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"Business & Human Rights in Tanzania" – Briefing 2019 Quarter 2: April - June

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This briefing presents an overview of present-day business and human rights issues and activities, as they prevail in four major economic sectors in Tanzania: resource extraction, agriculture, tourism and infrastructure

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This publication is part of the ‘Improving monitoring, research and dialogue on Business & Human Rights in Tanzania’ project  implemented by the Tanzanian Commission for Human Rights and GoodGovernance (CHRAGG), Business and Human Rights Tanzania (BHRT) and the International Peace Information Service (IPIS). This briefing is based on news and research published by Tanzanian and international media, journals and institutions. Its content does not necessarily reflect the views, opinions nor work of CHRAGG, BHRT or IPIS. 

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Editorial

In May 2019, the Legal and Human Rights Centre (LHRC) published its annual Tanzania Human Rights Report (Ref. E1). This report examines how fundamental human rights – such as the right to life, freedom of expression, the right to work or the right to enjoy and benefit from natural resources – were enjoyed, protected, promoted and violated in 2018. While both government and non-government actors are working to improve human rights in the country, many challenges remain. The right to work, for instance, is challenged by inadequate (minimal) wages, difficulties for certain workers to form or participate in associations such as trade unions (Ref. E1, E2) and the absence of employment contracts (Ref. E3). The right to property, which mainly focusses on access to land, is found to have improved. Nevertheless, it remains a key issue of concern for women (Ref. E1, E4). Violations of women rights appear throughout the report, including persistent sexual violence and economic violence such as labour exploitation. The equal presence and participation of women in the country’s economy is, however, considered crucial for Tanzania’s development (Ref. E5). The report also mentions a deterioration of the freedom of expression in the country, as the result of several laws and amendments (Ref. E1). To that, Tanzania is urged nationally and internationally to keep its legislation conform international standards (Ref. E6).

Under international, regional and domestic law, States have the primary duty to promote and protect human rights (Ref. E1), including in the area of business and human rights (Ref. E7). This will have to be achieved through various new and available mechanisms. As Tanzania is one of the countries with a National Human Rights Institute (NHRI), strengthening the capacity of its Commission for Human Rights and Good Governance (CHRAGG) is a crucial step in the government’s commitment to human rights (Ref. E8).

The following overview lists news from mid-March till mid-June 2019:

Resource extraction

Over the past years, the Tanzanian government has been reforming the economy in order to increase much-needed revenue for the country’s development. Although the positive effect of this strategy is debated (Ref. R1), reform of the mining sector has been called a success (Ref. R2). Several initiatives to limit resource smuggling and tax evasion are considered to pay off. Following record-high gold trade in government-controlled trading centres in Geita and Chunya (Geita and Mbeya regions) (Ref. R3), the government plans to establish mineral trading hubs in all of Tanzania’s mineral-rich regions (Ref. R4). Tanzanite revenue has also reached record levels and has been attributed to the construction of a wall around mines in Mererani (Manyara Region) (Ref. R5).  Accountability to the law is required from all, whether district minerals officers (Ref. R6) or large-scale mining companies such as Acacia Mining.

Acacia Mining is facing multiple accusations, including environmental damage (Ref. R7), tax evasion and resisting to comply with Tanzania’s laws (Ref. R8, R9). Moreover, the company is under continued (inter-)national pressure for human rights violations and poor relations with the communities around its mines (Ref. R9, R10, R11).

Extractive companies have a lot to gain by maintaining good relations with the communities they work in. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) activities (Ref. R12) are one way through which companies are trying to achieve a positive impact on a wider community. Recent examples include children’s health care and outreach programmes by Geita Gold Mine and Shell (Ref. R13, R14).

Despite government efforts and industry initiatives, health and safety remain major challenges for the extractive sector. Several mining accidents have been reported, from Tabora, Arusha and Morogoro regions (Ref. R15, R16, R17). The use of mercury is still endangering the health and life of small-scale miners, as well as polluting the environment (Ref. R18). A lack of basic infrastructure, including toilets, poses a serious risk of health epidemics at newly discovered gold mining sites in Kiteto (Manyara Region) (Ref. R19).

Agriculture

The government is working to reform the fisheries sector. To promote sustainability, the upcoming Aquaculture Development Act will replace the 2003 Fisheries Act (Ref. A1). Operations against illegal fishing practices continue in Lake Victoria. They seem to increasingly create tensions and violent crashes between Tanzanian and Ugandan fishermen, as both act to curb illegal fishing on their territory (Ref. A2).

Intrusions of livestock and nomadic pastoralists on lands owned by others form a major source of conflict. In March 2019, a pastoralist was killed in Mbigiri Prison (Morogoro Region) when he and his fellow herdsmen resisted arrest while intruding with cattle on prison grounds (Ref. A3).

Disputes over land use and ownership are only one of the many challenges affecting Tanzania’s agricultural sector and the livelihoods of farmers. Resolving land conflicts, whether by providing (customary) title deeds to farmers (Ref. A4) or by establishing Ward Tribunals (Ref. A5), is much-needed to create stability in the sector and, hence, to promote agricultural production (Ref. A4). More predictable policies, effective regulatory bodies (Ref. A6), improved access to inputs for farmers (Ref. A7) and an overall sufficient budget for the agricultural sector (Ref. A8, A9) are other factors to ensure production, decent livelihoods and reduced poverty in a sector on which over 65% of Tanzania directly depend on (Ref. A6).

