position across much of the continent.

Child soldiers carried out attack that killed at least 138 people in Burkina Faso, officials say | 24 June 2021 | Washington Post

The deadliest massacre that Burkina Faso has suffered since extremists invaded the West African nation was perpetrated by mostly children, officials said, injecting fresh tragedy into the six-year conflict that has killed thousands.

RDC: trois officiers soupçonnés de pratiques mafieuses interpellés en Ituri | 24 June 2021 | La Libre Afrique

Trois officiers supérieurs soupçonnés de pratiques mafieuses sur le terrain des opérations dans le nord-est de la République démocratique du Congo ont été interpellés, a appris l’AFP auprès du parquet militaire. « Nous avons interpellé trois officiers supérieurs soupçonnés de gonflement d’effectifs des militaires en Ituri », dans le Nord-Est, a déclaré à l’AFP le colonel Joseph Makelele Mukenge, procureur militaire dans cette région.

West and Russia clash over Russian mercenaries in CAR | 24 June 2021 | Associated Press

UN panel accuses Russia of Africa killings; Moscow says no | 28 June 2021 | Associated Press

The United States, Britain and France accused Russian mercenaries on Wednesday of operating alongside Central African Republic forces and committing human rights violations against civilians and obstructing U.N. peacekeeping — charges immediately denied by Russia which denounced the Western nations for engaging in an “anti-Russia political hit job.”

Dozens of Congo’s rebels lay down weapons in the east | 23 June 2021 | Reuters

Dozens of militia fighters in the Democratic Republic of Congo have laid down their weapons and surrendered, the first to do so since President Felix Tshisekedi announced martial law to tackle worsening security in two eastern provinces.

Violence is endemic in north central Nigeria: what communities are doing to cope | 23 June 2021 | The Conversation

North central Nigeria, known as the Middle Belt, is home to the country’s capital city Abuja and six other states – Benue, Plateau, Kogi, Nasarawa, Niger and Kwara. The region is volatile, and highly susceptible to militia attacks and sectarian crises. There are also frequent clashes between pastoralists and sedentary farmers.

The Duclert Report and France’s Responsibility in the Genocide of Tutsis in Rwanda | 23 June 2021 | Opinio Juris

27 years after the genocide that targeted the Tutsi population in Rwanda, and in the line of several others, two reports, ordered by France and Rwanda respectively, were published to decipher the role of France in the events.

Somalia’s divided army reflects its divided politics | 23 June 2021 | African Arguments

On 25 April, the Somali National Army (SNA) shocked observers both inside and out the country as it split in two. Amid protests in the capital Mogadishu against the extension of the president’s term, gunfire erupted between hundreds of mutinous uniformed soldiers and those loyal to the government.

The Ongwen Judgement at the ICC: A Missed Opportunity for Former Child Soldiers? | 22 June 2021 | International Law Blog

On 4 February 2021, the Trial Chamber of the International Criminal Court (ICC or Court) issued its verdict in the case The Prosecutor v Dominic Ongwen. Ongwen, who was found guilty of 61 out of 70 counts of war crimes and crimes against humanity, was among the top commanders of the Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA), a rebel group which waged a violent war in Northern Uganda for over two decades.

Children and armed conflict – Report of the Secretary-General (A/75/873–S/2021/437) | 21 June 2021 | UN Security Council | ReliefWeb

The present report, prepared following consultations and covering the period from January to December 2020, is submitted pursuant to Security Council resolution 2427 (2018). The report includes trends regarding the impact of armed conflict on children and information on violations committed, as requested by the Council in its resolution 1612 (2005) and subsequent resolutions. Where possible, violations are attributed to parties to conflict and the annexes to the present report include a list of parties engaging in violations against children, namely the recruitment and use of children, the killing and maiming of children, rape and other forms of sexual violence against children, attacks on schools, hospitals and protected persons in relation to schools and/or hospitals, and the abduction of children.

En Centrafrique, les mercenaires de Wagner accusés d’un nouveau massacre dans le centre nord | 21 June 2021 | CorbeauNews

Les faits sont graves, très graves. Les gens souffrent, et continuent malheureusement de souffrir. Au village Aïgbado, dans la préfecture de la Haute-Kotto, les habitants ne savent désormais à quel saint se vouer. Après avoir été séquestrés par les rebelles du CPC le jeudi 10 juin dernier, c’est désormais le tour des mercenaires russes de procéder au massacre ainsi qu’au pillage dudit village ce samedi 19 juin 2021.

Ippy, les soldats FACA accusés de multiples vols et de braquages à la méthode Wagner | 21 June 2021 | CorbeauNews

Si le maître est un criminel, qu’adviendra- il les élève ? Sans doute, le cocktail FACA – Wagner est en train de devenir un explosif pour le peuple centrafricain. Si dans certaines villes du pays les populations ne cessent de dénoncer le comportement criminel des mercenaires de Wagner, à Ippy, dans l’Ouaka, ce sont plutôt les soldats FACA qui brillent malheureusement par de mauvais comportements jugés plutôt psychopathiques, et ce, deux fois plus que les mercenaires de Wagner. L’élève va-t-il dépasser le maître ?

Le président congolais Tshisekedi dénonce la « mafia » dans l’armée et les institutions | 21 June 2021 | La Libre Afrique

Le président Félix Tshisekedi a dénoncé samedi des pratiques mafieuses et de « magouille » au sein des forces armées et des institutions de la République démocratique du Congo (RDC) lors d’une visite dans le Nord-Est du pays en proie aux violences. « Il y a beaucoup de magouilles qui minent nos forces de sécurité. Il y a la mafia, cette loi de l’omerta, cette loi du silence, c’est à ça qu’il faut s’attaquer », a déclaré le président Tshisekedi à Bunia, capitale de l’Ituri, lors d’un échange avec les représentants de la population de la province.

US General: ‘Wildfire of Terrorism’ on March in Africa | 19 June 2021 | VoA

A senior U.S. general warned Friday that the “wildfire of terrorism” is sweeping across a band of Africa and needs the world’s attention. He spoke at the close of large-scale U.S.-led war games with American, African and European troops.

Liberian rebel sentenced in Switzerland for war crimes, cannibalism | 19 June 2021 | Reuters

A Liberian rebel commander was sentenced in Switzerland to 20 years in jail on Friday for rape, killings and an act of cannibalism, in one of the first ever convictions over the West African country’s civil war.

RCA : Bria, les mercenaires de Wagner multiplient des exactions, le commissaire de police violenté | 18 June 2021 | CorbeauNews

Après le pillage, torture, arrestation arbitraire et assassinat, puis la mise en détention du commissaire de police de Bria, les mercenaires russes et syriens de la société Wagner multiplient des exactions sur les populations locales. Tandis qu’à Bangui, les autorités centrafricaines et leurs alliés multiplient de mensonge dans le seul but de couvrir les exactions commises par leurs alliés de Wagner.

RDC: les FARDC accusées de possibles crimes de guerre en Ituri | 18 June 2021 | RFI

Le président congolais a poursuivi son séjour dans l’est de la RDC, jeudi 17 juin, à Beni et Butembo, au Nord-Kivu, avant d’atterrir à Bunia en Ituri. Félix Tshisekedi a, une fois de plus, défendu l’état de siège instauré dans ces provinces meurtries. Selon lui, il devrait permettre de mettre un terme à l’insécurité, mais aussi aux « magouilles » de l’armée dans la gestion des fonds des opérations. Ces derniers mois, dans ces provinces, les forces de sécurité ont été accusées de faits plus graves encore.

