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"Business & Human Rights in Tanzania" – Briefing 2019 Quarter 1: January - March

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This briefing presents an overview of present-day business and human rights issues and activities, as they prevail in four major economic sectors in Tanzania: resource extraction, agriculture, tourism and infrastructure

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This publication is part of the ‘Improving monitoring, research and dialogue on Business & Human Rights in Tanzania’ project  implemented by the Tanzanian Commission for Human Rights and GoodGovernance (CHRAGG), Business and Human Rights Tanzania (BHRT) and the International Peace Information Service (IPIS). This briefing is based on news and research published by Tanzanian and international media, journals and institutions. Its content does not necessarily reflect the views, opinions nor work of CHRAGG, BHRT or IPIS. 

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Editorial

Through their presence and activities, businesses can play an important role in promoting and harming human rights. As established in the United Nations (UN) framework, the UN Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights (Ref. E1), both governments and businesses have duties and responsibilities to protect and respect basic human rights. According to the global Corporate Human Rights Benchmark, published at the end of 2018 (Ref. E2), there is still a long way to go before companies truly put human rights at the heart of their business. While a select group of corporations are leading the way, most are only vaguely aware of the potential threats that surround them. Also the UN Global Compact, the UN corporate initiative that supports companies to do business responsibly and sustainably, recognises the need to move from words to action in 2019. A list of good practices, key resources and initiatives are shared in their report on human rights as the foundation of sustainable business (Ref. E3).

In Tanzania, over 60 key stakeholders from civil society, business and government agencies gathered in March for the first annual multi-stakeholder dialogue on Business and Human Rights (Ref. E4). Stakeholders discussed the current state of protection of human rights in relation to business activities in Tanzania. They identified key challenges and priorities for progress, especially in the areas of labour, land and environment (Ref. E4). Challenges due to conflicting legislation (for instance on wildlife versus resource management; Ref. E5) and the inefficient monitoring and enforcement of existing legal frameworks were also raised. Moreover, the absolute need for increased awareness and analysis on business and human rights issues in the country was stressed. The same overall conclusions were made in five case studies on corporate human rights issues in Tanzania, published in early 2019 as “Voices from Tanzania” (Ref. E6). Although describing diverse topics from different economic sectors and various regions, all studies conclude that awareness on the fundamental principles of business and human rights – including how to effectively access remedy and mediation – is a crucial necessity towards the realisation of human rights in business for all in Tanzania.

The following overview lists news from October 2018 till March 2019:

Resource extraction

As one of the key drivers of Tanzania’s industrialisation and economic development agenda, the extractive sector remains the focus of government reform. To make sure the Tanzanian people and economy benefit optimally from the country’s mineral resource wealth, strict local content requirements were included in 2018. These required mining firms to have a Tanzanian ownership of at least 51 percent. In early 2019, the government has reduced these percentages to 20% to allow the industry to develop to its fullest potential (Ref. R1). The creation of regional mineral trading centres, such as an international gold exchange in Geita region, are also meant to boost local profits from resources (Ref. R2).

With these regional trading centres, the government also hopes to create opportunities for small-scale miners and improve their socio-economic situation (Ref. R2). In a report published in January 2019, IPIS highlights the persistent challenges of the small-scale mining sector in north-west Tanzania (Ref. R3). These include the absence of employment contracts and salaries (Ref. R3, R4), difficulties to access affordable loans (Ref.  R3, R5), safety issues at mining sites (Ref. R3, R6, R7), pollution and health issues (Ref. R3, R8, R9), child labour and inequalities between men and women (Ref. R3).

Disputes and conflicts over land ownership and use, between large-scale and small-scale miners (Ref. R10, R11) or between mining communities and conservation authorities (Ref. R12), complicate the sector. In Kigoma region, limestone mining communities report escalated tensions with forest authorities over resource use in Makere Forest Reserve (Ref. R12). While supporting the livelihoods of many, forest products such as firewood and charcoal also cause significant deforestation in Tanzania (Ref. R13). Conflicting legislation on conservation and resource extraction complicates compliance and often leads to conflict (Ref. E5, R12).

The responsibility to respect basic rights and to comply with regulations also lays with large-scale mining operations. Acacia Mining has been facing challenges for months and is accused of corruption, environmental pollution and human rights abuses, especially around its mine in North Mara (Ref. R14, R15, R16). Numerous grievance claims are said to be unresolved (Ref. R17, R18). Acacia Mining, however, remains convinced that its internal grievance mechanism meets all requirements to effectively address harm (Ref. R18). One way to assess a company’s impact is to conduct an environmental and social impact assessment (ESIA; Ref. R19) prior to the implementation of extraction projects. Plans to mine uranium in Tanzania currently have an ESIA in progress (Ref. R20). Corporate social responsibility (CSR) programmes are another way for companies to address social and environmental concerns, by for instance investing in local infrastructure (Ref. R21), healthcare (Ref. R22) or education (Ref. R23). CSR is a requirement under Tanzania’s mining law and most investments are closely monitored by the government (Ref. R24, R25).

Agriculture

Decent work and workers’ welfare are basic rights that are promoted and protected by labour laws and regulations in Tanzania. Compliance with labour standards in agriculture has recently been investigated in two understudied yet growing sectors: the cut flower and fish processing industry. The case studies, conducted in four companies in Arusha and Mwanza, show that labour standards are largely met and no severe human rights violations have been observed. However, issues with long working hours, low wages, protective equipment/gear, employment contracts and access to remedy are reported (Ref. A1, A2).

National and local authorities need to make sure that regulations are respected and rights are protected. To do so, authorities can take different measures. Examples are the prosecution of employers who do not comply with labour laws (Ref. A3), the strict conditions placed on foreign investors in the fishing industry in Manyara region (Ref. A4) and the destruction of illegally imported fish (Ref. A5). Operations to end illegal fishing in Lake Victoria and Bagamoyo, however, are reported to have led to human rights violations by state agents. Reports are made of the use of excessive force, destruction of property and corruption (Ref. A6, A7). Similarly, officers of the Tanzania Forest Service are accused of shooting villagers in Ikongwe (Katavi region), who allegedly were farming illegally in Msaginya Forest Reserve (Ref. A8).

