ARE COURTS GOING TO SET A HIGHER STANDARD FOR HUMAN RIGHTS DUE DILIGENCE IN ARMS EXPORTS ?
The obligations of companies to implement human rights due diligence (HRdd) has reached the political agenda with the announcement of EU Commissioner Reynders to propose a binding EU framework, a range of national initiatives and the negotiation of a UN Treaty on Business and Human Rights. However, such human rights obligations by private actors are a horizontal application of obligations held by states. How are states performing their human rights due diligence and how accountable are they? Arms export licensing was originally driven by strategic concerns, but it is an important area where states have obliged themselves explicitly to conduct human rights due diligence. Common Position 2008/944/CFSP provides the framework in the EU.
The EU member states generally praise themselves about the high standards and strict controls they uphold in their arms export licensing. In their latest evaluation the member states saw no problem or need for change other than updating the Common Position 2008/944/CFSP to new developments like the Arms Trade Treaty. The Council welcomed “Member States’ renewed commitment to the legally binding Common Position”. The assumption here is that the implementation of the EU Common Position, and the export criteria it contains, is unproblematic. However, several Belgian court decisions show that, when courts are given the opportunity to review arms export licences, they tend to be more critical towards the practice of their governments.
In Belgium the Council of State, the main administrative court, has developed a jurisprudence in which it shows a growing critical attitude towards the arms export risk assessment decision by the government. This jurisprudence has been developed over a range of legal challenges, first against export licences for Libya in 2011-2012 and later against export licences for Saudi Arabia in 2018-2019. Earlier jurisprudence did also lead to the suspension and annulation of several export licences, but was based on procedural and formal elements. The application of the criteria in the arms export decree, made by the regional government, was not as such evaluated. This left open the possibility that the Walloon government could get off the hook by merely fulfilling all formal requirements and adding an explicit evaluation of the criteria to its licensing decision. In its recent arrests in 2020 the Council of State dropped its reluctance to evaluate how the government made use of the criteria of the Common Position, which have been transposed in the regional arms export decrees.
Early 2020 the Ligue des droits humains, CNAPD and Vredesactie challenged the new export licences for Saudi Arabia issued by the Walloon region. This concerned on the one hand direct export licences of small arms and ammunition by FN Herstal and Mecar. On the other hand, export of turrets by CMI Defence to Canada, where they are mounted on armoured vehicles with final destination Saudi Arabia.
In its judgment of 9 March 2020 and its later rulings of 7 August 2020 the Council of State for the first time makes an in-depth, substantive evaluation of the export licensing decision made by the Walloon regional government and its application of the Common Position criteria. The judgment made clear that the application of the EU Common Position was not so unproblematic as suggested in the evaluation by the member states.
The judgment of 9 March suspended all export licences to Saudi Arabia and caused approximately 75% of Belgian arms exports to be put on hold. The Walloon government silently retracted these export licences and renewed them partially with a new licence. When the NGOs noticed in the export statistics that exports had restarted, they contested the licences again before the Council of State. This time with mixed success. The export licences of FN Herstal were suspended, those of CMI Defence not. Mecar had not received a new licence (yet?). Because CMI Defence can continue to export, the economic impact of these decisions is much smaller. However, the suspended export licences for Saudi Arabia still represent a value between 200 and 300 million euro. All these rulings concerned “suspensions in urgent procedures”. A final decision will follow in the annulation procedures, which are ongoing.
The central element in the rulings was if the government had properly considered the risk for violations of IHL and human rights. That is the second criterion in Common Position 2008/944/CFSP, and more specifically the risk posed by the potential use of these arms in the war in Yemen. The exports for the Saudi National Guard were indeed considered to pose such risk. This evaluation of risk for IHL violations was based on the observations made by the UN Group of Experts on Yemen in its reports to the UN Human Rights Council, as well as the position expressed in several resolutions of the European Parliament. The statements by the Walloon government that the Saudi National Guard is a military force which is only active inside Saudi Arabia were not accepted, because the National Guard had been deployed earlier to Bahrain and the fact that the Saudi king had ordered the National Guard to participate in operations in Yemen. In case of CMI Defence the Council of State changed its position because the government argued that the sole destination of these weapons was the Royal Guard, which is not active in Yemen. This statement is doubtful, as the number of vehicles exported is much too large to have the Royal Guard as the sole destination. Further the Royal Guard has been implicated in internal repression and a range of covert operations. But due to the initial lack of information these issues were not raised in the procedure.
While the Common Position 2008/944/CFSP and the earlier Code of Conduct till now largely remained human rights window dressing, these decisions make clear how subjecting arms export licences to control by courts can make a difference. But they also show which hurdles and limitations still exist and need to be solved before this Common Position can become an effective instrument for human rights due diligence in arms exports.
Two important hurdles have been taken in Belgium which made these judgments possible, but still remain widely present in other EU member states. First, Common Position 2008/944/CFSP is considered binding on the member states as international law, but it still needs transposition into national law before courts can address how governmental decisions respect the criteria. In Belgium the criteria have been included in the regional arms export decrees, but in several EU member states such transposition is not the case. Second, NGOs need to have legal standing in order to be able to challenge export decisions. Once contested, this is now achieved in Belgium. Again, such legal standing remains limited among EU member states.
The third remaining hurdle concerns information. Without knowledge about the export licence it is impossible to demand a legal review by the courts. Current transparency in relation to export licences is much too weak to allow effective legal procedures. It comes very late and often the exports have already happened before a court procedure can be initiated. Freedom of information procedures prove much too weak to address this. In the Belgian case the Walloon government tries to avoid and delay any public knowledge about its arms trade licensing in order to prevent further challenges in court. Moreover, the Council of State remained reluctant to allow more access. Therefore, NGOs are obliged to formulate their objections with no access to the information available to the adverse parties and the judge. As a consequence these legal challenges remain a difficult shot in the dark, leaving the application of the criteria to a large extent unchallenged.
Notwithstanding this, the Belgian court judgments demonstrate the contribution a legal review by courts can provide in the implementation of Common Position 2008/944/CFSP. Such active control by courts is a necessity to turn it into a credible framework for human rights due diligence.
Common Position 2008/944/CFSP: https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=CELEX%3A02008E0944-20190917
RvS 247259, 9 maart 2020: http://www.raadvst-consetat.be/Arrets/247000/200/247259.pdf
RvS 248128, 7 August 2020 (FN Herstal): http://www.raadvst-consetat.be/Arrets/248000/100/248128.pdf
RvS 248129, 7 August 2020 (CMI Defence): http://www.raadvst-consetat.be/Arrets/248000/100/248129.pdf
Control of arms export: EU Council adopts conclusions, new decision updating the EU’s common rules and a revised user’s guide: https://www.consilium.europa.eu/en/press/press-releases/2019/09/16/control-of-arms-export-council-adopts-conclusions-new-decision-updating-the-eu-s-common-rules-and-an-updated-user-s-guide
The Use of Small Arms and Light Weapons by Terrorist Organisations as a Source of Finance | 28 September 2020 | ICCT
As the final report in ICCT’s series on Small Arms and Light Weapons (SALW), this report presents the key functions of SALW used by terrorist organisations as well as a synthesis of the main trends observed across the different regions in terms of acquisition, trafficking and use of SALW as a source of finance by terrorist organisations. Key topics analysed include sources and acquisition of SALW by terrorist organisations, terrorist involvement in SALW trafficking, the synergy between arms trafficking and other forms of trafficking, and the vulnerability of fragile environments.
INTERNATIONAL (HUMANITARIAN) / HUMAN RIGHTS LAW
Cluster Munitions Used in Nagorno-Karabakh | 23 October 2020 | HRW
Azerbaijan has repeatedly used widely banned cluster munitions in residential areas in Nagorno-Karabakh, Human Rights Watch said today. During an on-site investigation in Nagorno-Karabakh in October 2020, Human Rights Watch documented four incidents in which Azerbaijan used cluster munitions.
Without accountability: human rights situation in Yemen 2019 | 19 October 2020 | Mwatana for Human Rights
In this annual report, Mwatana for Human Rights provides an extensive review of particular violations that occurred and the overall human rights situation in Yemen during 2019. Mwatana, whose work covers all Yemeni governorates except Socotra, has documented—through fact-finding, evidence examination, and detailed research—hundreds of incidents in 2019 alone that appear to violate international humanitarian law and international human rights law, some of which may amount to war crimes. The report presents some incidents as case studies, highlighting different types of abuse committed by the warring parties.
The United States Can’t Ignore Turkey’s War on Syrian Women | 1 October 2020 | The National Interest
In cities where Syrian Kurdish female fighters won some of their first victories against dictators and terrorists, women now face “a pervasive climate of fear which in effect confined them to their homes” at the hands of Turkish-backed armed groups, a new report from the United Nations Commission of Inquiry on Syria has found.
Trump Sued Over U.S. Sanctions on War Crimes Investigation (1) | 1 October 2020 | Bloomberg Law
Open Society Justice Initiative v. Trump, 20-cv-08121, Southern District Court of New York
A group of law professors sued to block President Donald Trump’s order sanctioning the International Criminal Court over its investigation of possible war crimes committed by the U.S. military in Afghanistan.