Des groupes armés opèrent en toute impunité dans l’Est de la RDC, selon les Nations Unies | 17 June 2021 | Radio Okapi

Des groupes armés ont continué d’opérer en toute impunité dans l’Est de la République démocratique du Congo (RDC), indique le rapport final d’experts des Nations unies sur la RDC envoyé au président du Conseil de sécurité le 10 juin 2021, et parvenu jeudi 17 juin à Radio Okapi.

RCA : Les recommandations des enquêteurs The Sentry pour mettre fin aux atrocités perpétrées par le groupe Wagner et les forces armées du régime Touadéra | 16 June 2021 | CorbeauNews

The Sentry est une équipe d’enquêteurs qui suit les réseaux de blanchiment d’argent liés aux criminels de guerre spécifiquement en Afrique, aux profiteurs de guerre transnationaux et cherche à exclure ceux qui bénéficient de la violence du système financier international.

Sahel/US: ’We do not want to work with military forces that have committed human rights abuses’ | 16 June 2021 | The Africa Report

The Sahel is once again under a spotlight following rising Islamist attacks in Burkina Faso, Mali’s political instability following two coups, France suspending joint military cooperation with Mali, and the questionable strength of the G5 task force following the death of Chad’s President Idriss Déby. Where does the US stand on these issues? Andrew Young, deputy leader of the United States Africa Command, talks with us about the future of Washington’s engagement in the region.

The Heart of Darkness | 16 June 2021 | NewEurope

The conflict-stricken Central African Republic (CAR) has been struggling to forge a lasting peace since 2013. The deployment back in 2014 of the United Nations Multidimensional Integrated Stabilisation Mission in the Central African Republic (MINUSCA) has not brought any tangible results.

The Islamic State Resurges in Mozambique | 16 June 2021 | Foreign Policy

You might think the Islamic State is dead. In fact, its newest branch is carving out a foothold in southern Africa—and extracting a huge price in lives and livelihoods along the way. In April, French oil giant TotalEnergies pulled out of Mozambique, declaring force majeure on a $20 billion liquified natural gas project, the largest private investment in Africa. The company withdrew its staff from a project site in the country’s far northern Cabo Delgado province after Islamic State-affiliated insurgents overran a nearby town in March.

Terrorism in Côte d’Ivoire is no longer just an external threat | 15 June 2021 | ISS | DefenceWeb

Recent attacks show why authorities must deal with the domestic factors that make the country vulnerable. Several attacks in Côte d’Ivoire along the border with Burkina Faso claimed the lives of six Ivorian soldiers in the past three months. Five others were injured. These incidents have heightened fears of violent extremism spreading in the country.

New report sheds light on the conflict in Mozambique | 15 June 2021 | Mail & Guardian

Since the first attack in the port town of Mocimboa da Praia in 2017, the situation in Cabo Delgado has significantly deteriorated, accounting for roughly 3 000 deaths and hundreds of thousands displaced. Attacks have become bolder in recent months with militants staging a major assault on the town of Palma in March, which killed dozens of people, forced thousands to flee and prompted oil and gas major Total to suspend operations in the area.

Centrafrique : les mercenaires russes accusés d’atrocités sur les civils pour le contrôle de l’or et des diamants| 15 June 2021 | Agence Ecofin

Russian mercenaries accused of atrocities in the Central African Republic (video) | 14 June 2021 | CNN

CNN et l’ONG The Sentry ont publié le 14 juin un rapport alarmant dénonçant les atrocités commises en Centrafrique par les mercenaires russes pour contrôler les mines d’or et de diamants et renforcer l’influence de Moscou sur le continent. Le rapport fait ainsi état « de massacres, d’exécutions extrajudiciaires, de cas de torture, de pillage, d’enlèvements pour rançon, d’incendies de villages et de viols collectifs » perpétrés par le groupe Wagner, une société militaire russe ayant des liens avec le Kremlin, en alliance avec des forces armées loyales au président centrafricain Faustin-Archange Touadéra.

Sénégal: en Casamance, fin des opérations militaires contre le MFDC | 15 June 2021 | RFI

Au Sénégal, on assiste à la fin des opérations militaires lancées le 30 mai dernier en Casamance, dans le sud du pays. Après des opérations menées en janvier dernier contre des positions du Mouvement des forces démocratiques de Casamance (MFDC), l’armée affirme poursuivre sa « mission de sécurisation » pour permettre le retour des populations dans cette région troublée par la rébellion indépendantiste depuis près de quarante ans.

Will Benin be next to see Islamist attacks? | 15 June 2021 | African Arguments

Laws of Attraction: Northern Benin and risk of violent extremist spillover | June 2021 | Clingendael

As Islamist militants in West Africa have expanded the reach of their operations in recent years, many analysts have warned of violent spillovers into new territories. Ahead of the G5 Sahel summit this February, France’s head of foreign intelligence singled out Benin – along with Côte d’Ivoire – as being in imminent danger.

Déclaration du CIRAC sur la situation au Mali | 14 June 2021 | MaliWeb

Le Cercle indépendant de réflexions et d’actions citoyennes (CIRAC) suit avec une profonde préoccupation les évènements politiques en cours au Mali, notamment les récents développements consécutifs aux changements intervenus au sein des instances dirigeantes de la transition dans ce pays, ainsi que les différentes réactions, prises de position ou actions auxquelles ils ont donné lieu sur le plan régional et au niveau international.

Allied Democratic Forces: The Ugandan rebels working with IS in DR Congo | 14 June 2021 | BBC

The eastern region of the Democratic Republic of Congo has long been a cradle of rebel activity, often the spill-over of conflict in neighbouring Rwanda, Burundi and Uganda. Among the most notorious groups now operating there is Uganda’s Allied Democratic Forces (ADF).

Centrafrique – Tchad : quand une guerre fratricide se profile à l’horizon | 14 June 2021 | MaliWeb

Dimanche 30 mai 2021, l’armée centrafricaine dans un raid matinal contre les bidasses de l’un des principaux groupes armés réfractaires au pouvoir du président Faustin Archange Touadera, notamment l’unité pour la paix en Centrafrique (UPC), a outrepassé ses frontières en s’attaquant, sur le territoire tchadien, au poste de Sourou.

RCA : l’Ouham-Péndé, les 3R multiplient des exactions sur les civiles, une femme enceinte assassinée | 14 June 2021 | CorbeauNews

Après l’incendie de plusieurs motocyclettes appartenant aux particuliers la semaine dernière, les rebelles de 3R, membres de la coalition des patriotes pour le changement (CPC) multiplient des exactions sur les populations civiles. Ce lundi 14 juin, dans la matinée, le corps sans vie d’une femme enceinte a été retrouvé au bord de la route, plus précisément au village djoungou, situé à 5 kilomètres de goûter, sur l’axe Bocaranga Bozoum, dans la préfecture de l’Ouham-Péndé.

RCA : les troupes rwandaises cessent leur opération conjointe avec les mercenaires de Wagner | 13 June 2021 | CorbeauNews

Sur décision de l’État major rwandais, les forces spéciales de ce pays déployées en Centrafrique pour sauver le pouvoir du Président Touadera ne participent plus à des opérations conjointes avec les mercenaires de la société Wagner contre les rebelles de la coalition des patriotes pour le changement (CPC).