Disputes over land remain a major source of conflict within the agricultural sector. Statistics from October 2018 show that there are 1,095 unresolved land conflicts in Tanzania, often leading to severe violations of basic human rights (Ref. A9). Disputes over ownership, changes in land use, intrusions of livestock, nomadic pastoralism, conservation rules in reserved areas as well as poor enforcement of laws are major causes of conflict (Ref. A9, A10). The government is trying to improve agricultural land use in the country. They are revoking title deeds to farms that are not developed according to the laws on land ownership (Ref. A11, A12). A farmers’ database is also under construction (Ref. A13). Securing farmers with land title deeds seems to offer a promising solution to reduce land disputes and promote production, as examples from Shinyanga (Ref. A14) and Morogoro region (Ref. A15) show.

FOCUS: Women in Business and Human Rights

Women are differently and disproportionately affected by business-related human rights harm. While this is generally acknowledged, gender perspectives are still missing in most national frameworks on business and human rights. This was concluded in an overview study by the Danish Institute for Human Rights (Ref. W1). The study identified key gender issues in topics such as labour rights, land rights and access to remedy, and urges states to be more proactive in addressing women rights.

In Tanzania, the ambition to end gender inequality, to empower women and to achieve their full participation, especially in the labour market, is repeated by both the government (Ref. W2, W3) and civil society (Ref. W4). Recent initiatives include projects to increase awareness and access to justice for women (Ref. W5), a policy forum to address how women can perform more than just heavy-labour, low-pay tasks, such as harvesting, in agriculture, livestock and fishery (Ref. W3) and training programmes for women on management and entrepreneurship (Ref. W6). The list of challenges to women that still need to be addressed is, however, long, including a lack of awareness on the available services to ensure equal access to justice, the inability to benefit from inheritance settlements, a lack of access and ownership of land, low wages, discrimination, and sexual and physical violence or gender-based violence (Ref. W3).

Tourism

National parks and protected areas are the backbone of the tourism industry in Tanzania. At least two challenges are impeding the sector to peacefully flourish: land conflicts and wildlife poaching.

Land ownership and use remain a frequent source of disputes between local or national authorities and various local stakeholders such as pastoralists or villagers (Ref. T1, T2). By claiming community or customary land rights to areas now dedicated to conservation, local communities often face the risk of eviction as human activity within National Parks or Reserves is strictly regulated (Ref. T3). The impact of such land conflicts is illustrated by the case of Uvinje villagers versus the Saadani National Park authorities (Pwani region). Their conflict over land ownership is ongoing since the 1990’s (Ref. T4) and shows the need for adequate human rights due diligence in investment (Ref. T5), including tourism.

Despite government actions, wildlife poaching still persists in Tanzania. To end this, the government is investing in a military approach. In November 2018, a paramilitary force was established to control poaching and natural resource management in Serengeti National Park (Ref. T1). Similarly, game rangers from key government-controlled wildlife protection areas, such as Tanzania National Parks (TANAPA), are provided with a military training (Ref. T6). Adding a human rights component to military trainings could be a way to ensure the protection of human rights during wildlife protection missions.

Conservation and tourism should benefit local communities. However, many villagers close to protected areas suffer from crop damage or killings through wildlife (Ref. T7). These interactions, hence, present a serious challenge to local lives and livelihoods. Tourist flows are also booming in Tanzanian cities, including in Zanzibar. In Stone Town, “Reclaim Women’s Space”, a women organization, is working to take back the spaces where women used to gather and which have been overrun by the tourism sector (Ref. T8).

Infrastructure

As energy supply is crucial to enhance Tanzania’s economic development and industrialisation drive, several large infrastructure projects related to energy are under construction.

Despite continued concerns raised by (inter-)national environmentalist groups and governments (Ref. I1, I2, I3, I4), the Stiegler’s Gorge hydropower project was approved by the Tanzanian government in December 2018 (Ref. I5). While the project will significantly increase the country’s energy supply, the large dam along the Rufiji River could impact ecosystems within the world-renowned Selous Game Reserve (Morogoro region) and threaten the livelihoods of local communities (Ref. I4). In March 2019, the National Environmental Management Council (NEMC) concluded the Environmental and Social Impact Assessment of the project (Ref. I6), dismissing claims that it will harm the environment and that due diligence (Ref. T5) was not properly done.

A second large energy-related infrastructure project is the construction of the East African Crude Oil Pipeline (EACOP). This 1,149 km long pipeline cuts across eight regions in northern Tanzania and hence, risks to touch upon multiple basic human rights. Workers’ rights, land rights, the right to safe, clean and healthy living conditions, rights of indigenous groups, environmental rights and access to justice are identified as main “human rights issues to watch” in the EACOP project (Ref. I7). At the end of 2018, the EACOP’s ESIA was near completion (Ref. I8), which is a requirement to start implementing the project.

Like the EACOP, many infrastructure projects require a change in the land use plan. To enable the construction of infrastructure, compulsory land acquisition (Ref. I9) is often needed. This is often accompanied by the demolition of housing and commercial structures and the relocation of people. Land disputes and compensation arrangements have been part of the construction of Sumbawanga Airport (Rukwa region; Ref. I10), a water supply project for Arusha city (Ref. I11) and the construction of a railway through Pasua area (Kilimanjaro region; Ref. I12).

Reading list  

References “Editorial”

E1: Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights: Implementing the United Nations ‘Protect, Respect and Remedy’ Framework | Office of the High Commission on Human Rights (OHCHR) | 2011

This is the United Nations (UN) framework that indicates the roles and responsibilities of governments and businesses with regard to preventing and addressing corporate human rights harms. It is based around three pillars: (Pillar I) The state duty to protect human rights; (Pillar II) The corporate responsibility to respect human rights; (Pillar III) The access to remedy. The UN Guiding Principles (UNGP) are internationally agreed principles; however, they are voluntary principles and are not legally binding. https://www.ohchr.org/Documents/Publications/GuidingPrinciplesBusinessHR_EN.pdf

E2: 2018 Key Findings | Corporate Human Rights Benchmark | 11.2018

The first full version of the Corporate Human Rights Benchmark is out. It is the result of extensive global multi-stakeholder consultation, involving representatives from over 400 companies, governments, civil society organisations, investors, academics and legal experts. The results are revealing; there is a race to the top in business and human rights performance, but this is only amongst a welcome cluster of leaders while the great majority have barely left the starting line. The majority of companies appear to be only dimly aware of the potential threats and prizes around them, having made small or no progress in putting human rights at the heart of their business. Key messages are: (1) Alarmingly low average scores indicate weak implementation of the UN Guiding Principles on Business & Human Rights, (2) Human rights due diligence is a weak area of performance, (3) Higher scoring companies are leading the way, but are outliers, (4) The fast improvement demonstrated by a few companies shows that rapid change is possible, with commitment, (5) Highest performers score well across the board, (6) Many key issues are not being well handled, (7) Responding to serious allegations is easier than dealing with them, (8) Moving in the right direction, but need to move faster. https://www.corporatebenchmark.org/