UN Group of Eminent International and Regional Experts on Yemen presents their third report to the Human Rights Council: A Pandemic of Impunity in a Tortured Land urging an end to impunity, in a conflict with no clean hands, and the referral by the UN Security Council of the situation in Yemen to the International Criminal Court | 29 September 2020 | UN Group of Eminent International and Regional Experts on Yemen | UN OHCHR
In its third report, officially presented to the Human Rights Council today, the Group of Eminent International and Regional Experts on Yemen detailed scores of serious violations of international human rights law and international humanitarian law. These include airstrikes that fail to abide by principles of distinction, proportionality and/or precaution, indiscriminate attacks using mortar shelling, recruitment and use of child soldiers, and unlawful killings at checkpoints. Other violations include the use of torture, including sexual violence in detention, denial of fair trial rights, the targeting of marginalized communities and the impeding of humanitarian operations, having a devastating effect of the ordinary lives of those in Yemen. The Group also denounced the endemic impunity for those violations that fuels more abuses.
Yemen: Evidence of potential war crime by Saudi coalition | 28 September 2020 | Sky News
A Sky News investigation has discovered evidence of a recent potential war crime in northern Yemen by the Saudi-led coalition, which is backed by the US and Britain.
UK Seeks to Stop Justice for War Crimes | 23 September 2020 | HRW
The British government is preparing to break the law again – this time on torture | 22 September 2020 | Shami Chakrabarti | The Guardian
The rule of law means that those responsible for the worst crimes should be promptly and fairly prosecuted. Yet the UK government is seeking parliament’s approval of a law – the Overseas Operations Bill – that would make it nearly impossible to prosecute British soldiers for torture and other war crimes committed overseas. With this bill the government shows contempt for the rule of law, violates the UK’s international commitments to prosecute the worst crimes, and risks creating impunity for grave abuse.
Human Rights Council: Help bridge Yemen’s ‘acute accountability gap’ | 22 September 2020 | Pax for Peace
States should help pave the way towards credible accountability and redress for the people of Yemen by renewing and strengthening international investigations into war crimes, other serious violations of international humanitarian law, and grave human rights abuses during this 45th Session of the UN Human Rights Council), 24 organizations said today.
Rape, ethnic cleansing and looting: UN reveals Turkey’s crimes in Syria | 19 September 2020 | The Jerusalem Post
The abuses have been directed against women and children, and primarily target minorities such as Yazidis, Kurds and Christians.
Turkey rejects U.N human rights violation claims in Syria | 18 September 2020 | Reuters
Turkey rejected on Friday the human rights violations claims in northern Syria laid out in a report by the United Nations Commission of Inquiry and following criticism.
U.S. blacklists ICC prosecutor over Afghanistan war crimes probe | 15 September 2020 | Reuters
The United States on Wednesday imposed sanctions on International Criminal Court prosecutor Fatou Bensouda, Secretary of State Mike Pompeo said, over her investigation into whether American forces committed war crimes in Afghanistan.
U.N. Accuses Ankara of Transferring Syrian Nationals to Turkey for Trial | 15 September 2020 | The Wall Street Journal
Dozens of Syrian nationals have been transferred to Turkey for trial since Ankara’s invasion of Syria last year, according to relatives of those deported and a United Nations report published Tuesday that details alleged abuses in areas under Turkish control.
U.N. war crimes experts urge Turkey to rein in rebels in Syria | 15 September 2020 | Reuters
Turkey must rein in Syrian rebels it supports in northern Syria who may have carried out kidnappings, torture and looting of civilian property, United Nations war crimes investigators said on Tuesday.
War Crime Risk Grows for U.S. Over Saudi Strikes in Yemen | 14 September 2020 | The New York Times
State Department officials have raised alarms about the legal risk in aiding airstrikes that kill civilians. The Trump administration recently suppressed findings as it sold more weapons to Gulf nations.
Trump joins the world’s worst human rights violators in waging war on the ICC | 14 September 2020 | The Washington Post
President Trump refuses to confront Vladimir Putin over Russia’s alleged bounties on U.S. troops in Afghanistan, clashes with U.S. forces in Syria, the imprisonment of two Marine Corps veterans, the poisoning of a prominent opposition leader, threats to intervene in Belarus, and attacks on the U.S. elections. The Trump administration appears to be much more exercised about the actions of two of Africa’s most prominent human rights lawyers who are seeking to uphold the rule of law.
Report of the Independent Expert on the situation of human rights in the Sudan – Comments by the State(A/HRC/45/53/Add.1) | 12 September 2020 | UN Human Rights Council | ReliefWeb
The Sudan thanks the Independent Expert on the situation of human rights in the Sudan for availing the opportunity to comment on the observations and findings of the draft report which was received by the Sudan’s Permanent Mission in Geneva as an attachment to his note verbal dated 1st of July 2020, and in which he welcomes receiving the response of the Sudanese authorities by 16 July 2020.
U.N. report calls for alleged war crimes in Yemen to be referred to International Criminal Court | 10 September 2020 | The Washington Post
A new United Nations report detailing atrocities in Yemen’s civil war calls on the U.N. Security Council to refer alleged actions by all parties in the conflict, including the Houthi rebels and U.S. ally Saudi Arabia, to the International Criminal Court for possible war crimes prosecutions.
Myanmar: Leaked documents reveal global business ties to military crimes | 10 September 2020 | Amnesty International
An Amnesty International investigation has exposed how international businesses are linked to the financing of Myanmar’s military, including many units directly responsible for crimes under international law and other human rights violations. Leaked official documents analyzed by Amnesty International reveal how Myanmar’s military receives huge revenues from shares in Myanmar Economic Holdings Limited (MEHL), a secretive conglomerate whose activities include the mining, beer, tobacco, garment manufacturing and banking sectors. MEHL has partnerships with a range of local and foreign businesses including Japanese beer multinational Kirin and South Korean steel giant POSCO.
Libya: Armed Groups Violently Quell Protests | 10 September 2020 | HRW
Armed groups in Tripoli linked with Libya’s Government of National Accord (GNA) used lethal force to disperse largely peaceful anti-corruption protests in late August 2020 and arbitrarily detained, tortured, and disappeared people in the capital, Human Rights Watch said today.
Situation of human rights in Yemen, including violations and abuses since September 2014 – Comprehensive report of the Group of Eminent International and Regional Experts on Yemen (A/HRC/45/6) | 9 September 2020 | UN Human Rights Council | ReliefWeb
After six unremitting years of armed conflict, all parties continue to show no regard for international law or the lives, dignity, and rights of people in Yemen, according to the third report of the Group of Eminent International and Regional Experts on Yemen, which has been released today.
The European companies that armed the Ivorian civil war | 27 October 2020 | Mail & Guardian
By the beginning of 2011, the fallout from Côte d’Ivoire’s disputed presidential election was turning ugly. Violence had flared across the West African country since President Laurent Gbagbo rejected the result of a second-round presidential poll that was won by his rival, Alassane Ouattara, in late November 2010.
Arms Deal: Thales SA tries to distance itself from the financing of Zuma’s lifestyle | 26 October 2020 | Daily Maverick
Thales South Africa argues that it had a legitimate business partnership with Jacob Zuma’s former financial adviser and convicted fraudster, Schabir Shaik, and that it was unaware that Shaik was financing the former president’s lifestyle via a corrupt ‘retainer’.
US sanctions on Africa need an overhaul, say experts | 23 October 2020 | DW
Washington plans to lift sanctions on Sudan in return for compensation for terror victims, making the African country a pawn in the US election campaign. Experts say this approach to sanctions in Africa needs to change.
Illicit Possession of Arms – Government Focuses On Strict Regulation | 21 October 2020 | Cameroon Tribune
Within the framework of promoting peace through a reduction in the circulation of unauthorized weapons in the hands of civilians, government has committed itself to a strict regulation on arms ownership. This was during the official launching of the Amnesty Month in Cameroon dubbed SEPTAMM2020 by External Relations Minister, Mbella Mbella, on October 19, 2020 in the presence of other government officials and members of the diplomatic corps.
Nigeria goes local in weapons production | 21 October 2020 | CAJNews
Nigeria is upscaling the local production of military equipment to save scarce foreign currency in Africa’s largest economy bedeviled by problems.
Russia supplies BRDM-2 vehicles to Central African Republic | 19 October 2020 | DefenceWeb
Russia has delivered ten BRDM-2 armoured vehicles to the Central African Republic (CAR), with another ten expected to be delivered soon.
Ghana allocates $86 million for armoured vehicle acquisition | 16 October 2020 | DefenceWeb
Ghana’s Parliament approved $86,1 million in government loans to fund acquisition of 19 armoured vehicles from Israel’s Elbit Land Systems.
Nigerian Army reveals new acquisitions | 15 October 2020 | DefenceWeb
The Nigerian Army has since April this year taken delivery of new hardware including Chinese-made VT-4 main battle tanks, some South Korean-made Kia Light Tactical Vehicle (KLTV) armoured personnel carriers and SH5 self-propelled artillery units as well as locally manufactured vehicles.
Ammunition from US, Israel, Iran used in farmer-herder crisis in Nigeria | 10 October 2020 | The Cable
Ammunition from at least 21 different nations, including the US and Israel is used in the farmer-herder crisis in Nigeria, a report by SB Morgan (SBM) Intelligence says.
Milkor Y4 grenade launcher project handed over to SA Army | 9 October 2020 | DefenceWeb
The Department of Defence and Armscor have officially handed over Project Kamogelo to the South African Army, after Milkor successfully delivered 370 Y4 medium velocity six-shot grenade launchers under the programme.
Nigerian firm Erojim to make shoes, uniform for military, 2 factories coming | 8 October 2020 | PM News
A Nigerian Company, Erojim Investments Ltd, which has the approval of the Buhari administration will manufacture locally all military and paramilitary garments and footwear needs of the country.
US maintains suspension of military assistance to Mali, says envoy | 8 October 2020 | DefenceWeb
United States military assistance to the government of Mali will remain suspended despite the formation of a transitional government following the 18 August military coup, J. Peter Pham, US Special Envoy to the Sahel, said on Wednesday.