Bossangoa, au moins 500 ex-combattants désarmés ont reçu des kits à travers le programme de réduction de la violence communautaire | 13 June 2021 | CorbeauNews

Selon la coordination du désarmement, démobilisation, réinsertion et rapatriement (DDRR), environ 3023 combattants issus de 14 groupes armés actifs en Centrafrique ont été désarmés à Bangui, Bimbo, Bégoua et dans les zones de défense du Nord-ouest ainsi que du nord-Est. Cependant, à Bossangoa, plus de 500 combattants ayant choisi de déposer les armes et formés dans différents domaines d’activités génératrices de revenus ont reçu jeudi dernier un important lot de kits pouvant leur permettre de s’auto – prendre en charge. Une initiative de la section désarmement, démobilisation, et réinsertion de la Minusca.

Ituri : après des violents combats avec les FARDC, la CODECO contrôle le centre Fataki | 13 June 2021 | Radio Okapi

Le centre commercial de Fataki, à environ 80 kilomètres au Nord de Bunia dans le territoire de Djugu en Ituri est tombé aux mains des éléments de l’URDPC/CODECO depuis ce dimanche 13 juin. Des sources sécuritaires rapportent que cela est intervenu après des combats avec des militaires FARDC. Plusieurs morts sont signalés dans les deux camps. Deux militaires des FARDC grièvement blessés sont évacués par la MONUSCO à Bunia.

État de siège : le Gouvernement note les conflits entre la communauté “Nyali” et les “Banyabwisha” alliés aux ADF et CODECO | 12 June 2021 |

Intervenant au conseil des Ministres tenu le vendredi 11 juin 2021, sous la présidence du chef du Gouvernement Jean-Michel Sama Lukonde, le Vice-Premier Ministre et Ministre de l’intérieur, la décentralisation et affaires coutumières a présenté la situation globale de l’État, caractérisée d’une part, par la prorogation de l’état de siège décrété dans les provinces de l’Ituri et du Nord-Kivu, et d’autre part, par le retour progressif des victimes de l’éruption du volcan Nyiragongo survenu le 22 mai 2021 à Goma et sa périphérie.

Congo detains alleged ivory trafficker blamed for killings of park rangers | 11 June 2021 | DefenceWeb

Park rangers in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo have arrested a militia leader and alleged ivory trafficker whose fighters are accused of killing 19 rangers, authorities said on Thursday.

Centrafrique: les agissements des FACA et des mercenaires russes dans le viseur de l’ONU | 10 June 2021 | RFI

Le Conseil de sécurité de l’ONU n’aura pas attendu la réunion trimestrielle sur la République centrafricaine prévue dans deux semaines pour réagir à la montée des violences. Il vient de fermement condamner les violations des droits de l’homme, les abus contre le droit international humanitaire, et il a dénoncé les atteintes à l’accord SOFA, qui lie le gouvernement de RCA et la Minusca de l’ONU. Avant de réaffirmer son soutien complet à la Minusca.

Ethiopia: Boy Publicly Executed in Oromia | 10 June 2021 | HRW

Ethiopian government forces summarily executed a 17-year-old boy in Ethiopia’s Oromia region in broad daylight, Human Rights Watch said today. The public execution of Amanuel Wondimu Kebede underscores the lack of accountability for security force abuses in the country.

Nord-Kivu : “50 femmes violées par le groupe armé Mazembe à Oninga”, Juvenal Munubo demande une mission rapide d’évaluation | 10 June 2021 |

Le député national Juvénal Munubo, élu du territoire de Walikale a, ce jeudi 10 juin, alerté sur plusieurs cas de viol qui auraient été commis, entre le 2 au 8 juin, sur plus de 50 femmes dans les territoires de Oninga et Makutano, groupement de Usala, territoire de Walikale, dans la province du Nord-Kivu par les Maï-maï Kabidon.

Nord-Kivu : les miliciens Maï-Maï UPLC font mentir l’armée sur l’attaque de leur position à Kalunguta | 9 June 2021 |

Le lundi 6 juin 2021 dernier, les affrontements ont été signalés dans 3 villages du groupement Buliki entre les miliciens Maï-maï et les rebelles Ougandais ADF.

Exploitation sexuelle des enfants en Ituri : plus de 50 suspects arrêtés à Bunia | 9 June 2021 |

Plus de 50 adultes, hommes et femmes, ont été arrêtés par la brigade de protection d’enfants de la police nationale congolaise dans une période allant du 3 au 29 mai 2021, pour exploitation sexuelle sur des enfants dans la ville de Bunia, en Ituri.

Jihadisme en Côte d’Ivoire: «Il y a une dynamique de recrutement en cours» | 9 June 2021 | RFI

Il y a un an, le 10 juin 2020, quatorze soldats ivoiriens étaient tués dans l’attaque d’un poste avancé à Kafolo, village situé près de la frontière avec le Burkina Faso dans le nord-est de la Côte d’Ivoire. Depuis, cette région n’a pas cessé d’être la cible de jihadistes. Qui sont les jihadistes qui sévissent dans cette zone ? Où se cachent-ils ? Qui est leur chef ? Pour répondre à ces questions, l’auteur de ce rapport, le chercheur Lassina Diarra est l’invité de Pierre Pinto à Abidjan.

France freezes military ties with Central African Republic | 8 June 2021 | Associated Press

France Freezes Aid To Central African Republic Over Its Collusion With Russia | 9 June 2021 | SOFREP

France has suspended military operations with Central African Republic, accusing its government of failing to respect political opposition and failing to stop a “massive” anti-French disinformation campaign.

Armed Islamists’ Latest Sahel Massacre Targets Burkina Faso | 8 June 2021 | HRW

Just after 2 a.m. on June 5, armed Islamist fighters stormed an artisanal gold mining site outside Solhan village in Burkina Faso’s northeastern Yagha province. Witnesses told Human Rights Watch that the attackers opened fire on everyone that moved, killing over 140 people. Some villagers were shot as they ran for cover, others while they cowered in houses and shops, others as they begged for their lives. Among the victims were at least eight children.

Tanzania expels over 3 000 Mozambique refugees | 8 June 2021 | CAJNewsAfrica

Tanzania has reportedly forced back more than 3 000 civilians fleeing terror attacks in neighbouring Mozambique. The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) has expressed concern at the expulsions.

Cameroonian Human Rights Lawyer Detained on Bogus Terrorism Charges | 7 June 2021 | HRW

Today marks one week since prominent Cameroonian human rights lawyer, Amungwa Tanyi Nicodemus, was thrown behind bars on bogus charges of inciting terrorism. He should be released immediately.

RCA : témoignage d’une victime des mercenaires russes capturée dans la localité de Baboua, au Nord-ouest | 7 June 2021 | CorbeauNews

Depuis plus de trois mois, les mercenaires de Wagner et les soldats FACA mènent des opérations de ratissage contre les rebelles de la coalition des patriotes pour le changement (CPC) dans les préfectures de l’Ouham-Péndé et de la Nana-Mambéré. Plusieurs civils ont été capturés et tués, d’autres transférés à Bangui et présentés par les autorités comme des mercenaires rebelles. L’un d’entre eux que nous considérons comme un miraculeux témoigne sur les réseaux sociaux.

Le Tchad et la République centrafricaine demandent une enquête sur un incident frontalier | 7 June 2021 | Afrique Centrale

Le Tchad et la République centrafricaine (RCA) ont appelé les Nations Unies et l’Union africaine à enquêter sur un incident qui s’est produit à un poste frontière au cours duquel au moins six soldats tchadiens et trois Russes en mission militaire pour aider la RCA ont été tués.