E3: UN Global Compact launches new report on human rights as the foundation of sustainable business | United Nations | 26.11.2018

The United Nations Global Compact has released a new report — Human Rights: The Foundation of Sustainable Business — showcasing opportunities for businesses of all sizes and sectors to strengthen and scale up their efforts on human rights. The report highlights how the UN Global Compact is working with its business participants and other partners to advance human rights, featuring a compilation of company examples, key resources and relevant activities at the global and local levels. The report celebrates the important progress that has been made by the business community on human rights, while at the same time recognizing there is still a long way to go before respect for human rights is truly universal. The report challenges companies to move from commitment to action by deepening their efforts to respect and support human rights throughout their supply chains and operations. https://www.unglobalcompact.org/news/4412-11-26-2018

E4: Multi-stakeholder dialogue on Business and Human Rights in Tanzania identifies ‘land rights and environment’ as priority topic | BHRT, CHRAGG & IPIS | 21.03.2019

Over 60 key stakeholders from civil society, business and government agencies from Tanzania mainland and Zanzibar gathered at the Royal Village Hotel, Dodoma for the first annual multi-stakeholder dialogue on Business and Human Rights. This event was organized by the Tanzanian Commission for Human Rights and Good Governance (CHRAGG), Business and Human Rights Tanzania (BHRT) and the International Peace Information Service (IPIS). The main purpose of this annual dialogue is to raise awareness, build trust and ensure multi-stakeholder buy-in to advance the agenda on business and human rights in Tanzania. At the end of a fruitful day of exchanges and debate, ‘land rights and environment’ emerged as the priority topic to focus on. http://ipisresearch.be/2019/04/multi-stakeholder-dialogue-business-human-rights-tanzania-identifies-land-rights-environment-priority-topic/

E5: Laws on natural resources faulted | The Citizen | 10.03.2019

The Policy Forum organised a breakfast debate on the “Challenges of managing natural resources with conflicting legislation: the case of wildlife conservation Act Number 5 of 2009”. It was recommended that future strategies of conserving biodiversity in parks should focus as much on the socio-eco human dimension of biodiversity conservation. 13 conflicting policies, laws and regulations were named. “The presence of mining, petroleum, gas, uranium could form a basis for conversion, transfer and acquisition of land from one category to another”. The wildlife law prohibits mining in reserved lands, but the mining legislation gives powers to the responsible minister to issue permits and licences for individuals to conduct mining activities in any area of land across Mainland Tanzania. Chambani MP Yusuf Salim Hussein said since land use plans were poor, people had been invading wildlife conservation areas, escalating conflicts. “Stakeholders from the conservation, mining, forestry, agriculture, water and lands sectors should take part in drafting laws.”  https://www.thecitizen.co.tz/News/Laws-on-natural-resources-faulted/1840340-5017606-umybryz/index.html

E6: Voices from Tanzania – Case studies on Business and Human Rights| BHRT, CHRAGG, Governance Links, IPIS & Legal and Human Rights Centre | 03.2019

This first volume presents five studies on pertinent corporate human rights issues in Tanzania as conducted by Tanzanian CSOs. They present different aspects of how business operations can impact human rights, including labour rights, the right to health, security, free speech, property and adequate living standards. This first volume presents present-day cases from four major economic sectors in Tanzania (resource extraction, agriculture, tourism and infrastructure) and investigate a wide range of topics, from human rights issues to watch during the planned construction of the East African Crude Oil Pipeline, to labour rights issues in the fish processing and cut flower industries of Mwanza and Arusha respectively, to the tense relation between tourism investment and land rights in Sadaani National Park, and that between forest conservation and limestone mining in Kigoma Region.  http://ipisresearch.be/publication/voices-tanzania-case-studies-business-human-rights-vol-1/

References “Resource extraction”

R1: Tanzania relaxes protectionist regulations in mining sector | The East African | 11.03.2019

The Mining Sector Regulations of 2018 required Tanzanian companies to have at least 51 per cent stake in mining firms while multinationals were to partner with their locally owned institutions. These regulations were meant to give the government a bigger share of the mining sector pie. However, a year later, amendments have seen procedural ownership percentage reduced to 20 per cent. Miners have welcomed the amendment, saying it will make the mining industry vibrant. Many local companies do not have the capital and capacity needed to bring development in the mining activities. The new amendment will allow more local banks to provide services to the sector. https://www.theeastafrican.co.ke/business/Tanzania-relaxes-protectionist-regulations-in-mining-sector/2560-5019246-teggptz/index.html

R2: Government plans regional mineral trading centres | The Citizen | 18.03.2019

The government has directed all regional commissioners to establish mineral trading centres in their regions to boost the sector’s contribution to individual incomes and the national economy. The government has launched the Geita gold trading centre on March 17th which will accommodate buyers, miners, government offices, banks and dealers at one-stop centre. The government has also recently offered incentives to small-scale miners including abolishing 18 per cent VAT and five per cent withholding tax to curb illegal mineral trade, which denies the government and miners income. https://www.thecitizen.co.tz/News/-Government-plans-regional-mineral-trading-centres/1840340-5029986-14wb8kiz/index.html

R3: Mapping artisanal and small-scale mining in NW Tanzania. A survey on its nature, scope and impact | IPIS | 25.01.2019

This report, and the accompanying interactive web map and open database seek to contribute to a better and more balanced understanding of the artisanal and small-scale mining (ASM). IPIS piloted a dedicated mobile data collection campaign in northwest Tanzania and surveyed 450 small-scale mining and processing sites. The report provides a balanced mapping of worst- and best-case practices in artisanal mining in Tanzania. It addresses challenges of licensing ASM, its problematic safety record, gender and health issues and the alarming use of mercury in gold processing. The report also reveals the important contributions of ASM, including considerable employment with decent income, wealth spill-overs to local communities and sizeable corporate social responsibility contributions. http://ipisresearch.be/publication/mapping-artisanal-small-scale-mining-northwest-tanzania/