Turkey and UAE openly flouting UN arms embargo to fuel war in Libya | 7 October 2020 | The Guardian
Turkey and the United Arab Emirates are carrying out regular and increasingly blatant violations of the UN arms embargo on Libya, fuelling a proxy war that is evading political solutions, a joint investigation by the Guardian has found.
Des armées sahéliennes face au défi de la transparence et de la corruption | 5 October 2020 | ideas4development.org
Un meilleur contrôle démocratique du secteur de la défense et de la sécurité au Burkina Faso, au Mali et au Niger constitue un impératif majeur dans la quête de stabilité durable dans le Sahel.
China-Africa arms trade: Zambia largest recipient of Chinese loans for military gear, study says | 3 October 2020 | South China Morning Post
Logics of Arms Deals: Multilevel Evidence from China-Zambia Relations (pdf) | May 2020 | Johns Hopkins University
Zambia is the largest recipient of Chinese loans for military procurement in Africa, according to a new study.
Rheinmetall secures contract to supply 60mm mortar ammunition | 2 October 2020 | Military Technology
Rheinmetall has secured a contract to supply a variety of 60mm mortar ammunition to an unnamed international customer. Rheinmetall Denel Munition (RDM), the company’s subsidiary in South Africa, will deliver conventional 60mm, long-range 60mm and advanced 60mm patrol mortar ammunition to the customer.
Guns or greed in Central Africa: what needs to be silenced? | 24 September 2020 | Sofrep
This article seeks to go beyond the popular “Silencing the Guns” narrative. Regional and international initiatives towards finding a durable peace in central Africa focus on ceasefires without paying sufficient attention to what fuels the conflict. One or all opposing sides use guns to challenge, silence, or defend economic interests; this includes governments of countries in the central Africa region. In essence, material wealth underlies the conflict or tension in the region.
Opinion: Arms exports framework needs urgent reform to support local industry | 22 September 2020 | Mthobisi Zondi | DefenceWeb
The trade of armaments is a heavily regulated matter both at national and multi-lateral levels. This is understandable given the risks associated with potential misuse of arms for illicit acts such as terrorism, repression and unjustified aggression against innocent states and/or persons.
Inside CIA-backed secret anti-terrorism operation in Kenya | 22 September 2020 | The Star
US and Kenyan diplomatic and intelligence officials reveal why the CIA set up a covert paramilitary counter-terror team, how it flies recruits to the US for special training, and why Britain helps gather intelligence on targets.
Nigerian Super Tucanos begin arriving at Moody AFB for training | 22 September 2020 | DefenceWeb
The first of 12 A-29 Super Tucano aircraft for the Nigerian Air Force (NAF) have arrived at Moody Air Force Base in Georgia for pilot and maintainer training as the NAF prepares to take delivery of its aircraft next year.
United States seeking Land Cruisers for Somali military | 22 September 2020 | DefenceWeb
The United States is looking to acquire nearly 100 Toyota Land Cruiser vehicles for the Somali military. In a request for information published on 21 July, the US Army Contracting Command said it has a requirement for commercial Toyota Land Cruiser truck variants with ballistic blankets installed and common spare parts to support the US military’s Africa Command Foreign Military Sales security requirements.
EU sanctions Turkish firm over Libya arms embargo violations | 21 September 2020 | The Washington Post
The European Union on Monday slapped sanctions on three transport companies for violating the U.N. arms embargo on Libya, including the Turkish shipping firm that operates a vessel at the center of a naval standoff in the Mediterranean Sea between Turkey and France three months ago.
Suspected arms dealers moved millions in Somali money transfers, report says | 17 September 2020 | Reuters
Following the money: The use of the hawala remittance system in the Yemen–Somalia arms trade (Report) | 17 September 2020 | Global Initiative Against Transnational Organized Crime
Somali money transfer companies moved more than $3.7 million in cash between suspected weapons traffickers in recent years, including to a Yemeni under U.S. sanctions for alleged militant links, according to a report seen by Reuters.
Inside Ivor Ichikowitz’s Paramount empire | 17 September 2020 | Financial Mail
Ivor Ichikowitz rejects the label “arms dealer”. The founder of Paramount, Africa’s largest private arms group, presents himself as an industrialist and philanthropist with a passion for the continent — an image buffed by a slick public relations machine.
UN demands all countries enforce arms embargo on Libya | 17 September 2020 | Arab News
The UN Security Council adopted a resolution on Tuesday demanding that all countries enforce the widely violated UN arms embargo on Libya, withdraw all mercenaries from the North African nation.
UK donates dozens of military vehicles to Somalia | 17 September 2020 | DefenceWeb
The United Kingdom has donated at least 27 vehicles and a fully-equipped mechanical workshop to help improve the logistical capabilities of the Somali National Army (SNA) in fighting the Islamist Al Shabaab insurgency.
Alarming Proliferation Of Small Arms And Light Weapons In Nigeria | 16 September 2020 | Leadership
Recently, I came across a report of the United Nations Regional Centre for Peace and Disarmament in Africa on the alarming proliferation rate of Small Arms and Light Weapons (SAWL) in the country that appalled me.
Zambian police take delivery of dozens of new vehicles | 15 September 2020 | DefenceWeb
The Zambian Police Service has taken delivery of 50 new vehicles which government says will help improve force capacity to maintain law and order.
Tchad, le point de transit des armes provenant de la Libye | 12 September 2020 | Morocco Mail
Ce jour vendredi 11 décembre, Deby décide de rappeler à N’Djamena tous les militaires tchadiens envoyer au Nigeria pour combattre la secte islamiste Boko-Haram. Un mois plutôt le 07 novembre, il rappela dare-dare les Forces armées tchadiennes d’intervention au Cameroun (Fatic – plusieurs milliers d’hommes). Mais derrière cette posture de chasseur des terroristes, Idriss Deby a contribué activement à la montée fulgurante de Boko Haram.
Liberia: Customs Intercepts Illegally Imported Ammunition | 11 September 2020 | FrontpageAfricaOnline
The Customs Department of the Liberia Revenue Authority (LRA) has seized and turned over to security authorities four (4) boxes of single barrel rounds smuggled into the country. The ammunitions were trafficked through Bo-Waterside along Sierra Leonean border in Grand Cape Mount County and Kpassagisia, along the Guinean border in Lofa County.
Russian Attack Jets Back Mercenaries Fighting in Libya | 10 September 2020 | The New York Times
An American military official said the warplanes were conducting combat missions in support of Kremlin-backed private security forces, and extending Moscow’s influence in Africa.
Egypt ‘tripled’ arms imports from Italy in 2019 | 10 September 2020 | Middle East Monitor
Egypt bought three times more weapons, ammunition, spare parts and military software from Italy last year compared with 2018, Al-Araby Al-Jadeed has reported. According to an official document, this was at a cost of €238.5 million compared with €69.1m the previous year.
Libya rivals UAE, Russia, Turkey violate UN embargo | 9 September 2020 | The Washington Post
The warring parties in Libya and their international backers — the United Arab Emirates, Russia and Jordan vs Turkey and Qatar — violated a U.N. arms embargo on the oil-rich north African country that remains “totally ineffective,” U.N. experts said in a new report.
UN: Russia breached arms embargo in Libya with 338 cargo flights | 8 September 2020 | SOFREP
“If there are Russians in Libya, they are not representing or paid by the Russian government,” Russian President Vladimir Putin said in January. In reality, the total number of Russians (paid for, trained, and transported by the Russian government) in Libya as part of the Wagner Group is unknown but rumored to be around 1,500. They remain active and are beefing up their numbers around Libyan oil fields under the control of General Khalifa Haftar’s Libyan National Army (LNA) in direct violation of the UN embargo.
Liberia Receives Physical Security and Stockpile Management Equipment From ECOWAS | 2 September 2020 | FPA | AllAfrica
The Liberian Government through the Liberia Commission on Small Arms (LiNCSA) benefits from a donation of assorted Physical Security and Stockpile Management (PSSM) equipment to enhance the working of the Security Sector.
US Expands Military License Review Factors for National Security Controlled Items to PRC, Venezuela, and Russia | 30 October 2020 | JD Supra
The US Department of Commerce, Bureau of Industry and Security (BIS) issued a final rule amending the license review policy for items on the Commerce Control List that are controlled for national security (NS) reasons and are destined to the People’s Republic of China (PRC), Venezuela, or the Russian Federation (Russia).
Pushing Arms: What Could Go Wrong? | 28 October 2020 | Forbes
The United States is far and away the world’s largest weapons trading nation, as it has been throughout the last three presidential administrations. As the Center for International Policy’s Security Assistance Monitor noted in a May 2020 report, the Trump administration has made more arms offers on average per year than any administration since World War II, as measured by deals notified to Congress as part of the Pentagon’s Foreign Military Sales (FMS) program. The next largest arms exporter by yearly average was the Obama administration — an indication that pushing arms is a bipartisan affair with deep roots in the structure of U.S. society and foreign policy. And as two new reports demonstrate, this penchant for trading in weapons is both dangerous and counterproductive.
Erik Prince’s Private Wars | 25 October 2020 | Rolling Stone
The Blackwater founder wants to bring back his company’s glory days — and he’s campaigning for Donald Trump’s help to do it. But he’s haunted by past failures and is facing questions about a mercenary fiasco in Libya.
A Primer On Canadian Sanctions Legislation | 22 October 2020 | Blake, Cassels & Graydon LLP | Mondaq
Canada, like other major jurisdictions, has a broad range of economic and financial sanctions targeting foreign states and their nationals, as well as various terrorist organizations.