Burkina Faso: Islamist groups target civilians in ‘cycle of vendettas’ | 7 June 2021 | France24

At least 160 civilians, including volunteer anti-terrorism fighters, were killed in northern Burkina Faso on Friday in the deadliest Islamist attack in the country since 2015, plunging the country once more into mourning.

Somaliland Opposition Joins Forces to Grab Control of Parliament | 7 June 2021 | VoA

Two opposition parties in the self-declared republic of Somaliland said Sunday they had formed a coalition giving them a majority in parliament following long-delayed local and legislative elections.

Terrorisme au Sahel : les États impuissants ? (video) | 7 June 2021 | France24

Le Burkina Faso toujours sous le choc deux jours après l’attaque terroriste à Solhan dans le nord du pays, la plus meurtrière depuis plus de cinq ans. Selon le dernier bilan, au moins 160 personnes ont été tuées. Cette attaque a eu lieu dans la zone dite des trois frontières entre le Burkina Faso, le Mali et le Niger, régulièrement ciblée par des assauts de jihadistes liés à Al-Qaïda et à l’organisation État islamique. Face à la fréquence des attaques terroristes au Sahel, les États sont-ils impuissants ?

Tribal Clashes in Sudan’s Darfur Reportedly Kill at Least 36 | 7 June 2021 | Bloomberg

Tribal clashes erupted over the weekend between Arabs and non-Arabs in Sudan’s western Darfur region, killing at least 36 people, the state-run news agency reported.

Violence Continues to Threaten Stability in Central Africa, Special Representative Tells Security Council, Calling for Greater International Efforts | 7 June 2021 | UN Security Council | ReliefWeb

Despite gains in Central Africa, from fostering peace to fighting the COVID 19 pandemic, tensions and pockets of continued violence continue to threaten stability and civilian safety, the Special Representative of the Secretary-General for the subregion told the Security Council today.

Cattle thieves kill 66 villagers in Nigeria | 6 June 2021 | The Guardian

A gang of cattle thieves have killed 66 people in raids on seven villages in north-west Nigeria’s Kebbi state, police say. Dozens of assailants on motorcycles attacked seven neighbouring villages in Danko-Wasagu district on Thursday, Kebbi state police spokesman Nafiu Abubakar told AFP on Saturday.

Belgium supports the fight against impunity in the DRC | 6 June 2021 | Belgian Government | ReliefWeb

Along with the European Union, Belgium strongly condemns the violence in the eastern part of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), particularly in Ituri and North Kivu, where attacks have increased in recent days, causing numerous civilians casualties, including women and children.

SSPDF to prosecute soldiers for various crimes | 6 June 2021 | Radio Tamazuj

The South Sudan People’s Defence Forces (SSPDF) said it has established four mobile courts to try soldiers who have committed various crimes across the country.

Le Burkina victime de l’attaque la plus meurtrière de son histoire | 5 June 2021 | Jeune Afrique

Le bilan de l’attaque la plus meurtrière qui a visé dans la nuit de vendredi à samedi le village de Solhan dans le nord-est du pays, est monté à 160 morts.

Chinese Mercenaries in Africa | 5 June 2021 | Small Wars Journal

Chinese investments in Africa have multiplied in recent years, especially since the 2013 launch of the Belt & Road Initiative (BRI). But China has realized that it is a mistake to entrust security and development to trade alone. A new generation of Chinese private security companies sees the BRI as an opportunity for lucrative contracts and international expansion, but its shortcomings are evident on the ground. Currently, the few properly certified Chinese private security companies in Africa appear to be operating semi-autonomously, oriented towards niche markets. And so far not as an extension of the state, but these companies may be the tool Beijing needs to prevent the defense of its citizens and assets from forcing it into military interventions that, for the time being, remain beyond its reach.

SSPDF denies involvement in Lianya killings, blames NAS | 4 June 2021 | Radio Tamazuj

The South Sudan People’s Defence Forces (SSPDF) has denied that its soldiers were involved in the killing of a cleric and several other people in Lainya County of Central Equatoria on Tuesday, 1 June.

Attacks in Eastern DR Congo Kill Dozens, Force 1,000s to Flee | 4 June 2021 | VoA

The U.N. refugee agency says at least 57 civilians were killed, including seven children, and nearly 6,000 forced to flee, when their displacement sites came under attack in the Democratic Republic of Congo’s eastern Ituri province on May 31.

West Africa’s Islamist insurgency: Fight at a critical stage | 4 June 2021 | BBC

The multinational effort to stave off an encroaching takeover by extremists in the part of Africa known as the Sahel is facing severe challenges. Mali, where around 400 British troops are currently deployed, has just experienced its second coup in nine months, widely condemned by regional leaders.

La France suspend ses opérations militaires conjointes avec l’armée malienne | 3 June 2021 | France24

La France “a décidé de suspendre les opérations militaires conjointes avec les forces maliennes”, a annoncé jeudi le ministère des Armées, après le récent coup d’État du 24 mai. Et cela “dans l’attente de garanties” sur un retour des civils au pouvoir à l’issue d’élections prévues en février.

More than 230 killed in two weeks in South Sudan gun violence | 3 June 2021 | The East African

More than 230 people have died as a result of gun violence in South Sudan in the past two weeks, raising new concerns for disarmament in the country. The latest incident occurred on Tuesday where seven people were killed in Pigi County of Jonglei State, in a cattle rustling attack.

La CPI et les crimes présumés commis au Mali (1ere partie) : L’« affaire Amadou Haya SANOGO » et le « cas Aminata SOUMARE » à la loupe | 3 June 2021 | MaliWeb

La CPI et les crimes présumés commis au Mali (2eme partie) | 7 June 2021 | MaliWeb

Professeur de Droit international à la retraite, Dr Salifou Fomba est aussi ancien membre et rapporteur de la commission d’enquête du Conseil de sécurité de l’ONU sur le génocide au Rwanda. Au fil de sa carrière, il a occupé de hautes fonctions au ministère des Affaires étrangère de notre pays. Dans cette réflexion, Dr Salifou Fomba apporte son éclairage sur la Cour pénale internationale (CPI), la saisine par le Mali sur les crimes commis chez nous. Aussi, il aborde un dossier d’actualité à savoir l’ « affaire Amadou Aya Sanogo » et le « cas Aminata Soumaré », une victime des affrontements entre « bérets verts et bérets rouges ».

ACLED Regional Overview – Africa (22-28 May 2021) | 3 June 2021 | ACLED | ReliefWeb

Last week in Africa, outbreaks of intercommunal violence left dozens of people dead in Sudan and South Sudan; armed groups carried out mass killings in Nigeria and the Democratic Republic of Congo; and Islamic State militants launched a series of deadly attacks on civilians in the Central Sahel, as the Malian military staged another coup.

RDC : l’ONU condamne des attaques par un groupe armé contre des camps de déplacés dans le Nord Kivu et l’Ituri | 2 June 2021 | UN News

Le Secrétaire général de l’ONU, António Guterres, a condamné fermement les attaques perpétrées dimanche par des membres présumés du groupe armé des Forces démocratiques alliées (ADF) dans l’est de la République démocratique du Congo (RDC).

Mali: Military must ‘scrupulously’ respect human rights and free civilian leaders | 2 June 2021 | UN News

A UN independent human rights expert said on Wednesday that Mali’s new military authorities should “scrupulously respect human rights” and release all leaders detained in last week’s coup.