Tourism

Human-wildlife conflicts are common in and around Tanzania’s many national parks and protected areas. Whereas wildlife can cause injury and death in nearby communities (Ref. T1), humans are equally endangering to Tanzania’s ecosystems. Wildlife poaching is one persistent threat to Tanzania’s tourism sector (Ref. T2). In Ikona Wildlife Management Area, part of the Serengeti ecosystem (Mara Region), village game scouts are trained to deal with issues such as poaching and wildlife conservation (Ref. T3). Human activity, such as farming, livestock keeping and wood cutting, is increasing in and around conservation areas, leaving a detrimental impact (Ref. T4, T5, T6). To safeguard Tanzania’s unique and valuable ecosystems, ambitious and long-term land use plans are needed. A recent study on the Serengeti National Park (Ref. T6) proposes to promote the sustainable coexistence of humans and wildlife by actively managing resources (Ref. T5). At present, the Tanzanian government has chosen a more military approach to address conservation challenges (Ref. T7).

Conflicts between communities and national park authorities occur frequently and can be long-lasting. Over 300 of such conflicts appear to exist at present (Ref. T8). This is for instance the case for Kikondo Village (Mbeya Region), where villagers are now soliciting the help of the president to end a 50 year-long conflict with Kitulo National Park (Ref. T8).

The government’s plans to approve the construction of a cable car on Mount Kilimanjaro have been met with protest by those earning a living from tourism at the site (Ref. T9). For tourism investment to bring benefits to surrounding communities, it is indeed important that the interests of these communities are considered. An environmental and social impact assessment (Ref. T10) of the project is currently in process (Ref. T9).

In collaboration with the International Labour Organisation (ILO), Tanzania has agreed to work towards better working conditions, decent salaries and fair contracts in its tourism industry (Ref. T11). This will be an important step to realise Sustainable Development Goal 8 on decent work and economic growth (Ref. T12).

Infrastructure

Situated in/near human settlements or natural ecosystems, infrastructure projects can significantly impact human rights, such as the right to property or environmental rights. The implementation of infrastructure projects should therefore always be preceded by a due diligence process (Ref. I1). Through this process all negative human rights impacts related to the investment should be identified, prevented, mitigated and be accounted for.

In the case of the Hoima-Tanga East-African crude Oil Pipeline (EACOP) construction, land acquisitions will be needed. The government has assured that villagers whose land will be acquired for the construction of pipeline will be adequately compensated (Ref. I2).

Satisfied with the results of impact assessments and due diligence, the government is moving the Stiegler’s Gorge hydropower project ahead (Ref. I3). It allows a large hydropower dam to be built on the Rufiji River in the Selous Game Reserve (Morogoro Region). In contrast, the Tanzanian government objects against the construction of hydroelectric dams on the Mara River, as proposed by Kenya (Ref. I4, I5).  The Mara River is crucial to the Serengeti ecosystem (Mara – Simiyu regions) and dams on the river are expected to adversely impact this renowned ecosystem and national park.

Reading list  

References “Editorial”

E1: Tanzania Human Rights Report 2018 | Legal and Human Rights Centre | 14.05.2019

The report analyses the situation of fundamental human rights in Tanzania for the year 2018. It examines how different rights were enjoyed, protected, promoted and violated, including civil rights (e.g. right to life, right to effective remedy), political rights (e.g. freedom of association), economic rights (e.g. right to property, right to work), social and cultural rights (e.g. right to health, right to adequate standard of living) and collective rights such as the right to enjoy and benefit from natural resources. https://www.humanrights.or.tz/assets/attachments/1557832171.pdf

E2: Workers’ wish list ahead of May Day | The Citizen | 30.04.2019

The Trade Union Congress of Tanzania (Tucta) has outlined six priorities as the country joins the world in commemorating International Workers’ Day tomorrow. The six priorities include demand for a new minimum wage; harmonising pay as you earn (Paye) among workers, and maintaining dialogue on a new pension formula. Others are payment of workers’ arrears; workers’ right to form, and participate in, trade associations at workplaces, and voluntary agreements among workers across the country. https://www.thecitizen.co.tz/News/-Workers–wish-list-ahead-of-May-Day/1840340-5093722-f11ifhz/index.html

E3: Every employee must have a job contract, says Tabora RC | The Citizen | 02.05.2019

Tabora Regional Commissioner (RC) Aggrey Mwanri has given a seven day ultimatum to employers in the region to provide contracts to their employees. The RC said legal action will be taken to employers who would fail to do so. Employers should also allow trade unions in workplaces, Mr Mwanri added. https://www.thecitizen.co.tz/News/1840340-5096420-c28uor/index.html

 

E4: Africa: Millions of women still landless despite global push for equality | Thomson Reuters Foundation | 25.03.2019

Quotes of Godfrey Massey of Landesa Tanzania on the situation in Tanzania: the existence of laws in itself does not necessarily translate into better access to land for women: women can own land just as men, but few women are aware of this in Tanzania. “We’ve seen trainings lead to a rise in women joining village land councils or realising that their husband can’t mortgage the family land without their consent,” he said. http://news.trust.org/item/20190325223651-rct73/

 

E5: It is vital to promote women’s participation in the extractive industry sector – stakeholders | The Guardian newspaper| 30.03.2019

Tanganyika Law Society (TLS) through the Supporting Inclusive Resources Development (SIRD) has urged the government to amend laws and policies governing the extractive industry to enable marginalized women to participate more and benefit from the sector.