Human Rights Now Part of US Export Licensing Review for Nearly All Export Licenses | 14 October 2020 | JD Supra
U.S. State Department Issues Human Rights Compliance Guidance for Products and Services With Surveillance Capabilities (pdf) | 23 October 2020 | Ropes & Gray LLP
Target areas are telecom, information security, and sensor items that can be used for censorship, surveillance, detention, and use of force.
New Human Rights Licensing Policy under U.S. Export Controls – Convergence with the EU? | 6 October 2020 | Steptoe & Johnson LLP Compliance Blog
On October 6, 2020, the U.S. Commerce Department’s Bureau of Industry and Security (“BIS”) promulgated a newly expanded licensing policy relating to human rights under the Export Administration Regulations (“EAR”). We believe this is an area of increasing regulatory interest on the part of the U.S. government, including the U.S. Congress, and we would expect to see more developments like this in the near future.
US police used British anti-riot gear at Black Lives Matter protests | 5 October 2020 | The Guardian
US law enforcement officers used British anti-riot gear to strike protesters during their controversial policing of Black Lives Matter demonstrations, despite assurances from the Conservative government that no UK-made equipment was used to repress peaceful protest.
Ottawa suspends export permits for targeting gear allegedly used in Armenia-Azerbaijan conflict | 5 October 2020 | The Globe and Mail
Ottawa has suspended export permits for Canadian target-acquisition gear that is at the centre of allegations that Azerbaijan is using Turkish-made drones to attack Armenia.
U.S. approves possible sale of F-35 and F/A-18E/F fighters to Switzerland | 1 October 2020 | Defence-Blog.com
The U.S. Defence Security Cooperation Agency (DSCA) said Monday it had notified Congress of a possible sale of F-35 Joint Strike Fighter and F/A-18E/F Super Hornet aircraft to Switzerland.
State Department Approved $83.5 Billion in Arms Sales For 2020 | 1 October 2020 | Antiwar.com
The US State Department cleared $83.5 billion in Foreign Military Sales (FMS) for the fiscal year 2020. This amount is the highest in a single year for the Trump administration and is an increase of $15 billion from the 2019 fiscal year.
Sanctions and shipping: update and overview (Report) | 1 October 2020 | Watson Farley & Williams LLP
Recent decades have seen a proliferation of sanctions regimes, used as foreign and security policy tools. While these sometimes have conflicting requirements, they use broadly the same tools: prohibitions or restrictions on trading, exports and imports, and the freezing and blocking of funds and this makes them of particular relevance to the shipping sector, which is at the heart of world trade.
U.S. Department of State Guidance on Implementing the “UN Guiding Principles” for Transactions Linked to Foreign Government End-Users for Products or Services with Surveillance Capabilities | 30 September 2020 | US Department of State
This guidance is a first-of-its-kind tool intended to provide practical and accessible human rights guidance to U.S. businesses seeking to prevent their products or services with surveillance capabilities from being misused by government end-users to commit human rights abuses.
Why US Export Control Policy Matters | 30 September 2020 | The Diplomat
To what extent can the United States control the global spread of technology, and under what circumstances should it do so? A recently established project at the Center for New American Security (CNAS) has begun to examine the theory and practice of U.S. export control policy. Although export controls have been around for a long time, this is an overdue and promising avenue of analysis into one of the most important tools of U.S. economic and defense statecraft.
Recent OFAC Settlement Highlights the Need for Post-Acquisition Sanctions Compliance Controls | 25 September 2020 | Winston & Strawn LLP
On September 24, 2020, the Department of the Treasury’s Office of Foreign Assets Control (OFAC) announced that California-based Keysight Technologies Inc. (Keysight) has agreed on behalf of its former Finnish subsidiary, Anite Finland Oy (Anite) to pay $473,157 to settle potential civil liability for Anite’s reexport of U.S. export-controlled test measurement equipment to Iran. As part of the settlement, Keysight also agreed to establish and maintain several sanctions compliance measures that are designed to minimize the risk of recurrence of similar conduct in the future.
L’opposition veut une enquête sur la vente d’une technologie militaire à la Turquie | 23 September 2020 | Radio Canada
L’opposition demande au ministre des Affaires étrangères d’enquêter sur la vente d’une technologie canadienne intégrée aux drones militaires de la Turquie.
Comprehensive sanctions: Iran, Syria, North Korea | 23 September 2020 | Watson Farley & Williams
This article is the second of a seven-part series on the application of US sanctions to the shipping community. This article will focus on “comprehensive sanctions,” which prohibit most trade between the US and the target country, with a particular focus on three countries currently targeted by comprehensive sanctions: Iran, Syria and North Korea. Similar jurisdictions which are subject to varying levels of comprehensive sanctions, including Cuba, the Crimea region (Russia/Ukraine) and Venezuela (which may be thought of as subject to “quasi-comprehensive” sanctions) will be dealt with later in the series.
FN America to deliver M249 Squad Automatic Weapons to U.S. Army | 23 September 2020 | ArmyRecognition
FN America LLC, Columbia, South Carolina, was awarded a $78,709,973 firm-fixed-price contract for M249 Squad Automatic Weapons. Bids were solicited via the internet with one received. Work locations and funding will be determined with each order, with an estimated completion date of Sept. 19, 2025. U.S. Army Contracting Command, Newark, New Jersey, is the contracting activity.
Le Canada viole-t-il le Traité sur le commerce des armes? | 22 September 2020 | Radio Canada
Après la controverse entourant la vente de blindés à l’Arabie saoudite, le Canada est à nouveau montré du doigt. Cette fois, c’est l’exportation d’une technologie canadienne en Turquie qui soulève des questions.
Commerce Issues Notice on “Foundational Technologies” – What You Need to Know | 22 September 2020 | Torres Law, PLLC
The long-awaited, Advanced Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (“ANPRM”) soliciting comments on the definition of, and criteria for, identifying “foundational technologies” (“the Notice”) was finally issued on August 27, 2020, by the U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Industry and Security (“BIS”). The deadline to submit comments is October 26, 2020.
Police Are Using $1.6 Billion in Surplus Military Gear Doled Out Since 9/11 | 22 September 2020 | Reason
Police departments are using more than $1 billion in surplus military equipment handed out by the Pentagon since 9/11, according to a study released last week by Brown University’s Costs of War project.
U.S. Government Issues Significant New Sanctions on Iran, Unilaterally Triggering “Snapback” UN Sanctions on Iran | 21 September 2020 | Thompson Hine LLP
On September 19, 2020, the United States announced that virtually all United Nations (UN) sanctions on Iran were being re-imposed. President Donald Trump and Secretary of State Mike Pompeo have taken the position that the United States can trigger the “snapback” provisions of UN sanctions under UN Security Council resolution 2231 pursuant to the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA) that was implemented by Iran and the P5+1 countries (China, France, Germany, Russia, the United Kingdom and the United States) on July 14, 2015. The United States, however, withdrew from the JCPOA on May 8, 2018.
After deaths at ammo plants, lawmakers to quiz US Army leaders on modernizing production | 21 September 2020 | Defense News
Lawmakers are expected to meet Tuesday to broadly discuss modernizing the military’s munitions production, but the hearing follows a series of explosions and fires that have killed and injured nearly a dozen workers at munition plants in recent years and led to a previously unreported investigation by the House Armed Services Committee.
Reminder Regarding the Jurisdictional Reach and Limits of U.S. Export Control, Sanctions, and Foreign Investment Regulations | 21 September 2020 | JD Supra
United States export control, sanctions, and foreign investment (CFIUS) regulations advance U.S. national security and foreign policy interests, but in very different ways. They are also quite complex. As a result, media reporting, commentary, and blogs often confuse their scope and how they work.
Trudeau urged to end arms exports to Saudi Arabia after Canada cited for fueling Yemen war | 17 September 2020 | The Globe & Mail
Prime Minister Justin Trudeau is facing fresh calls to end arms exports to Saudi Arabia after a United Nations panel named Canada for the first time as one of the countries helping fuel the war in Yemen.
Developments in Export Controls on “Emerging” and “Foundational” Technologies | 17 September 2020 | Williams Mullen | JD Supra
New Export Controls: Emerging Technologies | October 2020 | Dechert LLP
There have been a number of developments regarding increased export requirements for “emerging” and “foundational” technologies. The Bureau of Industry and Security (BIS) recently issued a final rule designating the first “emerging” technologies under its long-awaited initiative in this area. While the initial designation only applies to a narrow group of items, these are expected to be just the first of a number of technologies that it will designate in the coming months.
US sanctions 101 | 16 September 2020 | Watson Farley & Williams
This article is the first in a seven-part series on the application of US sanctions to the shipping community. It will focus on US sanctions generally, including the definition of “US persons,” the application of the facilitation rules, the difference between primary and secondary sanctions, the 50% rule and various maritime advisories. The article will conclude with a few frequently asked questions.
U.S. House Democrats attack Pompeo aides on Saudi weapons, cite war crimes concerns | 16 September 2020 | Reuters
Top aides to U.S. Secretary of State Mike Pompeo went before a congressional committee on Wednesday to defend President Donald Trump’s dismissal of the former State Department inspector general as he investigated weapons sales to Saudi Arabia and allegations that Pompeo misused department funds.
The F-35 triangle: America, Israel, the United Arab Emirates | 15 September 2020 | War on the Rocks
This summer the White House surprised the world with a hopeful piece of Middle Eastern news: The United Arab Emirates and Israel would normalize relations, something that was once unimaginable. For the United Arab Emirates, only the third Arab country to establish relations with Israel, the U.S. sweetener appears to be a commitment to sell it F-35 Joint Strike Fighters, as well as other advanced weaponry long sought by Abu Dhabi Crown Prince Mohammed bin Zayed.