Fighting the Wrong Enemy in Africa | 2 June 2021 | CounterPunch

In the West, citizens have for years been given the impression that ‘jihad’ is spreading like a ‘contagion‘ n the Maghreb and sub-Saharan Africa. News editors in London and New York know that adding the magical letters I and S to a story gives it instant wings.

Chad accuses Central African Republic troops of war crimes | 1 June 2021 | Jurist

Poussée de fièvre entre la RCA et le Tchad | 1 June 2021 | DW

La Centrafrique calme la tension avec le Tchad | 2 June 2021 | DW

Chad’s defense ministry said Sunday that troops of their neighboring country the Central African Republic (CAR) had attacked a Chadian military post and that these actions amounted to a war crime.

SPLM-N negotiations to resume tomorrow | 1 June 2021 | Dabanga

The Negotiations between Sudan’s transitional government and the Sudan People’s liberation Movement-North (SPLM-N) under the leadership of Abdelaziz El Hilu, will resume in Juba tomorrow after a 24-hours break requested by the SPLM-N to study the government’s response to its draft framework agreement.

My story proves Rwanda’s lack of respect for good governance and human rights | 1 June 2021 | Victoire Ingabire Umuhoza | The Guardian

If Rwanda had hosted the Commonwealth heads of government meeting, which has been cancelled for the second time due to Covid-19, the UK was due to hand the country the Commonwealth chair.

R2P Monitor, Issue 57 | 1 June 2021 | Global Centre for the Responsibility to Protect

R2P Monitor is a quarterly bulletin applying the atrocity prevention lens to populations at risk of mass atrocities around the world. Issue 57 looks at developments in Afghanistan, Cameroon, Central Sahel (Burkina Faso, Mali and Niger), China, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ethiopia, Israel and the Occupied Palestinian Territories, Myanmar (Burma), Syria, Venezuela, Yemen, Mozambique, Central African Republic, Nigeria, South Sudan and Sudan.

Global Report on Internal Displacement 2021 | May 2021 | Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre

IDMC’s Global Report on Internal Displacement is the official repository of data and analysis on internal displacement. This year’s GRID discusses the relationship between climate change, disasters and displacement, and presents good practices from across the globe in advancing policy, displacement risk reduction and effective response.


Ethiopia accuses international community of ‘double standards’ in Tigray conflict | 29 July 2021 | The East African

The Ethiopian government on Wednesday accused the international community of responding with “dead silence” to belligerence by the Tigray People’s Liberation Front (TPLF).

Ethiopia’s Amhara state rallies youth to fight Tigrayan forces as war widens | 25 July 2021 | Reuters

Ethiopia’s Amhara region on Sunday called on “all young people” to take up arms against forces from the neighbouring region of Tigray, who claimed to have taken over a town in Amhara for the first time since the conflict began.

Tigray Defence Forces Commander says Addis Ababa within reach | 25 July 2021 | Daily News Egypt

Commander of Tigray Defence Forces (TDF) General Tsadkan Gebretensae has said that they could march to Ethiopian capital Addis Ababa with no real opposition.

Widening Ethiopia Conflict Displaces Tens of Thousands of People | 21 July 2021 | Bloomberg

A widening conflict in northern Ethiopia displaced tens of thousands of people, after fighting spread from the Tigray region to neighboring Afar state, a government official said.

Ethiopia’s Tigray forces enter neighbouring Afar region, Afar says | 19 July 2021 | Reuters

Forces from Ethiopia’s northern Tigray region have mounted attacks in neighbouring Afar region, a spokesman for Afar said on Monday, marking an expansion of an eight-month-old conflict into a previously untouched area.

Ethiopia’s PM Abiy vows to crush TPLF ‘once and for all’ | 19 July 2021 | The East African

Ethiopian Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed on Sunday vowed to wipe out the Tigray People’s Liberation Front (TPLF), a group that was once the country’s ruling party, but which Addis Ababa now considers a terrorist movement.

Ethiopia’s Tigray forces say they freed 1,000 captured soldiers | 18 July 2021 | Reuters

Forces in Ethiopia’s northern Tigray region have released around 1,000 government soldiers captured during recent fighting, the head of its ruling party said, as both sides prepared for a showdown over contested land in the west of the region.

Could the Tigray Defense Force Invade Eritrea? | 17 July 2021 | The National Interest

Should the Tigray Defense Forces enter Eritrea or, more likely, organize and support Eritrean opposition forces, the Eritrean government may find that this conscript army will dissolve and defect.

A legal solution to Ethiopia’s military problems in and around Tigray | 16 July 2021 | Ethiopia Insight

The armed conflict that broke out on 3 November 2020 between, primarily, the Ethiopian National Defense Force (ENDF) and the armed forces of the Tigray Regional Government has resulted in an immeasurable loss, injury, and damage to all parties.

Three more regions reinforce Ethiopia army, Amhara against Tigray forces | 16 July 2021 | Reuters

Three more Ethiopian regions are sending soldiers to reinforce the national army in its fight against forces from the northern region of Tigray, regional officials said, widening a conflict that has so far largely affected the north.

Ethiopia’s Tigray crisis: Fleeing for fear of new ethnic conflict | 16 July 2021 | BBC

Almost every night, a handful of young men slip across the well-guarded border, swimming across a fast-flowing brown river and trudging into Sudan to escape what they say is a sudden upsurge in ethnic violence in the far western corner of Ethiopia’s Tigray region.

Éthiopie: la reprise des combats au Tigré fait planer le spectre d’une guerre d’indépendance | 15 July 2021 | Le Figaro

Depuis plusieurs semaines la contre-offensive menée par les Forces de défense du Tigré (FDT) leur a permis de reprendre le contrôle d’une large partie de la région. Le mardi 13 juillet, Getachew Reda, leur porte-parole, a annoncé à l’AFP la prise de la ville d’Alamata. «Hier, nous avons lancé une offensive dans la région de Raya (sud du Tigré) et nous sommes parvenus à mettre en déroute les divisions des forces de défense fédérales et des forces amhara », souligne-t-il. Le lendemain, le premier ministre éthiopien, Abiy Ahmed, a, lui, promis de «repousser les attaques» des «ennemis internes et externes », dans un communiqué publié sur Twitter.

‘We won’t back down’: Ethnic militias rush to Tigray border | 15 July 2021 | France24

When war broke out last year in Ethiopia’s northern Tigray region, Solomon Alabachew acted fast, grabbing his Kalashnikov and rushing to the front with his fellow ethnic Amhara militia fighters.

Ethiopia Accuses Aid Groups of ‘Arming’ Tigray Fighters | 15 July 2021 | Associated Press | US News

Ethiopia’s government has accused humanitarian aid groups working in its war-hit Tigray region of “arming” Tigray fighters and threatened to halt some groups’ operations there.

Ethiopian regulator suspends Addis Standard news website | 15 July 2021 | Reuters

Ethiopia’s media regulator said it had suspended the news website The Addis Standard on Thursday and accused it of advancing the agenda of a terrorist group.

Hundreds of Tigrayans detained in Ethiopian capital in recent weeks, witnesses say | 15 July 2021 | Reuters

Ethiopian police have detained hundreds of ethnic Tigrayans in Addis Ababa since federal government forces lost control of the Tigray region’s capital on June 28, according to some of those who say they were released.

Ethiopia conflict heats up as Amhara region vows to attack Tigray forces | 15 July 2021 | Reuters

Ethiopia’s war in the northern region of Tigray looked set to intensify on Wednesday as the prime minister signalled the end of a government ceasefire and the neighbouring Amhara region said it would go on the offensive against Tigrayan forces.