 

E6: East African Court rules that Tanzania’s Media Services Act violates press freedom | The Committee to Protect Journalists | 28.03.2019

The East African Court of Justice (EACJ) issued a ruling that multiple sections of Tanzania’s Media Services Act restrict press freedom and freedom of expression. It calls on the Tanzanian government to repeal the act as it breaches the constitutive treaty of the East African Community. https://cpj.org/2019/03/east-african-court-rules-that-tanzanias-media-serv.php

E7: Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights: Implementing the United Nations ‘Protect, Respect and Remedy’ Framework | Office of the High Commission on Human Rights (OHCHR) | 2011

This is the United Nations (UN) framework that indicates the roles and responsibilities of governments and businesses with regard to preventing and addressing corporate human rights harms. It is based around three pillars: (Pillar I) The state duty to protect human rights; (Pillar II) The corporate responsibility to respect human rights; (Pillar III) The access to remedy. The UN Guiding Principles (UNGP) are internationally agreed principles; however, they are voluntary principles and are not legally binding. https://www.ohchr.org/Documents/Publications/GuidingPrinciplesBusinessHR_EN.pdf

E8: Hope at last for Tanzania Rights, Governance Commissions | The Citizen | 23.05.2019

After almost two years without a chairperson and commissioners, the Commission for Human Rights and Good Governance (CHRAGG) has invited public comments on candidates it has invited for an interview for the positions. Rights bodies had criticised the government by delaying to fill the vacancies since November 2017 after the former chairperson, deputy-chairperson and commissioners retired. Activists have been of the opinion that the government was contradicting its commitment to defend human rights. https://www.thecitizen.co.tz/News/Hope-at-last-for-Tanzania-rights–governance-commission-/1840340-5127924-w6xxr4/index.html

References “Resource extraction”

R1: Is Magufuli’s nationalism working? | The Africa Report | 09.05.2019

The threat of a $190bn tax bill became a $300m payment. The Africa Report looks into whether the Tanzanian government’s barnstorming style will revolutionise the economy or scare away investors. “The country has been short-changed and continues to be cheated out of the much-needed revenue that would greatly boost our health sector, infrastructure and others,” Magufuli declared. Magufuli uses “economic nationalism” to increase revenue.  There are however 3 major challenges that are sizable hurdles to this ‘economic nationalism’: capital, ­bureaucracy and autocracy. Can Magufuli clear those hurdles? The Africa Report concludes that Tanzania needs a form of mild economic nationalism ­coupled with vigorous democratic practice. “The state needs to get involved in the economy and the people need to get involved in politics”. Recenlty, Magufuli’s relationship with investors is changing – he needs revenue to fund projects, such as the big infrastructure projects he has promised. Whereas he once called foreign miners thieves, he recently referred to them as genuine partners. https://www.theafricareport.com/12725/is-magufulis-economic-nationalism-working/

 

R2: Speaker hails John Pombe Magufuli for revamping mining sector | Daily News | 01.04.2019

The National Assembly speaker has hailed revolutions being spearheaded by the President in the mineral sector. According to him, previously mineral reserves were not considered as the national agenda, instead, it was left to Members of Parliament, whose constituencies were blessed with the precious and prestigious rocks. He said the new government has put up a proper direction, where all the benefits accrued from the country’s natural resources are now witnessed and trickling down to all citizens. https://dailynews.co.tz/news/2019-04-015ca20166942fa.aspx

 

R3: Mineral trading centres start to bear fruit | the Citizen | 09.05.2019

The quantity of gold sold in 2 centres of Geita and Chunya doubled within a month. Since its establishment, the Geita minerals trading centre has recorded the selling of 198 kilos of gold which is equivalent to the quantity of gold previously sold annually. Goal is to curb smuggling, ensure security and increase government revenue collections. https://www.thecitizen.co.tz/News/Mineral-trading-centres-start-to-bear-fruit/1840340-5107280-ypmqxt/index.html

R4: Government in plan to establish more mineral trading hubs to fight tax evasion | The East African | 04.04.2019

Tanzania’s mineral-rich regions are at advanced stage of establishing government-controlled mineral trading hubs to curb tax evasion and illegal exports of the country’s mineral wealth. The trading centres are meant to enable miners to conduct business with banks, retailers, brokers, jewellers and other traders in a well-regulated environment. They will also help to ensure that businesses pay the required levies to the government. https://www.theeastafrican.co.ke/business/Tanzania-in-plan-to-establish-more-mineral-trading-hubs/2560-5056560-e1e34o/index.html