War Crime Risk Grows for U.S. Over Saudi Strikes in Yemen | 14 September 2020 | The New York Times
U.S. War Crimes in Yemen: Stop Looking the Other Way | 21 September 2020 | HRW
The civilian death toll from Saudi Arabia’s disastrous air war over Yemen was steadily rising in 2016 when the State Department’s legal office in the Obama administration reached a startling conclusion: Top American officials could be charged with war crimes for approving bomb sales to the Saudis and their partners. Four years later, more than a dozen current and former U.S. officials say the legal risks have only grown as President Trump has made selling weapons to Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates and other Middle East nations a cornerstone of his foreign policy.
UNODC: ‘Ant Trafficking’ of Arms From US to Mexico | 10 September 2020 | OCCRP
Research shows that gun smugglers have taken to trafficking weapons across the U.S.-Mexico border in small batches so as to avoid detection and seizures by the authorities. In its Global Study on Firearms Trafficking, published on Tuesday, the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime found that so-called “ant trafficking,” as the phenomenon of using smaller-scale shipments is known, accounted for 60-70% of all weapons intercepted at the border, with nearly half of these comprising a single firearm.
Canada is fuelling war in Yemen with arms sales, UN report says | 9 September 2020 | The Globe & Mail
Canada for the first time is being publicly named as one of the countries helping fuel the war in Yemen by a panel of independent experts monitoring the conflict for the United Nations and investigating possible war crimes by the combatants, including Saudi Arabia.
US Weapons Sale, $12 Million For Haiti Police Raises “Troubling Questions” | 2 September 2020 | The Haitian Times
In November, 2019, as part of its support for the Haitian National Police (HNP), the State Department’s Bureau of International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs (INL) awarded a $73,000 contract for the provision of “riot gear kit[s]” for the police’s crowd control unit, CIMO, according to information contained in the US government’s contracting database.
Sudan Economic Sanctions and Export Controls: A Primer for Aircraft Lessors | September 2020 | Vedder Price PC
The status of Sudan often arises for aircraft and jet engine lessors that require their lessees to comply with U.S. economic sanctions and export control programs. As the Office of Foreign Assets Control (“OFAC”) of the U.S. Department of the Treasury has recently issued guidance on the Sudan program, this is an opportune time to review the current status of Sudan insofar as the existing programs are concerned.
Israeli arms manufacturers paid millions to Azeris through Russian bank | 27 October 2020 | The Times of Israel
Following a FinCEN Files report that Israel Aerospace Industries paid suspicious sums to a reported slush fund for Azeri elites, new report reveals Russian involvement.
China’s New Export Control Law | 22 October 2020 | WilmerHale | JDSupra
China’s Export Control Law Formally Enacted | 23 October 2020 | Pillsbury Winthrop Shaw Pittman LLP | JDSupra
The Standing Committee of the 13th National People’s Congress promulgated the Export Control Law of the People’s Republic of China (ECL or the Law) on October 17, 2020.1 The Law will enter into effect on December 1, 2020.
The UAE Is Turning Into the World Capital for Weapons Makers | 22 October 2020 | Foreign Policy
At Defence and Security Equipment International, the world’s largest arms fair, held last year in London, the organizers reported a record demand for space. A large chunk of that demand was from the United Arab Emirates, which reserved the corner with the most foot traffic. But its pavilion looked empty next to the life-size prototypes that surrounded it, and its delegate was too busy to talk to the press.
Four Key Issues on China’s Unreliable Entity List | 16 October 2020 | King & Wood Mallesons
With the introduction and implementation of the Provisions on the Unreliable Entity List (the “UEL Provisions”) by the Ministry of Commerce of the PRC (MOFCOM) on 19 September 2020, China’s legislation on the Unreliable Entity List (UEL), which started in May last year, has finally made substantial progress.
China Set to Pass Law Protecting Vital Tech From U.S. | 15 October 2020 | Bloomberg
Revision of the Catalogue of Technologies Prohibited or Restricted from Export of the PRC | 15 October 2020 | King & Wood Mallesons
Recent Changes in Chinese Export Controls: Are Your China Operations Ready? | 13 October 2020 | Crowell & Moring LLP
China is set to pass a new law that would restrict sensitive exports vital to national security, expanding its toolkit of policy options as competition grows with the U.S. over access to technologies that will drive the modern economy.
High Court rejects ban on arms sales to Azerbaijan as lacking evidence | 13 October 2020 | The Jerusalem Post
The High Court of Justice on Monday rejected a petition to ban arms sales to Azerbaijan as lacking evidence to justify a hearing on whether they have been used for war crimes against Armenia.
Rheinmetall Defence Australia opens new facility in Queensland | 12 October 2020 | Army Technology
Rheinmetall Defence Australia has opened a facility in the state of Queensland for manufacturing and assembling military vehicles.
Du Caucase à l’Afrique, de Libye en Azerbaïdjan : les nouveaux fronts stratégiques d’Erdogan | 12 October 2020 | Atlantico.fr
Depuis deux semaines, le président de l’Azerbaïdjan, Ilham Aliev a lancé une offensive militaire contre la petite république du Haut Karabakh, peuplée à 100% d’Arméniens chrétiens. Des tirs d’artillerie azéris ont pilonné les civils dans les villages autour de Stepanakert. Erevan a riposté et a déclaré l’état d’urgence tout en interpellant en vain le conseil de sécurité́ de l’ONU. La France est le seul pays européen à avoir réellement réagi, comme elle l’a fait peu avant pour défendre les intérêts de la Grèce, de la République de Chypre et de l’UE elle-même en Méditerranée et en Libye face à l’expansionnisme turc de plus en plus belliciste.
Maersk to stop using Myanmar military ports: rights group | 8 October 2020 | Yahoo
Global shipping giant Maersk will stop using military-owned ports in Myanmar, a lobby group said Thursday after leading a campaign against international companies with links to the armed forces.
Israeli arms and defense companies invited to Abu Dhabi for Middle East’s largest exhibition of its kind | 8 October 2020 | Calcalist CTech
As part of the agreement, companies from the Gulf’s defense sector will also take part in ISDEF 2021, which is scheduled to be held in Israel in June of next year.
As Nagorno-Karabakh Conflict Expands, Israel-Azerbaijan Arms Trade Thrives | 7 October 2020 | Haaretz
Ben-Gurion Airport is quiet with civilian flights almost at a standstill. However, cargo flights on the Azerbaijan route have been very busy over the last two weeks. The high number of flights is a direct result of the renewal of fighting between Armenia and Azerbaijan over the disputed enclave of Nagorno-Karabakh.
Tax break for weapons exports to Mid-East countries accused of war | 6 October 2020 | Michael West Media
Australian weapons manufacturer Electro Optic Systems, with financial support from the federal and ACT governments, is capitalising on the ‘growth market’ of the Middle East, one of the world’s most volatile regions. Michelle Fahy reports.
Turkey decries ‘double standard’ after Canada halts drone tech sales | 6 October 2020 | Reuters
Canada’s decision to suspend exports of some military technology over allegations the equipment was used by Azeri forces in the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict shows a double standard, Turkey’s foreign ministry said on Tuesday.
Syrians Make Up Turkey’s Proxy Army in Nagorno-Karabakh | 5 October 2020 | Foreign Policy
Nagorno-Karabakh Conflict: Epitome Of Erdogan’s Neo-Ottomanism | 5 October 2020 | Eurasia Review
After fighting Turkey’s battles in Libya, the Syrian National Army is caught in the conflict between Armenia and Azerbaijan—and dozens are dying.
Weapons, Drug Trafficking on Myanmar Border Threaten India’s Act East Policy | 5 October 2020 | The Irrawaddy
On Sept. 28, India’s Border Security Force (BSF) confiscated a large cache of weapons, including 29 AK-series rifles and 7,894 assorted pieces of ammunition, among other items, from two vehicles in Mizoram State’s Mamit district, near the India-Bangladesh border. Three persons were arrested in this connection.
China technology export update: amendment of the export technology catalog | 30 September 2020 | Morrison & Foerster LLP | MoFO Life Sciences
On August 28, 2020, China’s Ministry of Commerce (MOFCOM) and Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) jointly published a notice on the adjustment of China’s Catalog of Technologies the Export of Which is Prohibited or Restricted (the “Catalog”). This is the first time the Catalog has been revised in 12 years, and the first time dual-use technologies have been included in technology export control.
India fast tracks procurement of 72,000 assault rifles for the Indian Army | 28 September 2020 | Financial Express
These rifles are being procured at a cost of Rs 780 crore through the Fast Track Procedure (FTP) for the modernisation of the Infantry arm of the Indian Army. Today’s approval comes close on the heels of the ongoing tension along the Line of Actual Control (LAC) between India and China.
NATO Arms Sales to Turkey and the Eastern Mediterranean Dispute | 25 September 2020 | Geopolitical Monitor
Recent confrontations in the Eastern Mediterranean – fueled by the prospect of exploiting offshore gas deposits – have raised fears of an upcoming armed clash in the region. The main contenders in the complex dispute are Greece and Cyprus on the one hand and Turkey on the other. The latter has advanced controversial claims over waters that are traditionally recognized as being under Greek and Cypriot jurisdiction. But other states are also involved due to geopolitical and economic interest, most notably France, Egypt, Israel, Italy, the US and Russia.
Western arms exports fuel conflict in Middle East, North Africa | 24 September 2020 | DW
The US and its European allies make up nearly three-quarters of all arms transfers to the Middle East and North Africa, a new report found. Experts say arms exports to the region fuel conflict and human rights abuses.