R4: Ruby miners in protest over pay | The Citizen | 20.01.2019

At least 35 ruby miners have demonstrated in Kitwai Village in Simanjiro District, Manyara Region. They’re demanding their rights, including their one-year salary payments. The government had already taken a royalty tax from the owner but the workers hadn’t been paid. They ask the government to intervene. The District Commissioner met with the miners and the owner and gave them seven days to solve their dispute. The owner of the mine said he had contracts with the miners, despite the fact that some did not know how to write and read. https://www.thecitizen.co.tz/News/1840340-4943368-l3kcz/index.html

R5: Miners call for acceptance of gold as security for loans | The Citizen | 27.09.2018

Gold miners in Geita region have advised financial institutions in the country to put in place a unit that will allow gold as a guarantee instead of continuing to depend on houses, land and other assets as the only security. Godfrey Miti who is a small-scale miner said that if financial institutions accepted gold as a surety, it would enable especially small-scale miners, to access loans and be able to practice new and modern technology in mining. https://www.thecitizen.co.tz/News/Miners-call-for-acceptance-of-gold-as-security-for-loans/1840340-4779492-dmf0icz/index.html

R6: Wachimbaji madini watatu wafa kwa kufunikwa kifusi (Three small-scale miners die following falls in mining pits) |Majira newspaper| 01.03.2019

Two people have lost life after being covered with rubble at Burumbaka gold mine located in Gasuma Ward, Bariadi District in Simiyu. In the event, three others feared losing life.

R7: DC acts on abandoned pits | Daily News | 26.11.2018

CHUNYA district commissioner, Mary Prisca Mahundi, unveiled the district’s strategic plan to deal with open mines abandoned by mining companies. This happens after two girls from the Matundasi neighborhood in the Chunya district died after falling into an abandoned open mine. Speaking after visiting one of the open mines, Ms. Mahundi reminded the miners that they should be careful and respect the environmental protection rules and regulations to avoid such calamities. https://dailynews.co.tz/news/2018-11-265bfb8af29e932

R8: Caution sounded on drinking water risks | Daily News| 03.01.2019

Researchers from the University of Dar es Salaam and the Swedish KTH institute of technology have recorded high levels of arsenic concentration in drinking water. The amounts recorded are particularly alarming in Musoma and Tarime districts in Mara region (up to 300 migrogrammes per litre) and other regions (Geita: up to 70), compared to the WHO recommended values (below 10 microgrammes per litre). According to the scientists, the spreading of arsenic into water is more aggravated by small scale miners than large scale miners because they are using “poor tools and methods in mining that exposes arsenic containing ores to oxygen and this dissolving in water sources”. Both institutes are working on a lasting and affordable solution for arsenic removal. https://dailynews.co.tz/news/2019-01-035c2da3feda39a.aspx

R9: Unsafe mining blamed for children abnormalities | Daily News | 30.10.2018

Unsafe artisanal and small-scale gold mining in many areas across the Lake Zone has led to increased prevalence of anorectic malformations among many children.  Dr William Kahabi cited Mara and Geita as some of the regions with many referrals with initial findings showing the malformation comes as a result of the patients being exposed to heavy metals like mercury largely found in local mining activities undertaken by small scale miners. In many countries including Tanzania, elemental mercury is used with the metal being mixed with gold-containing materials, forming a mercury-gold amalgam which is then heated, vapourising the mercury to obtain the gold. https://dailynews.co.tz/news/2018-10-305bd7ee2287fbe.aspx

R10: Court resolves GGM land ownership dispute | Daily News | 29.10.2018

The Court of Appeal has resolved a controversy over the ownership of a land with gold prospect at Nyamlilima Village in Geita District, declaring Geita Gold Mine (GGM) as the rightful owner, as opposed to claims by mineral miner Hosea Katampa. https://dailynews.co.tz/news/2018-10-295bd6928849cfd.aspx

R11: Small-scale miners call upon govt to distribute idle blocks | The Citizen | 22.1.2019

Small-scale miners in Tanga, call on government to distribute idle mining blocks held by big investors in order to avoid invasion, smuggling and environmental degradation. https://www.thecitizen.co.tz/News/1840340-4945460-jo5rz/index.html

R12: Voices from Tanzania – Case studies on Business and Human Rights, Study 5: Limestone mining and human rights issues in Kigoma region | E. Mawala (IPIS) | 03.2019

This first volume presents five studies on pertinent corporate human rights issues in Tanzania as conducted by Tanzanian CSOs. They present different aspects of how business operations can impact human rights, including labour rights, the right to health, security, free speech, property and adequate living standards. Study 5 describes the tensions that have risen between limestone mining communities in Makere and forest authorities that are mandated with enforcing laws and regulations that discourage human activities in reserves. Reports are made of the excessive use of force against miners (such as beatings and torture), corruption, and the unlawful seizure, confiscation and destruction of private properties. http://ipisresearch.be/publication/voices-tanzania-case-studies-business-human-rights-vol-1/

R13: Charcoal making threatens forests | The Citizen | 01.02.2019

Nearly 50,000 hectares of forests are destroyed annually for firewood and charcoal, causing deforestation and soil erosion at an increased rate. About 61 per cent of available land has been depleted to the extent that semi deserts are occurring. Some deforested regions include Dodoma, Singida, Shinyanga, Manyara, Simiru and Geita. The use of charcoal has both environmental and health effects, but it is a cheap and easily available energy source. On the rules guiding harvesting of forests, the Tanzania Forest Service Agency said that charcoal is legally accepted like any other business. Harvesting of forest products is guided by the forest law #14 of 2002 and Principles of Forests 2004. https://www.thecitizen.co.tz/News/Charcoal-making-threatens-forests/1840340-4961072-axkgpiz/index.html