R5: Tanzanite sales, revenue soar as smuggling is checked | Daily News | 16.05.2019

Tanzanite revenue has soared to a record level after construction of a wall around the rare gemstones mines, the Tanzania Mining Commission has said. https://dailynews.co.tz/news/2019-05-165cdd1aec36062.aspx

R6: Government suspends 13 Chunya district minerals officers over alleged link to gold smuggling | The Citizen | 02.04.2019

Minerals minister alleged that the district minerals officers have been conspiring with unscrupulous miners to smuggle out gold, alleging further that the experts have been falsifying the figures of gold production. He also ordered owners of gold smelting plants in Chunya District to file to the regional office reports of the past two years showing their clients, insisting that anyone who would not cooperate would have their licences revoked. https://www.thecitizen.co.tz/News/1840340-5053450-bypm8n/index.html

R7: Acacia fined Sh5.6bn for leaking toxic water | The Citizen | 17.05.2019

The government has slapped the mine with a Sh 5.6 billion fine for leaking contaminated water into residential areas and rivers (according to the NEMC and the University of Dar es Salaam). The mining firm has also been given a three-week ultimatum to correct some of the weaknesses, which were identified in its sewage infrastructure. https://www.thecitizen.co.tz/News/Acacia-fined-Sh5-6bn-for-leaking-toxic-water/1840340-5119270-5i5vy7z/index.html

R8: Acacia loses fresh export plea | the East African | 01.05.2019

Acacia mining’s gold and copper concentrates stored in 277 containers held at the Dar es Salaam port will stay there, the government of Tanzania has said. The Tax Revenue Appeals Board has supported the government’s decision to ban exports of gold and copper concentrates and denied Acacia Mining’s plea for resumption of exports. The mining firm failed to provide evidence of original or certified royalty payment sheets on the minerals other than gold, copper and silver contained in the containers as required under section 52 of the Tax Administration Act https://www.theeastafrican.co.ke/business/Acacia-loses-fresh-export-plea/2560-5095982-wlyj1z/index.html

R9: Why Tanzania wants Acacia to pack and go | The Citizen | 23.05.2019

The government has declared Acacia Mining ‘unwanted’ and has written to the company’s mines in the country to alert them of the decision not to formerly recognise any agreements with their holding company. It has emerged that on May 19, 2019, the government wrote to Bulyanhulu, North Mara and Pangea Minerals about the decision to lock out Acacia out of the business. The government said Acacia was “operating as a rogue company that was disdainful of the Tanzanian authorities and the laws of the land” when it managed the mines. “Acacia management never respected the undertakings in the Mining Development Agreements (MDAs) which provided the legal framework for the subsidiaries’ operations.” According to the government, it resisted regulatory requirements, was involved in massive tax evasion and harshly dealt with communities around its mines. https://www.thecitizen.co.tz/news/Why-Tanzania-wants-Acacia-to-pack-and-go/1840340-5128590-s5946dz/index.html

R10: Acacia under pressure for ‘human-rights violations’ | the East African | 15.06.2019

Acacia Mining is facing increased pressure to resolve human-rights concerns at its North Mara gold mine. Acacia was asked by British charity RAID, which exposes corporate human-rights violations, to review its use of the Tanzanian police in providing security at the North Mara mine. RAID alleged that the police had been involved in dozens of deaths, rapes and scores of injuries on or near the mine. Tanzanian police have been providing security at the North Mara mine since 2010. “Acacia Mining appears to have transformed parts of the Tanzanian police into a brutal and unaccountable private security force at its North Mara mine,” said RAID’s executive director. Acacia is being accused of regularly using the police to deal with “intruders” inside the mine’s perimeter. In return for the security services, the firm provides the police with per diems, vehicles, fuel, accommodation, food and other benefits. https://www.theeastafrican.co.ke/business/Acacia-under-pressure-for-violations/2560-5158856-f8k7nk/index.html

R11: Murder, rape and claims of contamination at a Tanzania gold mine | the Guardian | 18.06.2019

Although Tanzania is nominally at peace, over the years police and security guards have been accused of killing dozens – possibly hundreds – of local people, injuring many more and raping countless women. There have also been reports of contamination from mining chemicals, but journalists and human rights activists who have tried to investigate these cases have sometimes found themselves the subject of intimidation, harassment and even threats of deportation from police and state authorities. Acacia says it is not involved in any crackdown on the media and it promotes transparency. Since a legal challenge in 2015, the company has worked with authorities to improve the human rights situation. It erected walls in some areas, enhanced staff training, and put in place a grievance system. But an investigation by the Guardian and its partners in the Forbidden Stories journalism collective has been told violence continues – albeit at a lower level – while the health problems associated with possible chemical pollution remain a concern. Acacia denies any wrongdoing. https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2019/jun/18/murder-rape-claims-of-contamination-tanzanian-goldmine

R12: What is CSR? |UN Industrial Development Organisation (UNIDO)