UK has given £1 billion in aid to Yemen, but licensed £6.5 billion in arms to bomb it | 23 September 2020 | Independent Catholic News
Ahead of a House of Commons debate today, Campaign Against Arms Trade (CAAT) has criticised the UK government’s “dangerous and immoral” priorities when it comes to Yemen. Last week the government announced that it has committed £1 billion worth of aid to Yemen since the ongoing conflict began in 2015.
British training of Saudi pilots continues amid bombing of Yemen | 23 September 2020 | Daily Maverick
UK defence minister admits that training of Saudi Typhoon pilots is continuing despite Riyadh using these British-made jets to conduct airstrikes in Yemen, a country on the brink of famine.
Leaked docs expose massive Syria propaganda operation waged by Western govt contractors and media | 23 September 2020 | The Grayzone
Western government-funded intelligence cutouts trained Syrian opposition leaders, planted stories in media outlets from BBC to Al Jazeera, and ran a cadre of journalists. A trove of leaked documents exposes the propaganda network. Leaked documents show how UK government contractors developed an advanced infrastructure of propaganda to stimulate support in the West for Syria’s political and armed opposition.
Pakistan’s VT4 main battle tank acquisition confirmed | 22 September 2020 | Defence Blog
On September 22, 2020, VT4 tanks of the Pakistani Army were displayed for Chief of the Army Staff (COAS) General Qamar Javed Bajwa during exercises.
China Enacts Regulations on Unreliable Entity List | 22 September 2020 | Paul Hastings LLP
On May 31, 2019, China’s Ministry of Commerce announced that China would soon establish an “Unreliable Entity List” (the “List”). This announcement came two weeks after the U.S. Department of Commerce placed a Chinese tech giant and its affiliates on the U.S. Entity List. Since then, U.S.-China tensions have continued to escalate. The Trump Administration recently moved to address national security concerns related to certain Chinese social media and communications apps in the United States.
Caracal international refocuses commitment in line with ‘make in India’ initiative | 21 september 2020 | Caracal International
CARACAL, a world-renowned, UAE-based small arms manufacturer, today stressed in a statement “its commitment to the ‘Make in India’ initiative”, after having previously been selected by the Indian Ministry of Defence in 2018 to fast-track the supply of 93,895 CAR 816 assault rifles to the Indian Army.
Why China’s control of rare earths matters (VIDEO) | 21 September 2020 | Financial Times
China dominates the world’s production and supply of rare earths – obscure elements that are vital for high tech-manufacturing. The FT’s Jamie Smyth explains their importance.
Les Milices islamistes internationales de la Turquie d’Erdogan | 18 September 2020 | Atlantico
Les Sociétés militaires privées (SMP) sont très actives au coeur des conflits et des tensions au Moyen-Orient. La SMP SADAT AS International Defense Consulting agit comme une milice présidentielle au service du régime de Recep Tayyip Erdogan.
Army tenders worth $2.5 billion for carbines, air defence systems cancelled | 17 September 2020 | The Hindu
The Defence Ministry has decided to cancel two tenders of the Army, worth about $2.5 bn, for Close Quarter Carbines (CQB) and Self Propelled Air Defence Gun Missile System (SPAD-GMS) which have been held up for sometime, a defence source said. They will now be procured through the Make in India route.
UK could be ‘aiding and assisting’ Saudi Arabia war crimes by selling arms, UN report warns | 17 September 2020 | The Independent
Britain and other countries providing arms to Saudi Arabia are potentially “aiding and assisting” war crimes by the country’s forces in Yemen, a UN report has warned.
U.S. Set to Sell Taiwan $7 Billion in Arms | 16 September 2020 | The Wall Street Journal
The Trump administration is poised to make a $7 billion arms deal with Taiwan, part of an effort to draw closer to Taipei as the administration ratchets up the political and military pressure against China.
Thailand chooses Chinese-made VN16 105mm amphibious light tank for its Marine Forces | 15 September 2020 | ArmyRecognition
The Chinese-made VN16, the future 105mm amphibious light tank, and the backbone of the Thai Marine Forces. The vehicle will be deployed on the Type 071E LPD (Landing Platform Dock). In September 2019, Thailand has signed a contract with China for the purchase of one Type 071E, built by the China State Shipbuilding Corporation (CSSC).
Revealed: Censored videos show Saudi pilots bombing Britain | 11 September 2020 | Daily Maverick
The UK’s Royal Air Force is refusing to release video footage that shows fighter pilots from Saudi Arabia conducting air attacks in Britain, as part of a controversial military training scheme which involves 25 civilian airports.
UN Rights Experts Urge Countries to Stop Fueling War in Yemen | 10 September 2020 | Voice of America
The Group of Eminent International and Regional Experts on Yemen is calling for an end to the multi-billion-dollar arms trade that it says is fueling the war in Yemen and turned the country into what the U.N. considers the world’s worst humanitarian catastrophe.
Possible war crimes in Yemen fuelled by arms flows from West and Iran | 9 September 2020 | Reuters
Weapons provided by Western powers and Iran to the warring sides in Yemen are fuelling the six-year-old conflict, marked by deadly Saudi-led coalition air strikes and Houthi shelling, U.N. investigators said on Wednesday.
New UN report says rebels in Yemen recruited teenage girls | 9 September 2020 | The Washington Post
U.N.-backed experts have found evidence that rebels in Yemen recruited nearly three dozen teenage girls — some said to be survivors of sexual violence — as spies, medics, guards and members of an all-female force, according to a report released Wednesday.
Govt steps up investigations into Pilatus aircraft scam | 6 September 2020 | Times of India
Government has stepped up the investigation into alleged bribary in UPA government’s purchase of Pilatus aircraft for the Air Force.
Army self-propelled guns to be built in Geelong | 4 September 2020 | AuManufacturing
The federal government has issued a request for tender for the building of thirty self-propelled howitzers and 15 armoured ammunition resupply vehicles for the army. The request was issued to preferred supplier Hanwha Defence Australia under the army’s Protected Mobile Fires project and will provide better mobility, lethality and crew protection.
Small Arms Trafficking In South And South East Asia – Analysis | 3 September 2020 | Eurasia Review
Following the end of the Cold War, the apartheid in South Africa, and the end of conflicts around the world paved the way for democratization. As a result, it brought an end to rivalry between the Soviet Union and the United States but it led to an outbreak of inter-state and intra-state wars and conflicts, often of a religious or ethnic character and often it resulted in violent outbreaks.
Fugitive arms dealer Sanjay Bhandari’s extradition trial to begin in UK on September 11 | 3 September 2020 | TimesNow
Fugitive arms dealer Sanjay Bhandari will be appearing at Westminster magistrates in the United Kingdon on September 11 to fight his extradition to India. The Enforcement Directorate (ED) has filed a charge sheet against Bhandari in connection with a money-laundering case against him for alleged possession of undisclosed assets abroad. The central probe agency in June had filed the charge sheet before a court under the Prevention of Money Laundering Act (PMLA).
India, Russia finalise AK-47 203 rifles deal | 3 September 2020 | The New Indian Express
A news report said that the Indian Army has a requirement for around 770,000 AK-47 203 rifles, of which 100,000 will be imported and the rest will be manufactured in India.
Declassified cables show US assurances of arms sales to Taiwan | 1 September 2020 | Nikkei Asian Review
The U.S. on Monday declassified documents detailing the security assurances it made to Taiwan in 1982, in a step aimed at warning Beijing against acting militarily against the island.
Saudi Arabia: Followers of arms sales groups on social media to face 10 years in prison | 31 August 2020 | Gulf News
Arms and contraband sales groups threaten their followers on social media with jail time and a hefty fine for entering these groups and failing to report their violations to authorities, local media reported.
Les trafiquants d’armes syriens opèrent au Liban | 31 August 2020 | Illicit Trade News Network
Des milliers de munitions ont récemment été saisies par les douanes libanaises. Ces trafiquants d’armes syriens ont été interceptés sur une route connue pour le passage de la contrebande ; les abords de la ville de Yanta à 80km à l’est de Beyrouth. Lors de l’opération un des trafiquant a lancé un objet explosif en direction des soldats ; quatre d’entre eux ont été blessés. Cette opération vient illustrer à la fois l’ampleur du problème et la détermination des trafiquants.
Peace for Warplanes? | 31 August 2020 | Foreign Policy
The Trump administration wants to push through within months an arms deal with the United Arab Emirates that includes the world’s most advanced warplane, the F-35, an ambitious timetable that could well be thwarted by the U.S. Congress, depending largely on Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu’s position on the sale.
Indonesia’s impulsive arms trade | 28 August 2020 | PolicyForum
Indonesia’s impulsive attempts to purchase jet fighters has gained attention over recent months. In the latest development, Indonesian Defence Minister Prabowo Subianto approached his Austrian counterpart to express his interest to acquire the latter’s 15 Eurofighter Typhoons.
UK faces new legal challenge over arms sales to Saudi Arabia | 27 October 2020 | The Guardian
Campaigners have filed for a judicial review of the UK government’s decision to renew arms sales to Saudi Arabia. The Campaign Against Arms Trade (CAAT) said the weapons would “fuel destruction and prolong the conflict” in Yemen, where a Saudi-led coalition has employed widespread bombing in a war that has killed thousands of civilians.
EU countries granted arms export licenses of €281m to Azerbaijan in 2019 | 27 October 2020 | PanArmenian.net
European Union member states have approved over €281 million worth of arms export licenses for Azerbaijan in 2019 alone, according to an online database launched by the European External Action Service. Military products worth almost €38 million have already been shipped to the country.