R14: Mark Bristow’s Headache as New CEO of Barrick Gold | RAID | 02.01.2019

Acacia Mining remains majority-owned by Barrick, and its Tanzanian gold mines account for roughly 12% of Barrick’s revenue. Yet corruption investigations and serious human rights abuses at its main North Mara gold mine, in northern Tanzania, dramatically undermine its performance and legitimacy. The corruption and human rights issues at the North Mara mine are intertwined. In 2017, the Tanzanian government hit Acacia with a crippling export ban on unprocessed metals and a $190 billion bill for tax evasion. In October 2018, it charged Acacia’s former vice-president, three Tanzanian subsidiaries and a subsidiary’s manager with corruption-related offences dating as far back as 2008. Also filed in October 2018 are corruption charges reportedly alleging that the North Mara mine, a current and a former employee paid government officials over $1 million in bribes to favour the mine’s expansion by undervaluing land, and removing and “deal[ing] with errant villagers”. A 2016 Tanzanian parliamentary inquiry received reports of 65 killings and 270 people injured by police paid by Acacia’s subsidiary to provide security at its North Mara mine. Between just 2014 and 2016, RAID alongside MiningWatch Canada, documented at least 22 people killed and 69 injured by security forces at or near the mine. http://www.raid-uk.org/blog/mark-bristow%E2%80%99s-headache-new-ceo-barrick-gold

R15: Acacia fined 300M/- for environmental breaches | Daily News| 11.01.2019

Acacia Mining said yesterday it has been fined 300m/- over allegations of breaching environmental regulations as its North Mara mine and that it is currently “assessing the technical basis of the alleged non-compliances”. Acacia Mining also said it has not yet received any supporting reports, findings or testing data. According to Acacia, these allegations could relate to a long-standing seepage at the base of the tailings storage facility, an issue apparently “well known” by both the NEMC and the government (the seepage is managed by pumps which return the water to the tailings storage facility). https://dailynews.co.tz/news/2019-01-115c383600a913b.aspx

R16: Acacia yatekeleza agizo la Serikali (Acacia implements government directives) | Mwananchi newspaper | 15.03.2019

Acacia’s company through the North Mara mine has spoken to the Government to explain the steps taken so far to control water pollution on peoples’ residences, being one week since the government through the Minister of Mining Dotto Biteko announced to close the operations in case of failure to comply with the directives given by March 30, 2019.

R17: Tanzania deaths spark criticism of grievance process at Barrick subsidiary | The Globe and Mail | 6.11.2018

Barrick Gold Corp., entering the final stages of its US$6-billion takeover of Africa-focused Randgold Resources Ltd., is facing fresh questions about unresolved grievance claims for dozens of deaths and injuries among villagers around a subsidiary’s mine site in Tanzania. https://republicofmining.com/2018/11/06/tanzania-deaths-spark-criticism-of-grievance-process-at-barrick-subsidiary-by-geoffrey-york-globe-and-mail-november-6-2018/

R18: NGO urges Barrick Gold to address alleged human rights issues at subsidiary’s mine ahead of proposed merger with Randgold, company responds | Business and Human Rights Resource Centre | 09.11.2018

Rights and Accountability in Development has written to top executives at Barrick Gold and Randgold Resources ahead of the merger between the two companies, warning them about human rights abuses at Acacia Mining’s North Mara Gold Mine in Tanzania. Acacia Mining is a subsidiary of Barrick Gold. The letter describing an alleged pattern of human rights abuses by security personnel and Tanzanian police operating jointly at Acacia’s North Mara. Business and Human Rights Resource Centre invited Acacia Mining to respond. Acacia Mining denied the allegations and said its North Mara’s grievance process meets the UN’s Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights. https://www.business-humanrights.org/en/tanzania-ngo-urges-barrick-gold-to-address-alleged-human-rights-issues-at-subsidiarys-mine-ahead-of-proposed-merger-with-randgold-company-responds?utm_source=Business+%26+Human+Rights+Resource+Centre+Updates&utm_campaign=8911edda6a-EMAIL_CAMPAIGN_2018_11_11_06_20&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_c0049647eb-8911edda6a-182119133&mc_cid=8911edda6a&mc_eid=0128486a53

R19: An environmental and social impact assessment (ESIA) is a study that evaluates the likely social and environmental impacts of a proposed project. It evaluates the socio-economic, cultural and human-health impacts, both beneficial and adverse. See e.g. http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/843201521089993123/Environmental-and-social-impact-assessments

R20: NEMC gives thumbs up to uranium plan | The Citizen | 22.02.2019

The National Environmental Management Council (NEMC) applauded the launch of a pilot project, which seeks to ensure researches are carried out before starting mining uranium in Tanzania, Malawi, Zambia and Namibia. According to the NEMC director general, these researches aim to “protect the people and the environment because uranium can be very harmful to creatures and environment if mishandled or carelessly used”. The pilot project is sponsored by the EU. https://www.thecitizen.co.tz/News/Nemc-gives-thumbs-up-to-uranium-plan/1840340-4993832-xpvux4/index.html

R21: Bulyanhulu implements 4.5bn water project | Daily News | 01.10.2018

ACACIA’s Bulyanhulu mining has started to implement a 4.5bn/- joint water project that draws water from Lake Victoria to the village surrounding the mines. The grand project once completed will serve 14 villages surrounding the mine or 150,000 villagers who are between Shinyanga and Geita regions’ border. https://dailynews.co.tz/news/2018-10-015bb1ef1a7e7f4.aspx

R22: Acacia Mining launches vision screening campaign for eleven local communities |The Guardian | 5.10. 2018

Acacia mining, through its North Mara Gold Mine, has launched a 12 – day campaign to provide free eye test to over 3000 residents from 11 villages surrounding the mine.

R23: How Acacia’s Education Programme supports surrounding communities | Daily News | 18.10.2018

Mr Asa Mwaipopo, Managing Director of Acacia Tanzania, explains that Acacia has partnered with CanEducate, a charitable organization, to implement educational support programmes in the communities surrounding its three mines in Tanzania. The programme supports vulnerable and underprivileged students with school uniforms, scholastic materials such as books, stationery and other supplies that enable the pupils to be fully equipped for learning.  In additional to CanEducate partnership, Acacia prioritizes education as part of its sustainable communities’ strategy which has seen over 38 per cent of Acacia’s social investments going to education over the last 5 years. https://dailynews.co.tz/news/2018-10-185bc87be82c45a.aspx

R24: Kampuni za madini zabanwa ubadhirifu kwenye miradi ya jamii (Mining companies have been monitored on being dishonest on social projects) | HabariLeo newspaper| 01.10.2018

Prime Minister Kassim Majaliwa has urged companies licensed for exploration and mining to prepare the annual plan on social responsibility to reduce the misuse of funds in development projects to communities

R25: PM: Honour CSR obligations insisting on mining firms to adhere to new mining legislation | Daily News | 01.10.2018