Corporate Social Responsibility is the concept whereby companies integrate social and environmental concerns, and the expectations and needs of a wider community, in their business operations. CSR is generally understood as being the way through which a company achieves a balance of economic, environmental and social imperatives, while at the same time addressing the expectations of shareholders and stakeholders. https://www.unido.org/our-focus/advancing-economic-competitiveness/competitive-trade-capacities-and-corporate-responsibility/corporate-social-responsibility-market-integration/what-csr

R13: GGM sends more children for cleft lip surgeries | Daily News | 31.03.2019

Another team of 25 children left for surgical treatment at the Sekou Toure Regional Referral Hospital in Mwanza Region in a series of such missions sponsored by the Geita Gold Mine Ltd (GGM) in collaboration with Rafiki Surgical Mission to Tanzania. “This is the 17th year since GGM started helping cleft lip and palate sufferers in 2002, with more than 1,700 children and adults benefiting so far, 10 patients of whom were successfully operated in November last year as part of the second phase of the bi-annual mission”. https://dailynews.co.tz/news/2019-03-315ca0518c1849b.aspx

R14: Shell pledges to promote innovation | the Citizen | 23.04.2019

Shell and Karimjee Jivanjee Foundation (KJF) are consistent supporters of YST (Young Scientists Tanzania) exhibitions and school outreach programmes. https://www.thecitizen.co.tz/News/Business/-Shell-pledges-to-promote-innovation/1840414-5084116-1330j27z/index.html

R15: Tabora – two small-scale gold miners found dead in pit | The Citizen | 01.04.2019

Happened at Matinje village, Mwashiku ward when they were under the mining pit to break rocks. Investigations are still ongoing but it might be related to the plastic bags they used to set as burnt plastic releases dangerous chemicals. https://www.thecitizen.co.tz/News/1840340-5051750-byoaxo/index.html

R16: Three die as moram quarry collapses | Daily News | 24.04.2019

Three people are feared dead, with two others sustaining injuries following the collapse of a quarry pit at Moivaro area, Arusha city. The deceased were reportedly loading Moram into a lorry when the huge boulders of the quarry started falling from a height of about 400 meters, trapping the labourers. https://dailynews.co.tz/news/2019-04-245cc007b180df3.aspx

R17: Mgodi waua watano, naibu waziriaagiza ufungwe (Mine kills five people, Deputy Minister orders mine closure) | Mwananchi newspaper | 10.06.2019

Morogoro. Deputy Minister of Minerals Stanslaus Nyongo has ordered temporary closure of a gold mine in Kilama Iyongwe Village, located in Gairo, Morogoro which saw the death of five. These people died after being covered by pit in the mining that was said to be unlawfully opened. The deputy minister said following the invasion the Government closes the mine for a while until the process and procedures are followed, including identification of who are entitled to mine the minerals and by which procedures.

R18: Maisha ya wachimbaji wadogo hatarini (The lives of small-scale miners are at risk)| Mwananchi newspaper | 13.05.2019

Small-scale miners’ lives are at risk of developing various diseases such as air pollution diseases, reproduction, cancer and skin due to mercury use. Assistant mining commissioner in the Ministry of Minerals, Francis Mihayo said some small-scale miners use mercury to target minerals without knowing if they risk their lives. After digging, the miners place soil in the bags in order to separate gold and sand / soil they tend to rub and pass it into the fire. He said and added that the risk increases the risk come when they rub it there they can be affected with skin diseases and put it on the heart to melt it is dangerous because they breathe which can easily accelerate air system diseases.

R19: Health concerns as hundreds flock to Kiteto gold mines | The Citizen | 04.04.2019

New gold mines have been discovered in Kiteto District in Manyara Region: Over 600 artisanal miners have been reportedly invaded the area, posing serious risks of outbreak of epidemics. A section of the miners is calling on the government to facilitate the construction of key infrastructure, including toilets. Kiteto District Commissioner Tumaini Magessa directed the miners to construct the sanitary facilities and observe the laws governing the mining industry in the country. https://www.thecitizen.co.tz/News/Health-concern-as-hundreds-flock-to-Kiteto-gold-mines-/1840340-5057416-152ueywz/index.html

References “Agriculture”

A1: Govt to introduce new aquaculture development Act | Daily News | 26.03.2019

The government will this year introduce Aquaculture Development Act to replace the Fisheries Act of 2003, a move that will help to create a conducive environment for business operators in the fishery sector. It aims to promote sustainable development for fish, fish products and fishery. Aims at improving farming of aquatic organisms and protecting the aquatic resources. Dr Tamatamah said the new Act comes at the time when a good number of people are venturing into fish farming as a source of livelihood, adding that the country is rich in aquatic resources. https://dailynews.co.tz/news/2019-03-265c99ccff63d5f.aspx

A2: Tension mounts between Ugandan, Tanzanian Fishermen | The Independent | 04.05. 2019

Tension is building over the glaring differences between Uganda fishermen and their Tanzanian counterparts with whom they share much of Lake Victoria waters. The hostility between the Uganda and Tanzanian fishermen stems from the ongoing operations against illegal fishing practices by both countries. Peter Kaali, a prominent fisherman at Kasensero landing site (Uganda) accuses their Tanzanian counterparts of mistreating them whenever they find them on the waters. Kaali explains that many of their fishing gears including boats, engines, fishnets and sometimes their fish catch are confiscated by Tanzania fishermen backed by armed personnel who accuse Ugandans of fishing beyond their territory. Local fishermen have started retaliating against the Tanzanians they find fishing on the Ugandan side. The growing hostilities between the two groups have often resulted into violent clashes. https://www.independent.co.ug/tension-mounts-between-ugandan-tanzanian-fishermen/