Italian arms exports to Yemen: State and corporate responsibility | 27 October 2020 | ECCHR
Thousands of civilians have been killed in the armed conflict in Yemen, and millions have been left on the brink of starvation since September 2014, when Ansar Allah (as known as the Houthis) took control of the Yemeni capital Sana’a by force, and the Saudi/UAE-led coalition began its military campaign. During these six years of conflict, all warring parties in Yemen have committed grave violations of international human rights and humanitarian law.
Who gets most of EU funding for military research and development? | 26 October 2020 | ENAAT
4 countries get 53.5% of the grants allocated so far: France, Italy, Spain and Germany, which are also the main EU arms exporters. Thales gets 15 grants, and 7 companies of the top 10 were members of the Group of Personalities that advised the European Commission to create this funding, in 2016.
Finnish arms exports must be more transparent, demands think tank | 26 October 2020 | Helsinki Times
Lack of transparency in Finnish arms exports makes it difficult to evaluate the arms export policy of Finland, states a report by Saferglobe.
Arms exports control: launch of online database increasing transparency on EU arms exports | 26 October 2020 | EEAS
Today the European External Action Service has launched an online database on its website that will allow everyone to consult and analyse the data on Member States’ arms exports in a user-friendly manner.
Exporting Dual-Use items to EU Member States from the UK: The new rules | 26 October 2020 | Travers Smith LLP
On 16 October 2020, the UK’s Export Control Joint Unit (“ECJU”) issued a timely reminder to UK businesses that an Open General Export Licence (“OGEL”) will be required where a business is exporting dual-use items, as set out in Annex 1 of EU Regulation 428/2009 (the “Dual-use Regulations”), to any EU member state, and the Channel Islands, from 1 January 2021.
EU One Step Closer to Global Human Rights Sanctions Regime | 24 October 2020 | White & Case LLP | JD Supra
The European Commission and the EU’s Foreign Policy High Representative have put forward a proposal for a new, non-country-based sanctions programme to address human rights violations and abuses with asset freezes and travel bans. This proposal must be approved by all 27 Member States within the EU Council before it becomes law, and before any designations can be made under the programme.
How an Irrepressible Serbian Arms Dealer Found a Conduit to Saudi Arabia through Qatar | 23 October 2020 | OCCRP
A Cypriot shell firm accused of funnelling bribes on behalf of a notorious Serbian weapons dealer deposited $1.7 million into a secretive trust fund set up for a prominent Saudi, leaked bank records show.
Vorwurf der Befangenheit | 21 October 2020 | Süddeutsche Zeitung
Im Streit um ein neues Sturmgewehr für die Bundeswehr offenbart sich ein tiefes Zerwürfnis zwischen dem Verteidigungsministerium und dem im Vergabeverfahren zunächst unterlegenen Anbieter, der Firma Heckler & Koch.
Ireland’s arms trade now worth €42m a year despite strict licensing controls over exports | 20 October 2020 | Sunday World
Written question of Deputy John Brady to the Tánaiste and Minister for Enterprise, Trade and Employment| 15 October 2020 | Dáil Éireann
Ireland’s arms trade is now worth €42 million a year despite strict licensing controls over the export of anything for use in weapons or military equipment.
I helped fight legal action against the government’s export of arms to Saudi Arabia. What I know now makes me ashamed | 19 October 2020 | The Independent
When governments consider themselves above the law, the consequences can be horrifying. I did not become a Foreign Office lawyer in order to justify this moral depravity.
Heckler und Koch von Ministerium benachteiligt? | 18 October 2020 | Schwarzwälder Bote
Gescheiterte Sturmgewehr-Ausschreibung bei Bundeswehr: Geht es wirklich nur um verletzte Patente von Heckler & Koch? | 14 October 2020 | Business Insider
Geheim-Vermerk zu Sturmgewehr-Auftrag: Bundeswehr-Juristin warnte intern vor Nachverhandlungen mit Firmen – und wurde ignoriert | 31 October 2020 | Business Insider
Verteidigungsministerium räumt erstmals Unregelmäßigkeiten bei Sturmgewehr-Auftrag ein | 27 October 2020 | Business Insider
Bis zum 9. Oktober sah es ganz danach aus, dass es dem kleinem Thüringer Waffenproduzenten C.G. Haenel tatsächlich gelingen würde, den so begehrten 250-Millionen-Euro-Auftrag der Bundeswehr für neue Gewehre zu ergattern.
Weitere Probleme bei Vergabe von Rüstungsprojekten: Werft von Investor Lars Windhorst greift Bundeswehr an | 16 October 2020 | Business Insider
Nach den Problemen bei der Ausschreibung für neue Sturmgewehre gibt es nach Recherchen von Business Insider auch bei zwei weiteren wichtigen Rüstungsprojekten der Bundeswehr Unregelmäßigkeiten bei der Vergabe.
Belgium orders 322 Joint Light Tactical Vehicles from Oshkosh Defense | 14 October 2020 | Defence-Blog.com
Specialty truckmaker Oshkosh Corp on Monday announced that its defense arm has received a Belgium order for more than 300 Joint Light Tactical Vehicles.
Council Decision (CFSP) 2020/1464 of 12 October 2020 on the promotion of effective arms export controls | 12 October 2020 | Council of the European Union
For the purpose of promoting peace and security, and in line with the European Security Strategy and the Global Strategy for the Union’s foreign and security policy, the Union shall pursue the following objectives:(a) promoting effective controls on arms exports by third countries in accordance with the principles set out in Common Position 2008/944/CFSP and in the ATT…
UK ‘complicit in atrocities’ with arms licences issued to Saudi Arabia at record high | 11 October 2020 | Mirror
One arms export licence is granted almost every day to the brutal dictatorship in Saudi Arabia after sales of weaponry was suspended for a year after legal action.
Estonia receives first K9 self-propelled howitzers | 10 October 2020 | Defence-Blog.com
Estonia has received the first two of 18 contracted K9 Kõu (Thunder) self-propelled howitzers, according to a recent Estonian Defense Force news release.
Verteidigungsministerium zieht Auftrag für Sturmgewehr zurück| 9 October 2020 | FAZ
Das Verteidigungsministerium wollte 120.000 Sturmgewehre von der Firma C.G. Haenel kaufen. Wegen einer möglichen Patentrechtsverletzung nimmt es nun Abstand von dem Plan. SPD, FDP und Grüne sind entsetzt.
More than two dozen Saudi Typhoon pilots trained in Britain | 7 October 2020 | Daily Maverick
Britain’s Royal Air Force has trained 25 pilots from Saudi Arabia to fly the powerful Typhoon jet and continues to provide instruction on using missiles involved in devastating attacks on civilians in Yemen.
Rockets, Cluster Munitions And Missiles Rain Down On Armenian And Azerbaijani Civilians | 7 October 2020 | Forbes
Nagorno-Karabakh conflict: both sides accused of using cluster bombs | 8 October 2020 | The Guardian
Fighting remains fierce on the frontlines of the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict pitting Azerbaijan against a de facto separatist Armenian republic, a week and a half after the conflict began. Armenian defenders entrenched in the mountains have wreaked havoc in deadly ambushes using artillery and anti-tank weapons.
Neues Sturmgewehr: Die geheimen Klauseln im Waffen-Vertrag mit der Bundeswehr | 7 October 2020 | Business Insider
Geheimpapier: Das zahlt die Bundeswehr wirklich für das neue Sturmgewehr – und so knapp verlor die Waffenschmiede Heckler & Koch das Duell | 6 October 2020 | Business Insider
Grüne und FDP protestieren gegen neues Sturmgewehr | 3 October 2020 | FAZ
Es ist ein bisschen die Geschichte von David gegen Goliath: Mitte September hatte die Thüringer Firma C.G. Haenel einen Auftrag der Bundeswehr über die Lieferung von rund 120.000 neuen Sturmgewehren gewonnen. Das Unternehmen mit 120 Mitarbeitern und einem Jahresumsatz von acht Millionen Euro setzte sich gegen ein Welt-Unternehmen durch: Heckler & Koch. Die Firma mit rund 1000 Mitarbeitern und einem Jahresumsatz von knapp 240 Millionen Euro gehört zu den weltweit fünf größten Gewehr- und Pistolenhersteller.
UK remains second biggest arms exporter with £11bn of orders | 6 October 2020 | The Guardian
British manufacturers exported £11bn worth of arms during 2019 – the second highest figure on record – despite a court order that the UK must halt any sales to Saudi Arabia that could be used in Yemen.
Russia: Russian Export Control of Dual-Use Items 2020 FAQ (pdf) | 3 October 2020 | Baker McKenzie | Global Compliance News
This document summarizes the statutory requirements on the exportation of dual-use items from Russia, and does not contain information on the exportation of military items.
In Nagorno-Karabakh Fight, Serbian-Made Rockets and Links to Blacklisted Dealer | 2 October 2020 | Balkan Insight
Serbia is Playing With Fire, Delivering Arms to Armenia | 2 October 2020 | Balkan Insight
Serbian-made arms, of a type previously sold by the state to a private company linked to a Serbian arms dealer blacklisted by the United States, have been used in renewed fighting between Azerbaijan and Armenia over the disputed region of Nagorno-Karabakh, BIRN can reveal.
Bulgaria assesses offers in $875 mln armoured vehicle tender | 2 October 2020 | Reuters
Bulgaria’s defence ministry is assessing offers from U.S. General Dynamics and Finland’s Patria in a 1.46 billion lev ($875 million) tender to provide 150 armoured vehicles for the army, it said on Friday.