Prime Minister Kassim Majaliwa directed mining companies in the country to honor Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) obligations as per new Mining Act. He said the amended Mining Act of 2017 stipulates that companies with mining and exploration licenses should pay 0.07 per cent of their gross revenues as CSR to councils and municipalities where they operate. The PM said the government will often conduct audits on the use of CSR, warning that embezzlers will face the music. https://dailynews.co.tz/news/2018-10-015bb1e3c9cc0fb.aspx

References “Agriculture”

A1: Voices from Tanzania – Case studies on Business and Human Rights, Study 3: Labour-rights compliance in the cut flower industry in Tanzania: a case study of Mount Meru flower farm (Arumeru district, Arusha region)| Business and Human Rights Tanzania (BHRT) | 03.2019

This first volume presents five studies on pertinent corporate human rights issues in Tanzania as conducted by Tanzanian CSOs. They present different aspects of how business operations can impact human rights, including labour rights, the right to health, security, free speech, property and adequate living standards. In Study 3, BHRT presents field-data on labour rights compliance and general human rights awareness in Mount Meru flower farm. Perspectives from other stakeholders (civil society, local communities and government actors) on human rights in the floriculture industry are also shared. The results from this study will help to raise awareness on existing labour laws and to strengthen access to justice for employers, employees and community members. http://ipisresearch.be/publication/voices-tanzania-case-studies-business-human-rights-vol-1/

A2: Voices from Tanzania – Case studies on Business and Human Rights, Study 2: Labour rights and access to remedies by workers in fish processing industries in Mwanza city | Commission for Human Rights and Good Governance (CHRAGG)| 03.2019

This first volume presents five studies on pertinent corporate human rights issues in Tanzania as conducted by Tanzanian CSOs. They present different aspects of how business operations can impact human rights, including labour rights, the right to health, security, free speech, property and adequate living standards. In Study 2, CHRAGG combines literature reviews with field studies conducted in three fish processing industries located in Mwanza Municipality. These data are used to evaluate the implementation of labour rights and standards in this agricultural sector. The study also investigates the extent to which workers in the fish processing industry have access to remedy through non-judicial mechanisms. The study points towards the most urgent issues to be solved and suggests steps to be taken to ensure that labour rights are promoted and protected, and access to justice is guaranteed for all. http://ipisresearch.be/publication/voices-tanzania-case-studies-business-human-rights-vol-1/

A3: Government drags 19 employers to court over labour laws | The Citizen | 29.01.2019

The government said that 19 employers were taken to court during the 2017/2018 financial year for allegedly failing to comply with labour laws in regard to minimum salary, working hours and leave to workers. https://www.thecitizen.co.tz/News/Government-drags-19-employers-to-court-over-labour-laws-/1840340-4956264-2sj516z/index.html

A4: Lake Babati to be leased out | Daily News | 21.09.2018

Babati Town Council expects to enter into a lease agreement of Lake Babati to a Chinese company that is interested in fish stocking. The company-XIN SI LUCO Ltd with its headquarters in Arusha wants to enter into lease agreement of the lake, to do fish stocking, while other environmental stakeholders as well as the Council engage in conservation measures, such as to stop those conducting agricultural and cattle rearing around the lake. The company will have to abide by the terms and conditions of the councilors, including those to conserve the environment, invest in a fish processing plant at Maisaka Katani and employ local residents in different jobs, such as fishing. https://dailynews.co.tz/news/2018-09-215ba49d2b80eeb.aspx

A5: Shehena ya samaki wenye sumu yanaswa (Poisonous fish has been caught) | Nipashe newspaper | 12.03.2019

The government has burned 11 tonnes of fish species tilapia with a value of sh, 66 million, after realizing they are toxic and unfit for human consumption. The fish were illegally imported from China and neglected at Pugu, Dar es Salaam.

A6: LHRC reveals rights abuses in illegal fishing operation | The Citizen | 23.11.2018

The Legal and Human Rights Centre (LHRC) said that a recent survey carried out in Ukerewe district in Mwanza region where “Operation Sangara” is ongoing, has uncovered human rights violations. Operation Sangara was being implemented by a task force that targets ending illegal fishing in Lake Victoria. LHRC revealed that excessive force was used against people without considering their human rights. “We found that there was the use of excessive force, cruel acts against civilians, damage to property, corruption among other incidents,” said LHRC director Ms Anna Henga. “We urge the government to monitor how these task force groups work in operations like these. … We want the government also to take action against those who will be found to have violated the human rights in this operation” added Ms Henga. https://www.thecitizen.co.tz/News/LHRC-reveals-rights-abuses-in-illegal-fishing-operation/1840340-4865538-mg7an5/index.htm

A7: Fishermen complain about being harassed | The Citizen | 17.02.2019

Last week, the Ministry of Livestocks and Fisheries conducted an operation against illegal fishing in Bagamoyo. Fishermen accused the state agents of beating them and destroying their fishing gear. The Fishermen complained to the Livestock and Fisheries deputy minister Abdallah Ulega who apologised and assured that action would be taken against the culprit. https://www.thecitizen.co.tz/News/Fishermen-complain-about-being-harassed/1840340-4985852-hvqao4/index.html

A8: Five shot men admitted to Mbeya Hospital | Daily News | 28.12.2018

The men are from Ikongwe village in Mpanda District. They were shot by Tanzania Forest Service Agency (TFS) officers who allegedly accused them of illegally entering and conducting human activities, including farming, inside Msaginya Forest Reserve. It was alleged that the TSF officers were armed with 3 shotguns. The men are wounded on their legs, chests, hands, shoulders. The villagers were unarmed. The area where they were farming was established as a human settlements area in 2005 according to the constituency MP. The TFS officers were slashing down maize claiming that the land was part of the reserve forest when villagers rushed to the area, pleaded to stop and then started booing them. After slashing the crops, the TFS officers jumped into their vehicle and started firing live bullets while speeding. https://dailynews.co.tz/news/2018-12-285c25c77d5c0bc.aspx