A3: Prison warders in police custody over murder | Daily News | 31.03.2019

Four warders from Mbigiri Prison in Mvomero district, Morogoro region, are being held by police for allegedly being involved in the murder of a pastoralist. It is alleged that the warders killed Repeti Mandero (20) after he grazed his livestock in a sugar cane farm owned by the Prison Department in Mbigiri Mkulanzi. Apparently, the warders decided to take them inside the prison grounds so that other legal steps could be taken. But during the process, a group of Maasai men armed with weapons emerged and managed to take with them one herd of cattle. “When the wardens tried to bring back the herd, the Maasai herdsmen attacked them with arrows and clubs, a situation that forced the warders to protect themselves by firing shots into the air to try and save their lives”. The pastoralist died at the hospital. https://dailynews.co.tz/news/2019-03-315ca0640fc57db.aspx

A4: Title deeds improve farm production | National News | 23.03.2019

Among the challenges that contribute to land disputes and low farm crops production – especially in rural Tanzania – is the lack of title deeds to land ownership and related documentation. Nyida farmers, residents in Shinyanga Region, are a good example of this after a large number of farmers were granted customary land title deeds.

A5: 97 ward tribunals helping grassroots land disputes, House told | The Daily News | 09.04.2019

The deputy minister for Land, Housing and Human Settlements Developments said that the government has established a total of 97 Ward Tribunals in various parts of the country to help address land disputes at the grassroots. 52 were conducting cases and the 44 remaining were not operating meanwhile. She pointed out the challenges behind failure to establish more of the Tribunals hinged on manpower scarcity, and shortage of buildings in relation to the number of cases available. https://dailynews.co.tz/news/2019-04-095caca5b245c6e.aspx

A6: Here`s therapy for ailing agri sector in Tz | The Citizen | 25.05. 2019

Lack of predictable policies, multi-regulatory bodies, rigid tax regime and poor lending are some of the challenges facing the sector. Agriculture minister Japhet Hasunga challenged stakeholders to scratch their heads on what exactly impeded the sector of which 65.5 per cent of Tanzania direct depended on for their survival.

A7: Maize farmers’ hope grows on accessibility of inputs | The Citizen | 25.04.2019

Under the maize value chain interventions, farmers can now access inputs from Amcos after paying a 50 per cent advance and settle the remaining amount after harvest. The Maize Value Chain initiative is implemented by development partners and the sector stakeholders under the Agriculture Markets Development Trust (AMDT). The strategy is implemented from 2016 to 2021 and seeks to reach hundreds of thousands of smallholder farmers. “We expect to improve maize productivity and ultimately increase farmers’ income. It may appear a few people are targeted but these are direct beneficiaries. We basically aim at making systemic changes which bring about the positive impact to all smallholder farmers in Tanzania,” says AMDT market system manager for maize. https://www.thecitizen.co.tz/magazine/Maize-farmers–hope-grows-on-accessibility-of-inputs/1840564-5087612-fbhw7f/index.html

A8: MPs worried over possibility of poverty level increase | The Daily News | 07.04.2019

MP said “Our agricultural sector contributes 29 per cent of the GDP to our national developments, but funds allocated are less than five per cent of the development budget.”MPs are calling for the establishment of a price stabilisation fund in the agriculture area to secure farmers livelihoods. https://dailynews.co.tz/news/2019-04-075ca9a5b0e6616.aspx

A9: Kilimo cha tawala mjadala bajeti 2019/2020 (Agriculture dominates budget debate 2019/2020)| Mwananchi newspaper| 19.06.2019

Agriculture sector has become the main topic in budget discussion. The budget discussion of 2019/20 it enters in the second day yesterday in which most of members of parliament were interested in the agricultural sector, insisting the little budget of money is not enough for development considering most of Tanzanians depends on agriculture as their back bone of their economy. That the budget should be increased to reach the demand.

References “Tourism”

T1: waathirika wa wanyamapori wafidiwa (Victims of wild animals are compensated) | Nipashe newspaper | 02.04.2019

15 people have been paid compensation of 11.6 million shillings after injuries and others being killed by wildlife in the Rufiji District Council in the Coast region. During an interview, Rufiji District Council Wildlife Conservation officer, Robert Kiondo, said the compensation is for the events that have occurred from 2016 to 2018. From 2005 to 2008 more than 48 people have been affected by wildlife including deaths and injuries in Rufiji district.

T2: Utalii wa utamaduni ulivyosafisha ujangili Mikumi ,ukakaribisha uchumi mpya vijijini (Cultural tourism cleaned up Mikumi poaching, inviting new rural economies) | Nipashe newspaper | 05.04.2019

Poaching is a challenge facing the tourism sector in the country and its impact has reduced some species of animals such as elephants and rhino which are historically a major tourist attraction for foreigners and domestic visitors. This has been due to youth unemployment that led them to be unable to sustain their lives so they engage in illegal killings of animals.