Ethiopia’s Tigray Conflict Deepens as Abiy Cease-Fire Fails | 14 July 2021 | Bloomberg

The northern Ethiopia conflict may be headed for a dangerous turn after Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed’s unilateral cease-fire failed and he backed calls to resist Tigray forces advancing to retake territory.

Tigray rebels say they capture main town, push south and west | 13 July 2021 | Reuters

Rebels in Ethiopia’s Tigray region said on Tuesday they had recaptured a main town from rival forces and were pushing to take back more territory.

U.S. condemns retaliatory attacks against civilians in Ethiopia’s Tigray region | 13 July 2021 | Reuters

The United States is gravely concerned about reports of hostilities in Ethiopia’s Tigray and condemns any retaliatory attacks against civilians in the region, a State Department spokesman said on Monday.

Tigray forces push south as Amhara militias mobilise | 13 July 2021 | Reuters

Forces in Ethiopia’s Tigray pushed deeper into land claimed by neighbouring Amhara region on Tuesday, prompting its leaders – allies of the central government – to urge local militia to arm themselves and mobilise.

En Éthiopie, le viol collectif vicieux des femmes est devenu une arme contre le Tigré dans la guerre civile | 12 July 2021 | Global Voices

Il est difficile de choisir l’histoire la plus troublante de la guerre civile en cours dans la région du Tigré en Éthiopie. Il y a cette histoire d’une femme de 40 ans qui a été violée à plusieurs reprises par un groupe de 15 soldats érythréens et abandonnée au bord d’une route. Il y a aussi l’histoire d’une femme de 34 ans qui a été violée par quatre militaires amhara et une tige de métal chaud a été insérée dans ses organes génitaux pour brûler son utérus. Et puis il y a l’histoire d’une femme de 65 ans qui a été forcée de regarder ses deux filles être violées par un groupe de soldats et battues devant elle.

Amhara troops attacking Tigray people in Humera and Alamata | 10 July 2021 | GaroweOnline

The conflict in Tigray could be far from over despite the declaration of a ceasefire, Garowe Online has learnt, due to ongoing antagonism within the region, mainly targeting the Tigrayan community which lives in northern Ethiopia.

Rebel victories in Tigray are a watershed moment for Ethiopia | 9 July 2021 | TimesNow

The Tigray People’s Liberation Front’s control over Tigray poses an existential threat to Isaias Afwerki, Eritrea’s authoritarian President.

Ethiopian conflict and international law | 7 July 2021 | Black Star News

I spoke to legal scholar Francis A. Boyle, who said that a “Responsibility-to-Protect” intervention in Ethiopia would be illegal and catastrophic.

Blinken calls for indefinite ceasefire in call with Ethiopia’s Abiy | 7 July 2021 | DefenceWeb

US Secretary of State Antony Blinken called Ethiopian Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed on Tuesday, stressing the need for all parties to commit to an immediate and indefinite ceasefire in the northern Tigray region, the State Department said.

Ethiopia’s Looming Catastrophe | 7 July 2021 | Bloomberg

Ethiopian Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed erred disastrously last November in launching a war against his own people in the northern Tigray region. He has a chance to reverse his mistake, and he needs to seize it.

Hundreds of Women and Girls Brutalized by Soldiers in Tigray War (video) | 7 July 2021 | VoA

Hundreds of women and girls in Ethiopia’s Tigray region have reported brutal rapes at the hands of soldiers in a war that is still ongoing, despite last week’s government troop withdrawal. As VOA’s Heather Murdock reports from Mekelle, the rape victims who come forward say they are only a small percentage of the women and girls who have been brutalized.

Tigray rebel chief calls for political solution to conflict in Ethiopia | 6 July 2021 | Reuters

The commander of rebel forces in Tigray on Tuesday called for a negotiated ceasefire with the Ethiopian government and a political solution to the conflict in the northern region, saying the government could not win the war.

Tigray forces mobilise against militias from neighbouring province | 6 July 2021 | The Guardian

Insurgent forces in Tigray are mobilising for new conflict against militia from a neighbouring province in Ethiopia, with thousands of new volunteers joining their ranks after federal forces withdrew following more than eight months of war.

Incestuous Relationship Between Western Politics And Western Media: Case Of Ethiopian Conflict | 6 July 2021 | Eurasia Review

Let’s face it: Ethiopia is at a crossroads, unsure if it will continue to exist as a coherent nation-state or if it will crumble into a collection of regions that variously fight each other or the rump leftovers of the central government. Two big words are knocking on Ethiopia’s door with increasing impatience: FAILED STATE.

Ethiopia’s Tigray demands troop withdrawals for ceasefire talks | 4 July 2021 | Reuters

Ethiopia’s Tigray region wants a full withdrawal of troops from Eritrea and the neighbouring state of Amhara before it can engage in any talks with the federal government about a ceasefire, it said in a statement on Sunday.

400,000 in Tigray cross ‘threshold into famine’, with nearly 2 million on the brink, Security Council told | 2 July 2021 | UN News

Senior UN officials appealed on Friday for immediate and unrestricted humanitarian access to Tigray – and for an end to deadly attacks on aid workers – as the Security Council held its first open meeting on the conflict in the restive northern Ethiopian region.

Ethiopia denies trying to ‘suffocate’ Tigray region | 2 July 2021 | Washington Post

Ethiopia’s government on Friday rejected accusations that it’s trying to “suffocate” the people of Tigray by denying them urgently needed food and other aid, as transport and communications links remained severed to the region that faces the world’s worst famine crisis in a decade.

Analysis: Ethiopia govt withdrawal from Tigray capital opens new chapter in war | 2 July 2021 | Reuters

The capture of the Tigray regional capital by its ousted rulers this week was a dramatic setback for Ethiopia’s government, diplomats and analysts say, opening a new chapter in a brutal war but by no means bringing it to an end.

Unable to control Tigray, Ethiopia isolates region already beset by famine and war | 2 July 2021 | Washington Post

The Ethiopian government’s inability to sustain its military offensive in the mountainous northern Tigray region was laid bare this week, as rebel forces chased their adversaries out of key cities and were met, as they triumphantly marched in, with jubilation from locals who see them as liberators.

Fall of Tigray capital marks new phase of Ethiopia war | 2 July 2021 | France24

Rebel fighters in Ethiopia’s war-hit Tigray stunned the world this week by retaking the regional capital Mekele, sparking boastful statements by their leaders and rowdy street celebrations by their supporters.

Ethiopia denies blocking aid to Tigray where WFP trucks waited days to unload | 2 July 2021 | Reuters

Ethiopia on Friday denied blocking humanitarian aid to its northern Tigray region where hundreds of thousands face starvation, and said it was rebuilding infrastructure amid accusations it is using hunger as a weapon.

Trapped in Ethiopia’s Tigray, People ‘Falling Like Leaves’ | 30 June 2021 | VoA

The plea arrived from a remote area that had so far produced only rumors and residents fleeing for their lives. Help us, the letter said, stamped and signed by a local official. At least 125 people already have starved to death.

Ethiopia: Uncertainty in Tigray after rebels take control of restive north | 30 June 2021 | DW

Ethiopia PM says army quit Tigray as no longer ‘centre’ of conflict | 30 June 2021 | Reuters

What’s behind the renewed conflict in Ethiopia’s Tigray region? | 30 June 2021 | Washington Post

The rebel Tigray Defense Forces claimed Mekele and Shire were under their control. Experts warn of a precarious situation after Ethiopia’s federal government called a unilateral cease-fire.