A9: Govt forms taskforce to quell land conflicts | Daily News | 09.11.2018

Livestock and Fisheries Minister, Luhaga Mpina has launched a nationwide strategy aimed at providing lasting solution to recurring land disputes pitting livestock keepers and other land users in many parts of the country. Available statistics indicate that there are 1,095 unresolved land conflicts as of October, this year, which have caused untold sufferings to people including deaths, disabilities, killing of livestock in addition to destruction of crops, loss of property and disturbance of peace in general. According to Mr Mpina, major causes for land conflicts in Tanzania include poor enforcement of laws, unplanned land use, intrusion of large herds of livestock from neighbouring countries as well as changes of land use in areas earmarked for livestock keepers and failure to develop pastures for grazing. The Minister mentioned other factors fuelling disputes such as nomadic pastoralism, double allocation of land by some dishonest leaders and changes in land use. The disputes are mainly between livestock keepers and farmers, reserved areas, ranches owned by the National Ranching Corporation (NARCO), holding grounds for cattle and livestock multiplication units. “The increased number of people and livestock as well as growing demand for land for agriculture and households exert more pressure on land which is limited,” Mr Mpina pointed. https://dailynews.co.tz/news/2018-11-095be52b3f8e1dd.aspx

A10: Viongozi Pwani malizeni mgogoro wa wakulima, wafugaji –Mama Samia (Coastal Region Leaders were told to end the conflict between pastoralists and farmers) | Mtwananchi newspaper| 29.10.2018

Vice-President Samia Suluhu Hassan has issued four guidelines for leaders and coastal residents, including the end of the ongoing crisis between pastoral and farmers in the district. Animal shepherds have been feeding their animals in farmers farms.

A11: Tanzania revokes titles to six farms owned by Dewji | The East African | 18.01.2019

Tanzania has revoked ownership of six farms in Tanga with approximately 12,915.126 hectares owned by Mohamed Enterprises Tanzania Ltd (MeTL), whose majority shares are held by Mohamed Dewji. Not clear whether part of fight by government against him, or standard procedure. According to the government, the decision was reached after realising the farms were idle for some years now. The remaining eight farms will be monitored by the government to ensure that the land is being used productively. https://www.theeastafrican.co.ke/news/ea/Tanzania-revokes-titles-to-six-farms-owned-by-Dewji/4552908-4942310-view-asAMP-xe8vl7z/index.html?__twitter_impression=true

A12: Billionaire Mo Dewji put on notice over undeveloped farms | The Citizen | 05.02.2019

The Government has warned MeTL that it will revoke title deeds for the firm’s six farms if they remain undeveloped. In a space of 3 years, the government has revoked ownership of a total of 46 farms after investors failed to develop them according to the laws governing land ownership. In January, the government revoked ownership of six farms owned by MeTL in Tanga. “The aim is to ensure that the land is being used productively”. The government claims a majority of investors were using the farms as collateral for them to get loans from banks for investment somewhere else without developing their farms. https://www.thecitizen.co.tz/News/Billionaire-Mo-Dewji-put-on-notice-over-undeveloped-farms/1840340-4968560-46dt7k/index.html

A13: Minister assures releases of farmers’ database soon | Daily News| 12.02.2019

The Ministry has reached the final stage to form the farmers’ database that will help the authorities to easily serve farmers with farm inputs, loans and markets access, among other needs. The Minister for Agriculture said that it will also help the government to identify the number of farmers countrywide, areas of production, kind of produces and determine the markets’ needs. The Minister added that the Ministry is also looking forward to ensure there is reliable insurance that will cover farmers from disasters. https://dailynews.co.tz/news/2019-02-125c625dec0a238.aspx

A14: Title deeds improve farm production | National News | 23.03.2019

Among the challenges that contribute to land disputes and low farm crops production – especially in rural Tanzania – is the lack of title deeds to land ownership and related documentation. Nyida farmers were residents in Shinyanga Region are a good example of this after a large number of farmers were granted customary land title deeds.

A15: Land disputes in Morogoro Drop | Daily News | 19.02.2019

Land disputes have considerably gone down in three districts of Morogoro Region, thanks to the ongoing Land Tenure Support Project (LTSP). According to Morogoro Regional Administrative Secretary, residents in those districts had their land surveyed in a bid to help people access title deeds and proper management of their land. The three-year programme is expected to be completed this year. It is funded by the UK’s department for International Development, SIDA and DANIDA. So far, 127 villages had been surveyed and owners of land had been issued with title deeds and 276,000 land parcels were surveyed. https://dailynews.co.tz/news/2019-02-195c6babd164302.aspx

References “FOCUS: Women in Business and Human Rights”

W1: Women in Business and Human Rights. A mapping of topics for state attention in United Nations Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights Implementation Processes | Danish Institute for Human Rights | 21.11. 2018

This mapping provides an overview of select topics for attention for states in strengthening their gender focus in United Nations Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights (UNGPs) implementation processes, including, but not limited to, National Action Plans on Business and Human Rights (NAPs).The topics are: (1) Employment and labour rights; (2) Land and natural resources; (3) Essential services and privatisation; (4) Trade and investment; (5) Access to effective remedy. For each topic, the mapping provides an overview of key gender issues, country examples from existing NAPs and other relevant sources on how these issues might be addressed, and key points for consideration for states on how to strengthen attention to the rights of women and girls in UNGPs implementation processes. Overall, the absence of a comprehensive gender approach in NAPS and national implementations of UNGPs to date is shown. https://www.humanrights.dk/publications/women-business-human-rights

W2: VP calls for concerted efforts in ending gender violence | Daily News | 25.01.2019

Vice President, Samia Suluhu Hassan, said the government through its vision 2025 among other things is committed to promote gender equality and the empowerment of women in all aspects, as she urged the legislature, the executive, the judicial and various organisations to play a vital role in developing political will to make significant changes. She also said that in order to sustain tremendous economic growth experience, it is imperative to ensure that more corrective measures are incorporated in national development goals to ensure full participation of all community members regardless of their gender or age. https://dailynews.co.tz/news/2019-01-255c4ac0a6bfabd.aspx

W3: Policy Forum set to make more women engage in agriculture, livestock and fishery | Daily News | 30.10.2018

Deputy Minister for Agriculture, Dr Mary Mwanjelwa has said the establishment of a policy forum will help bring about positive results in participation of more women in agriculture, livestock and fishery sectors. “I hope that through the policy forum the contribution of both women and men to the agricultural sector will be acknowledged and this will bring about equality in production activities and inclusivity in economic empowerment,” she stressed. She said traditionally the contribution of women in agriculture could be seen during early stages of clearing farms, cultivation and harvesting, but during the selling of crops, women were side-lined and, therefore, the policy forum would deal in solving such challenges and others in the agricultural sector. https://dailynews.co.tz/news/2018-10-305bd7efc273d17.aspx