 

T3: Serengeti police warns village game scouts (VGS) over poaching | Daily News | 29.03.2019

The Ikona Wildlife Management Area (WMA) employs local men and women called VGS to protect wild animals against poaching acts. But some of them (three) have been arrested and are facing poaching related charges. WMA’s are areas of communal land set aside as habitat for wildlife by villagers. The WMA generates up to 3 billion shillings each year from tourism investors such as Singita Grumeti, which conducts photographic tourism in the WMA. The money is supposed to support local development in five villages that formed the WMA in 2007. Besides poaching issues, villagers are also using the WMA as grazing grounds for their livestock. VGS are now following a training on those issues (anti-poaching course, human rights issues, wildlife conservation laws, etc). https://dailynews.co.tz/news/2019-03-295c9df3813dc80.aspx

T4: Climate change, human activities threaten Mara river | The Daily News | 26.04.2019

Water level in Mara River has diminished considerably in some parts of the river on the Tanzanian side, with local environmental experts citing climate change and human activities as the major causes. “In Tanzania, sand harvesting is not the threat on the river, the problem is farming, livestock keeping and indiscriminate cutting of trees,” he said. According to the Kenyan media, the decline of water level on Mara River is threatening wildlife population in the Serengeti-Masai Mara ecosystem. https://dailynews.co.tz/news/2019-04-265cc2b9ed7038b.aspx

T5: Concern as human activities encroach Serengeti, Mara | Daily News | 31.03.2019

A research carried out by the University of Groningen with collaborators from 11 institutions around the world, a look at 40 years of data, revealed that some boundary (conserved) areas have seen a 400 per cent increase in human population over the past decade while larger wildlife species population in key areas (the Kenyan side) was reduced by more than 75 per cent.  An increase in human activities around and in Serengeti National Park and Maasai Mara National Reserve are having a detrimental impact on plants, animals and soils. Fencing PAs (protected areas) as form of ‘land sparing’ from intensively used surrounding areas can solve some human-wildlife conflicts but also prevents beneficial temporary use of areas outside the reserve by wildlife and requires intensive management that can be too costly for large reserves in developing countries. “An alternative strategy involves ‘land sharing’, which promotes the coexistence of humans and wildlife, especially in buffer zones. The scholars said that for relatively intact and contiguous ecosystem such as the Greater Serengeti- Mara Ecosystem (GSME), sustainable long-term solutions are likely to be found in ambitious land use plans that actively manage resources beyond PA boundaries. This will require continually monitoring both ecological integrity and social trends in the surroundings of PAs. “This requires building more trust with local communities that they will keep sharing in the benefits of natural resource conservation, and ensuring that livestock numbers, settlement and cropland do not go beyond a point where they impair the key structure and functioning of the underlying sociological system,” they said. https://dailynews.co.tz/news/2019-03-315ca05028b735c.aspx

T6: Cross-boundary human impacts compromise the Serengeti-Mara ecosystem | Science | 28.03.2019

Protected areas provide major benefits for humans in the form of ecosystem services, but landscape degradation by human activity at their edges may compromise their ecological functioning. Using multiple lines of evidence from 40 years of research in the Serengeti-Mara ecosystem, we find that such edge degradation has effectively “squeezed” wildlife into the core protected area and has altered the ecosystem’s dynamics even within this 40,000-square-kilometer ecosystem. Similar effects in other protected ecosystems. https://www.rug.nl/about-us/news-and-events/news/archief2019/pdf/0329-serengeti-mara-article-science-1424.pdf

T7: Minister tasks paramilitary training graduates restore natural forests | IPP Media| 15.04.2019

Natural Resources and Tourism Deputy Minister Costantine Kanyasu has tasked paramilitary training graduates of the Tanzania Forest Service (TFS) to restore the destructed natural vegetation at various forests across the country. TFS Chief Executive Officer, Prof Dos Santos Silayo said they decided to equip the officers with military training after realizing the country was facing several environmental conservation challenges which are mostly linked to human activities. https://www.ippmedia.com/en/news/minister-tasks-paramilitary-training-graduates-restore-natural-forests

T8: JPM aombwa kuingilia kati mgogoro wa Hifadhi ya Kitulo (JPM has been asked to intervene Kitulo reserve crisis) | Mtanzania newspaper | 23.04.2019

The people of Kikondo Village in Ilunga County, Mbeya District Council, have requested President John Magufuli to intervene in the conflict between their village and the Kitulo National Park which has lasted over 50 years, causing harassment and violation of their rights. They have also complained of the four chief secretaries arrived in the village recently to implement the presidential decree to end/resolve national parks and 366 villages conflicts in the country. The people claimed that the secretariat gave misleading information through the media, saying that there is no crisis.