Rape as a strategy of war: demanding protection and justice for the women and girls of Tigray | 30 June 2021 | SABC

The 2018 Nobel Laureate, Dr. Denis Mukwege, a gynaecologist celebrated for his work with survivors of sexual assault in the Democratic Republic of Congo’s Panzi Hospital said, “Rape is a strategy of war – it is meant to destroy women and communities physically and mentally”. Sadly, this destruction has become a daily reality for women and girls in Tigray.

Washington says it will not ‘stand by in the face of horrors’ in Tigray | 29 June 2021 | Reuters

Ethiopia and Eritrea should anticipate further actions from the United States if the announced cessation of hostilities does not lead to improvements in the Tigray region, a senior U.S. State Department official said on Tuesday.

Tigray rebels vow to drive out ‘enemies’ despite ceasefire declaration | 29 June 2021 | The Guardian

Tigray fighters in Ethiopia reject cease-fire as ‘sick joke’ | 29 June 2021 | Associated Press

Dissident leaders of Ethiopia’s war-hit Tigray have dismissed a government ceasefire declaration and vowed to drive out “enemies” from the region, after rebel fighters advanced on the Tigrayan capital.

Ottawa must stop aid to Ethiopia in light of human rights violations | 29 June 2021 | National Post

Ottawa should stop sending millions of dollars in aid to the Ethiopian government and push for creating a no-fly zone and delivering air-dropped food aid to the people of the Tigray region, who have been under attack from the federal military for nearly eight months, advocates say.

Interim government of Tigray flees as rebels seize capital | 28 June 2021 | The Guardian

Tigrayan Forces take over capital Mekelle; Fed. Gov accepts interim admin’s call for unilateral ceasefire | 28 June 2021 | Addis Standard

The interim government of Ethiopia’s war-hit Tigray region has fled as rebel fighters advanced into the region’s capital and the national government announced a “unilateral ceasefire”.

Ethiopia’s sovereignty and the Responsibility to Protect in Tigray | 27 June 2021 | Ethiopia Insight

The civil war in Ethiopia’s northern Tigray region brings into focus tensions between the traditional principle of state sovereignty and the emerging Responsibility to Protect (R2P) norm.

Ethiopia’s Tigray crisis: What happened the day a bomb hit a market | 27 June 2021 | BBC

Conflicting accounts have been circulating following an Ethiopian missile strike on a market town in the northern region of Tigray. The Ethiopian government said it was targeting militants, but multiple sources have described heavy civilian casualties including women and children. We’ve used witness accounts, aerial images and official statements to build a detailed picture of what happened.

Statement on the killing of three MSF aid workers in the Tigray Region | 26 June 2021 | UNCT | ReliefWeb

Tigray: UN condemns murder of 3 MSF humanitarians as ‘appalling violation’ of international law | 26 June 2021 | UN News

Three employees of the Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) agency have been killed by unknown attackers in the restive Tigray region of Ethiopia, drawing swift condemnation from UN Secretary-General António Guterres who said on Saturday he was “deeply shocked” by the murders.

4 Things to Know about Tigray’s Humanitarian Crisis as Ethiopia Counts Votes | 25 June 2021 | Global Citizen

While Ethiopia’s national elections took place on June 21 2021, the conflict in the country’s Tigray region only worsened. Just 34% of citizens in Africa’s second-most populous country were registered to vote, with polls located in six of the country’s 10 regions. Authorities were unable to hold elections in the other four regions, including conflict-ridden Tigray.

Ethiopia’s Tigray crisis: Heavy casualties reported after air strike | 24 June 2021 | BBC

Dozens of people have reportedly been killed or injured after Ethiopia’s air force bombed a market in the northern region of Tigray. Eyewitnesses told the BBC the Ethiopian air force struck the town of Togoga on Tuesday, 25km (15 miles) from the region’s capital, Mekelle.

Ethiopia: Joint statement by the High Representative Borrell and Commissioner Lenarčič on the airstrike in the Tigray region | 23 June 2021 | EU External Action Service

The reports on the bombing of a market place in the village of Edaga Selus near Togoga in the Dogua Tembien District of the Tigray Region on 22 June are extremely worrying. This is yet another attack adding up to the horrific series of International Humanitarian Law and human rights violations, atrocities, ethnic violence, combined with serious allegations of use of starvation and sexual violence as weapons of conflict.

U.N. expert says Eritrea has ‘effective control’ in parts of Tigray | 22 June 2021 | Reuters

Eritrea now has “effective control” of parts of Ethiopia’s Tigray region, a U.N. human rights expert said on Tuesday, calling for troops to withdraw and for a prompt investigation into abuses, including the abduction of refugees.

Ethiopia’s Tigray crisis: Abiy Ahmed denies reports of hunger | 22 June 2021 | BBC

Ethiopia’s Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed has denied that there is hunger in the country’s war-torn Tigray region. Speaking at a polling station on the day of the country’s general election, Mr Abiy admitted there was a problem but said the government could fix it.

Don’t betray women of Tigray’: calls grow for international action against rape in war | 19 June 2021 | The Guardian

The former prime minister of New Zealand, Helen Clark, and Zimbabwean author and 2020 Booker prize nominee Tsitsi Dangarembga are among the signatories of two separate letters demanding international action after shocking reports of sexual violence in Tigray.

Ethiopian leaders told me they’re going to wipe out, destroy Tigryans”, claims EU envoy | 18 June 2021 | Addis Standard

Finnish FM: EU envoy work continues despite Ethiopian criticism | 23 June 2021 | Euractiv

An alarming video with claims from Pekka Haavisto, Foreign Minister of Finland and EU’s envoy to Ethiopia has emerged in which the top EU diplomat alleged that Ethiopian leaders told him in February of their intents to “wipe out the Tigrayans.”

Eritrea files new complaint with UN over Tigray allegations | 17 June 2021 | Africa Times

The Eritrean government has filed another complaint against the United Nations Security Council and UN heads of humanitarian agencies over the situation in the Tigray region of Ethiopia.

Warnings of Genocide in Ethiopia’s Tigray | 16 June 2021 | Gariwo

Between November and December 2020, a civil war took place in Tigray, a region in Northern Ethiopia, Africa’s most populous country after Nigeria. The war involved the Ethiopian army, commanded by Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed and backed by Eritrean troops, and the Tigray’s People Liberation Front (TPLF), which challenged Ethiopia’s central government. The war, which stemmed from decades-long tensions, officially ended in December. Yet, the conflict kept escalating and ravaging the Tigray region. More than two million people are now displaced, around four million require aid, and Ethiopian and Eritrean troops have been accused of ethnic cleansing, massacres, and other atrocities in Tigray that amount to war crimes. Some even discuss the Tigray crisis in terms of genocide.

Sexual Violence and the War in Tigray | 16 June 2021 | Lawfare

It is now indisputable that the outbreak of war in Tigray, a region in northern Ethiopia, in November 2020 has resulted in widespread conflict-related sexual violence. In mid-April, the top public health official in the interim government in Tigray (a body established by the federal government) told Reuters that there have been more than 820 reported cases of sexual violence registered across five hospitals since the start of conflict. This health official further asserted that women are being subjected to “sexual slavery.” There are now assertions that the sexual violence in Tigray constitutes “genocidal rape.”