240 Polizisten – 68 000 Pfeffersprays | 1 October 2020 | Süddeutsche Zeitung
Deutschland liefert Pfefferspray an autoritär regierte Staaten | 1 October 2020 | Oldenburger Onlinezeitung
Antwort der Bundesregierung auf die Kleine Anfrage der Abgeordneten Michel Brandt, et.als. : Einsatz von Pfefferspray und Elektroimpulsgeräten durch die Bundespolizei aus menschenrechtlicher Sicht (pdf) | 25 September 2020 | Drucksache 19/22841 | Deutscher Bundestag
Deutschland verkauft dem Zwergstaat Andorra große und beständig wachsende Mengen an Pfefferspray-Kartuschen. Und nicht nur diese Lieferungen hält ein Abgeordneter der Linken für fragwürdig.
Heckler & Koch stoppt Sturmgewehr-Vergabe vorerst | 29 September 2020 | Neue Westfälische
Im Streit mit der Bundesregierung hat der Waffenhersteller Heckler & Koch einen weiteren juristischen Schritt unternommen, um doch noch einen Sturmgewehr-Großauftrag des Bundes zu bekommen.
Air force accused of war crimes in Yemen using Scots airports to train pilots | 27 September 2020 | The Sunday Post
Royal Saudi Air Force (RSAF) pilots based in Lincolnshire for training are allowed to land at 25 civilian airfields in the UK including Dundee, Aberdeen, Inverness, Wick and Prestwick.
Équipements antiémeutes de la police : entre modèles anciens et nouveautés | 23 September 2020 | Amnesty International
L’été 2020 a donné lieu à de nouvelles vagues de manifestations dans le monde entier, tant dans des villes et des pays déjà agités de troubles que dans des zones peu habituées à des mouvements d’une telle envergure.
EU must tighten rules on surveillance tech exports – rights groups | 21 September 2020 | Reuters
Digital rights campaigners called on the EU on Monday to tighten export controls on surveillance tools such as facial recognition systems to prevent European technology being used in countries where it could fuel human rights abuses.
Haenel: Bundeswehr-Sturmgewehr zu 90 Prozent „Made in Germany“ | 21 September 2020 | insüdthüringen.de
Der Suhler Waffenhersteller Haenel/Merkel will das neue Sturmgewehr zu 90 Prozent in Deutschland bauen, mit Schwerpunkt Südthüringen. Für das Unternehmen sei die Militärwaffenproduktion „unvermeidlich“ zur Sicherung von Jobs.
Fincantieri Launches First Patrol Vessel for Qatar | 18 September 2020 | Maritime Executive
The technical launch of the first-in-class patrol vessel (OPV – Offshore Patrol Vessel) Musherib, ordered to Fincantieri by the Qatari Ministry of Defence within the national naval acquisition program, took place today at the Muggiano (La Spezia) yard, at the presence of the Italian Minister of Defence Lorenzo Guerini…
Ventes d’armes : la France à nouveau pointée du doigt au Yémen | 16 September 2020 | Amnesty International
Si la France semble vouloir se montrer plus transparente en matière de ventes d’armes, elle n’en a pas moins continué de livrer des armes dont l’usage pourrait avoir des conséquences dramatiques sur les vies de milliers de civils.
Arms exports: Remarks by the High Representative/Vice-President Josep Borrell at the EP plenary | 15 September 2020 | EU External Action Service
I would like to start by thanking Ms [Hannah] Neumann and Members who have contributed to this important resolution on European arms export. I think it includes many useful suggestions that will help me to deal with a difficult subject like this on a more convergent, transparent and responsible way.
Die Firma, die das Sturmgewehr erfunden hat, liefert die neue Waffe der Bundeswehr | 15 September 2020 | Stern
Erstmals kauft die Bundeswehr nicht bei Heckler & Koch, sie hat sich für das MK556 von Haenel entschieden. Dieser Firma baute das Sturmgewehr 44 und definierte so diese Waffengruppe.
Mehr als nur ein Gewehr | 15 September 2020 | Süddeutsche Zeitung
Das G3 ist in der alten Bundesrepublik zu einem Symbol dafür geworden, was der Bürger mit dem Staat und der Staat mit dem Bürger zu tun hatte. Heckler & Koch hat den Herstellungsauftrag jetzt an eine Firma verloren, die arabischen Eignern gehört. Für die braucht es klare Exportregelungen.
Thüringer Waffenschmiede Haenel soll neues Sturmgewehr liefern | 14 September 2020 | Süddeutsche Zeitung
Die Bundeswehr will nach dem Wirbel um die Treffgenauigkeit des Sturmgewehrs G36 eine neue Standardwaffe. Das Auswahlverfahren lief über mehrere Jahre: Die Entscheidung ist bitter für den bisherigen Lieferanten Heckler & Koch.
Un nouveau recours au Conseil d’Etat concernant les armes belges livrées à l’Arabie saoudite | 14 September 2020 | L’Echo
Plusieurs associations demandent l’annulation des licences concernant les armes qui doivent être livrées à la Garde nationale, mais également celles qui concernent la Garde royale. Elio Di Rupo point le nombre d’emplois qui pourraient être impactés.
Schweden bietet Kroatien Kauf von Gripen-Kampfjets mit strategischem Kooperationspaket an | 13 September 2020 | RT
Der schwedische Technologiekonzern Saab bestätigte jüngst in einer Pressemitteilung, dass die schwedische Regierung bei der Vermarktung von Gripen-Kampfjets in Kroatien helfen werde. Der Vertrag soll auch ein umfassendes strategisches Kooperationspaket beinhalten.
Greece acquiring 18 French-made Rafale warplanes amid rising Turkey tensions | 12 September 2020 | Ahval
La Grèce annonce acquérir 18 avions de combat Rafale | 12 September 2020 | Le Figaro
Greece is set to acquire 18 French-made Rafale warplanes, four multi-purpose frigates, and four navy helicopters amid tension with Turkey over hydrocarbon resources in the eastern Mediterranean, Greek Prime Minister Kyriakos Mitsotakis said on Saturday.
Belgium to acquire U.S. made Joint Light Tactical Vehicles | 12 September 2020 | Defence-Blog.com
On September 11, the Belgian government approved the acquisition of Joint Light Tactical Vehicles from American Oshkosh company for the Belgian armed forces under the Commando en Liaison Voertuigen (CLV) program.
Russian Arms Sales To Armenia And Geopolitical Effects | 10 September 2020 | Eurasia Review
The combined effects of Russia’s invasion of Georgia in August 2008, together with the disinterest in the South Caucasus by U.S. President Barack Obama’s administration beginning with his inauguration in January 2009, has entailed a steady increase of Russian influence in the region over the last 12 years. The Trump Administration has sought to increase modestly the American profile in the South Caucasus, but it has not been able to remedy the damage is done under the two Obama administrations.
UK sold £16 billion worth of deadly weapons to regimes who abuse human rights | 10 September 2020 | The Mirror
New figures show that from 2010 to 2019 the UK sold arms to 36 of the 49 countries listed as ‘not free’ by human rights group Freedom House.
Ukraine shows interest in the Super Tucano | 8 September 2020 | ShephardMedia
Ukraine may cut its fleet of L-39 Albatros jet trainers in favour of more modern aircraft such as the Embraer EMB-314 Super Tucano. The Ukrainian Air Force regards the Albatros as an obsolete platform that lacks training capabilities for future pilots.
Nazi-Schatten auf Heckler & Koch | 7 September 2020 | Handelsblatt
Der Gründer des Waffenkonzerns Heckler & Koch ist einem Zeitungsbericht zufolge tief in Nazi-Verbrechen verstrickt gewesen. Wie Recherchen der „Bild am Sonntag“ ergaben, leitete der Ingenieur Edmund Heckler während der NS-Zeit unter anderem eine Panzerfaust-Fabrik im sächsischen Taucha, wo mehr als 1.000 Zwangsarbeiter unter unmenschlichen Bedingungen schuften mussten und viele von ihnen starben.
Les exportations d’armes russes se tournent vers une nouvelle clientèle | 5 September 2020 | FranceCulture
Les Olympiades militaires qui se terminent ce week-end en Russie étaient doublées d’un salon international de l’armement. L’occasion pour Moscou de promouvoir ses productions. Le Kremlin entend bien conforter son statut de deuxième exportateur d’armes au monde, malgré les sanctions occidentales.
What is the US aiming for by lifting the Cyprus arms embargo? | 5 September 2020 | ArabNews
A new element has been introduced to ongoing disputes in the Eastern Mediterranean, with US Secretary of State Mike Pompeo announcing on Tuesday that a 1987 arms embargo on Cyprus was being partially lifted.
UK arms sales to Saudi Arabia may have increased after they were ruled unlawful | 2 September 2020 | The Mirror
Arms sales to Saudi Arabia may have continued – and even increased – even after they were ruled unlawful, MPs have been told. More than 5,000 deliveries of weapons to Saudi Arabia were made under ‘open licences’ in 2019.
Turkey slams US’ partial lifting of arms embargo on Greek Cyprus | 1 September 2020 | Daily Sabah
Turkey on Tuesday slammed the United States’ decision to partially lift the arms embargo on Greek Cypriots, saying that Ankara would take a countermeasure unless Washington reconsiders its decision.
Russia to supply armaments to Sudan and Laos | 28 August 2020 | Army-Technology
Russia has agreed to supply armaments to Sudan and Laos as it seeks to bolster friendly relations with foreign countries. According to a TASS report, the related contracts were signed at the Army-2020 event to enable the delivery of weapons and military hardware to the two countries.
Belarus to receive BTR-82A armoured personnel carriers from Russia | 25 August 2020 | Defence-Blog.com
The Ministry of Defence of the Republic of Belarus announced on 24 August that Armed Forces will receive a batch of modern BTR-82A armoured personnel carriers from Russia.