T9: Will a cable car open up or kill Kilimanjaro? | The East African | 04.05.2019

Kilimanjaro, the world’s tallest free-standing mountain, is one of Tanzania’s major tourist attractions. In the past few weeks, however, a storm has been brewing over the fate of the over 250,000 guides and porters who serve on Mt Kilimanjaro, following a government announcement that the plans to approve a cable car service project on the mountain to cater for the physically challenged, the elderly and children. Edson Mpemba, chairperson of the porters’ society, wondered why decision-makers are overlooking the interests of the quarter million unskilled labour force that depends on the mountain for a living. The government believes that the cable car service will bring in more tourists who ordinarily would not choose to climb the mountain. Mr Mpemba sees a loss of jobs for the porters and lower earnings for the government from fewer stays as tourists arrive, zoom up and down the mountain, and leave. The chief park warden with Kinapa, Betty Looibok, says that the construction of the cable car will depend on the outcome of the environmental and social impact assessment currently in progress. https://www.theeastafrican.co.ke/magazine/Will-a-cable-car-open-up-or-kill-mount-kilimanjaro/434746-5099586-crqdfs/index.html

T10: An environmental and social impact assessment (ESIA) is a study that evaluates the likely social and environmental impacts of a proposed project. It evaluates the socio-economic, cultural and human-health impacts, both beneficial and adverse. See e.g. http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/843201521089993123/Environmental-and-social-impact-assessments

T11: ILO spearheads socially responsible tourism in East Africa | Daily News | 28.05.2019

The International Labour Organisation (ILO), Tanzania, Kenya and Uganda have agreed to maintain decent work and socially responsible tourism in the region. The agreement was reached at a two-day sub-regional tripartite workshop where the government officials, trade union representatives and workers attended. ILO Programme Officer, Anthony Rutabanzibwa said it was unfortunate that for many years tourism sector operated under conditions where workers were paid low salaries or had unfair contracts. He said that he saw political will and hoped that all will go well in realising the Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) number eight that seeks to promote inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all. https://dailynews.co.tz/news/2019-05-285cece6a749db5.aspx

T12: Sustainable Development Goals | United Nations | 2015

The 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are the blueprint to achieve a better and more sustainable future for all. They address the global challenges we face, including those related to poverty, inequality, climate, environmental degradation, prosperity, and peace and justice. In order to leave no one behind, it is important that we achieve each Goal and target by 2030. https://www.un.org/sustainabledevelopment/sustainable-development-goals/

References “Infrastructure”

I1: Human Rights due diligence | Business & Human Rights Resource Centre | 2019

According to the UN Guiding Principles Reporting Framework, human rights due diligence is: “An ongoing risk management process…in order to identify, prevent, mitigate and account for how [a company] addresses its adverse human rights impacts. It includes four key steps: assessing actual and potential human rights impacts; integrating and acting on the findings; tracking responses; and communicating about how impacts are addressed.” https://www.business-humanrights.org/en/un-guiding-principles/implementation-tools-examples/ implementation-by-companies/type-of-step-taken/human-rights-due-diligence

I2: Hoima-Tanga Oil Pipeline to benefit over 200 villages | Daily News | 26.05.2019

Residents from 226 villages in Tanzania are set to benefit from the Hoima – Tanga oil pipeline project that is jointly implemented by Tanzania and Uganda. Villagers whose lands will be acquired for the project will receive compensations and those whose land will be subjected to the land use planning process, according to the government, will not incur any cost for the exercise. https://dailynews.co.tz/news/2019-05-265cea44bf63108.aspx

 

I3: Government issues US$309.645 million advance payment to Stiegler’s Gorge contractor | The Citizen | 24.04.2019

The government is going ahead with the project. A 15 percent advance has been payed to the Egyption company Arab Contractors for the construction of the 2,115 MW Stiegler’s Gorge Hydropower project on the Rufiji River, Selous Game Reserve.  https://www.thecitizen.co.tz/News/Tanzania–Gov-t-issues–309-645-million-advance-payment/1840340-5086044-wr7iusz/index.html

I4: Tanzania talking to Kenya over proposed dam on Mara river | The Citizen | 30.04.2019

The government reiterated on April 29 that it was negotiating with Kenyan authorities to stop the construction of hydroelectric dams on the Mara River. This follows reports that the neighbouring country would construct dams on the 400-kilometre long river, which originates from the Mau Forest that until recently was in crisis. The river, with a drainage area covering 13,504 square kilometres, is also considered the lifeline of millions of wild animals in the Serengeti ecosystem and the multi-million tourism industry in both countries. The EAC Treaty, to which Tanzania and Kenya are signatories, calls for the promotion of sustainable utilisation of the natural resources of the partner states and taking measures that would effectively protect the natural environment. “The dams will lead to an adverse impact on the Serengeti ecosystem, including the loss of some species due to lack of water in the Mara River during the dry season,” said Kanyasu. https://www.thecitizen.co.tz/News/Tanzania-talking-to-Kenya-over-proposed-dam-on-Mara-River/1840340-5093956-d4jx4sz/index.html

 

I5: Tanzania seeks EAC intervention in Mara dams | The East African | 11.05.2019

Tanzania is now seeking the intervention of East African Community (EAC) ministerial committees on the issue of damming the Mara River, which has put it on a collision course with Kenya. https://www.theeastafrican.co.ke/news/ea/Tanzania-seeks-EAC-intervention-on-Mara-dams/4552908-5110340-ds74sr/index.html