Tens of Thousands of Tigray Children Face Imminent Death, UNICEF Warns | 15 June 2021 | VoA

The U.N. Children’s Fund warns at least 33,000 severely malnourished children in northern Ethiopia’s Tigray region face imminent death if they do not receive immediate help to treat their condition.

Starvation has become a weapon of war in Ethiopia. U.S. action is urgent | 15 June 2021 | The Washington Post

For months, humanitarian agencies have been warning that famine could spread in the Ethiopian region of Tigray if government forces and allied troops from neighboring Eritrea did not end a brutal campaign to subjugate the area. Now that emergency has arrived. U.N. agencies reported last week that more than 350,000 of Tigray’s 6 million people are living in famine conditions, and 2 million more are at risk. Some 140,000 of those facing starvation are children, according to UNICEF, which says 33,000 are at imminent risk of death.

Ethiopie : les rebelles du TPLF accusés de faire entrer des armes de contrebande | 14 June 2021 | Journal du Tchad

Le gouvernement éthiopien a déclaré avoir des preuves crédibles que certains « éléments étrangers » ont tenté de faire passer des armes au Front de libération du peuple du Tigré (TPLF) sous couvert d’aide humanitaire. Un message vidéo pré enregistré publié par le ministère des Affaires étrangères au cours du week-end, le vice-premier ministre, Demeke Mekonnen, a déclaré que l’Éthiopie était déçue par une campagne secrète apparemment menée contre sa gestion de la situation dans la région troublée du Tigré.

EU and the US Concerned About the Humanitarian Emergency in Tigray | 11 June 2021 | IndepthNews

Together with the United Nations, the European Commission has urged “all parties to the conflict” in Ethiopia’s Tigray region to agree to “a ceasefire immediately to facilitate humanitarian assistance to reach all people in need in Tigray regardless of where they are and to stop violence against civilians”.

In Tigray, food is often a weapon of war as famine looms | 11 June 2021 | The Associated Press

First the Eritrean soldiers stole the pregnant woman’s food as she hid in the bush. Then they turned her away from a checkpoint when she was on the verge of labor.

About 350,000 people in Ethiopia’s Tigray in famine -U.N. Analysis | 11 June 2021 | Reuters

More than 350,000 people in Ethiopia’s Tigray are suffering famine conditions, with millions more at risk, according to an analysis by United Nations agencies and aid groups that blamed conflict for the worst catastrophic food crisis in a decade.

U.S. provides over $181 million to avert famine in Tigray, Ethiopia | 10 June 2021 | Reuters

The United States is providing more than $181 million to deliver food, water and aid to feed more than three million people it said were facing famine in the Tigray region of Ethiopia, where thousands have been killed since conflict erupted in November.

Atrocity Alert No. 256: Ethiopia, Burkina Faso and Justice for Past Atrocities | 10 June 2021 | GCR2P | ReliefWeb

The UN Under-Secretary-General for Humanitarian Affairs and Emergency Relief Coordinator, Mark Lowcock, warned on Friday, 4 June, that famine is “imminent” in Ethiopia’s northern Tigray region, stating that aid workers were already seeing starvation-related deaths. He stressed that, “there are now hundreds of thousands of people in northern Ethiopia in famine conditions… This now has horrible echoes of the colossal tragedy in Ethiopia in 1984,” comparing the current situation in Tigray to a notorious famine that killed over a million people in Ethiopia four decades ago.

Children Shot, Bombed and Knifed in Tigray War | 8 June 2021 | VoA

Fifteen-year-old Beriha lost one eye in the war and was permanently blinded in the other. And like many of the children hospitalized in Mekelle, the capital of Ethiopia’s Tigray region, she traveled for weeks to get here. Children in the ward had been shot, knifed or hit by shrapnel from heavy artillery. Some lost limbs from stepping on landmines.

How ethnic killings exploded from an Ethiopian town | 7 June 2021 | Reuters

Soon after fighting broke out in Ethiopia’s western Tigray region last year, conflicting accounts surfaced of an ethnic massacre in a farming town called Mai Kadra. Now Reuters has uncovered how the violence began and the brutal cycle of vengeance and slaughter that followed.

Witnesses to slaughter: The conflict in Ethiopia | 7 June 2021 | DefenceWeb

In November last year, fighting erupted in Ethiopia’s Tigray region between the rebellious Tigray People’s Liberation Front (TPLF) and the army. Within days, reports emerged of communal killings in a farming town called Mai Kadra, in western Tigray.

Lost Limbs, Rising Anger as Town Is Caught up in Tigray War | 4 June 2021 | The Associated Press | Pulitzer Center

Shops remained shuttered, some government workers hadn’t been paid and the town’s main hospital was utterly laid to waste. But the Tigrayan fighters still claimed victory, swaggering through the streets of Hawzen with their guns. It wouldn’t last long.

Ethiopia rejects calls for ceasefire in Tigray, claiming victory is near | 3 June 2021 | The Guardian

UN says pause in fight against rebels would enable aid to reach province where 90% of people risk starvation. The Ethiopian government has defiantly brushed aside international calls for a ceasefire in the northern province of Tigray, saying its forces are close to “finalising operations” and will soon eliminate all armed opposition.

Ethiopian government defends actions in Tigray Region, accuses critics of ‘orchestrated attack’ | 3 June 2021 | CNN

The Government of Ethiopia has defended its actions in the northern province of Tigray, saying that it “condemns all acts that put the life and dignity of civilians in danger.” In a press statement issued on Thursday, the Prime Minister’s office said it “categorically rejects accusations of decimation of a people as a policy. Such is not the heartbeat of this administration.”

The Tigray Conflict: Ethiopia’s Humanitarian Disaster — Harry Sanders | 3 June 2021 | UK Human Rights Blog

Since November 2020, the Tigray region in the north of Ethiopia has been the epicentre of an awful (and hugely underreported) humanitarian disaster. War and violence have sent the region’s inhabitants fleeing over the Ethiopian border in search of asylum, while those who have not escaped are left to suffer increasingly disturbing conditions. Although the conflict was declared ‘over’ very quickly by the Ethiopian central government, abhorrent human rights abuses have continued while humanitarian access has been turned away. To understand how a nation led by a Nobel Laureate has fallen from grace on the world stage so dramatically, it is important to consider the circumstances which led to the outbreak of violence, and furthermore what it may mean for the future of Ethiopia and her people.

Ethiopia: Is the TPLF or Addis Ababa winning the PR war in the US? | 2 June 2021 | The Africa Report

Ethiopia’s government has been facing mounting pressure amidst internal conflict in Tigray and regional tensions around its Grand Renaissance Dam (GERD). In an effort to smooth over relations with the US – a once powerful ally – Addis Ababa has hired law firm Holland & Knight to assist with lobbying actions in Washington. What strategy is Abiy Ahmed’s government taking?

Ethiopia’s human rights chief as war rages in Tigray: ‘we get accused by all ethnic groups’ | 2 June 2021 | The Guardian

Former political prisoner Daniel Bekele has made the commission more autonomous but critics claim he is biased on current conflict. There was a time when a report by Ethiopia’s human rights commission was a staid affair, its findings offering window-dressing for hand-wringing donors and legal cover to the government.

Législatives en Éthiopie : un scrutin crucial sur fond de conflits ethniques | 1 June 2021 | France24

Après plusieurs reports, les élections législatives ont été fixées au 21 juin en Éthiopie. Dans un contexte de tensions exacerbées par la guerre au Tigré (nord) et des violences politico-ethniques, le Premier ministre Abiy Ahmed entend malgré tout obtenir la légitimité démocratique qui lui fait défaut.