W4: Activists want more jobs for women | The Citizen | 13.12.2018

Gender activists and campaigners met to discuss marginalisation of and discrimination against women in the country’s labour market and chart out strategies to solve the problem. There was a consensus among the activists and campaigners that although positive strides have been made in reducing discrimination against women in accessing employment positions, more needed to be done to realise fully gender equality in the area. “What is important is to make women’s labour, not just respected and valued, but also its contribution recognised in the national economy together with having equal division of labour and benefits for both males and females.” Prof Dungumaro, Mkwawa University of Education, pointed out that 83.4 percent of all employed are vulnerable with females being more vulnerable (88.9 per cent) compared to males (78.2 per cent). https://www.thecitizen.co.tz/News/Activists-want-more-jobs-for-women/1840340-4893170-qbm736/index.html

W5: Seeking Justice for Girls, Women | The Citizen | 17.02.2019

Ms Christina Kamili, executive director of the Tanzania Network of Legal Aid Providers (TANLAP) explained how the lack of legal knowledge still affects many women and girls across the country. Her organisation has been working with UN Women in a project in the 8 districts of Kagera. The project aims at protecting women from all forms of discrimination and violence, and to increase awareness on the available services to ensure equal access to justice. The community engagements expressed concerns over their inability to benefit from inheritance settlements, lack of access and ownership of land following the death of a father or a husband, unsettled child maintenance disputes, and unreported sexual and physical violence cases. According to her, only 27 per cent of women in Tanzania own land despite being the backbone of agriculture. https://www.thecitizen.co.tz/News/Seeking-justice-for-girls–women-/1840340-4985874-wwgoys/index.html

W6: Program to empower women launched in Dar | Daily News | 28.02.2019

A 9-month programme that aims at training and encouraging women to take charge in management and decisionmaking matters has been launched in Dar es Salaam. The programme is called “4th Cohort of the Female Future” and is organised by the Association of Tanzania Employers (ATE) in collaboration with the Confederation of Norwegian Entreprise (NHO). Among the participant organisations: Acacia Mining Plc, TIB Corporate Bank, Geita Gold Mine, etc. https://dailynews.co.tz/news/2019-02-285c778a7868cc0.aspx

References “Tourism”

T1: VP warns pastoralists over protected areas | Daily News | 18.11.2018

The government has issued a strong warning against pastoralists who graze their cattle within or near protected areas, insisting that they will not be spared. Vice-President Samia Suluhu Hassan also warned that those carrying out human related activities within national parks will be squarely dealt with. The VP also inaugurated the paramilitary force managed by the Ministry of Natural Resources and Tourism at Fort Ikoma area within Serengeti National Park. The establishment of the paramilitary force was the government’s strong commitment of controlling poaching and depletion of natural resources in the country, according to Ms Samia. https://dailynews.co.tz/news/2018-11-185bf1099465905.aspx

T2: President Magufuli’s order against evictions hailed by Dewji | The Citizen | 24.01.2019

Pastoralists have been battling with the authorities for years, especially in Babati District. The village authorities invoked the 2010 decree of the High Court Land Division to have the herders evicted on grounds the disputed land was a wildlife management area. The villagers successfully lodged an appeal to repeal the decree to evict them. But they were finally forced out in September last year. Magufuli asked to stop the eviction of people in 366 villages across the country. However, the directive targeted villages which are either close to the protected areas, in the buffer zones or those in dispute with the authorities. Most of the traditional herders felt some local leaders or government organs were hostile to them. They hope the presidential directive will be followed by legal processes. https://www.thecitizen.co.tz/News/President-Magufuli-s-order-against-evictions-hailed/1840340-4948586-c1d5tdz/index.html

T3: Wildlife Conservation Act 2013 | United Republic of Tanzania

Restrictions on human activities in conservation areas are described in Sections 26, 31 and 42 of the United Republic of Tanzania’s Wildlife Conservation Act (2013).

T4: Voices from Tanzania – Case studies on Business and Human Rights, Study 4: Tourism and land rights: case study of Uvinje sub-village and Saadani National Park | Legal and Human Rights Centre| 03.2019

This first volume presents five studies on pertinent corporate human rights issues in Tanzania as conducted by Tanzanian CSOs. They present different aspects of how business operations can impact human rights, including labour rights, the right to health, security, free speech, property and adequate living standards. In the Study 4, LHRC aims to unravel the causes for the continued land dispute between Uvinje community and Saadani National Park Authorities. LHRC assesses whether community land rights were safeguarded during the establishment of Saadani National Park, which human rights were violated as a result of this conflict and whether or not human rights due diligence was undertaken prior to this example of tourism investment. Suggestions are formulated on the best way forward for this specific conflict and for human rights due diligence prior to tourism investment. http://ipisresearch.be/publication/voices-tanzania-case-studies-business-human-rights-vol-1/

T5: Human rights due diligence are all the steps taken to identify, prevent, mitigate and account for negative human rights impacts related to an activity.

T6: Govt urged to provide training to game rangers | Daily News | 10.12.2018

The Burungwe Wildlife Management Area (WMA) in Babati District, Manyara Region, has urged the government to provide military training to game rangers as a new way of curbing poaching. The government recently established the provision of military training to game rangers from key government-controlled wildlife protection areas such as Tanzania National Parks (Tanapa), Ngorongoro Conservation Area Authority (NCAA) and the Wildlife Division of the Ministry of Natural Resources and Tourism. https://dailynews.co.tz/news/2018-12-105c0de7ab102d2.aspx

T7: A Double-Edged Sword for Development: A Narrative of Wildlife Crop Damage |  Nepsus Research Project  | 30.10.2018

For many villagers close to parks, crop damage and killings through wildlife outweigh advantages generated through conservation and tourism. In interviews carried out during fieldwork, researchers discovered crop damage due to wildlife to be very significant. Villagers complained that almost 50% of harvest is destroyed by wild animals, including mostly elephants, buffalos, monkeys and wild pigs. Incidents of villagers being killed by animals, typically elephants, are an even worse threat. Although stories about benefits for communities being adjacent to wildlife conservation areas are preached very often, reality leaves much to be desired. Real life human/crop-wildlife interaction results in conflict and villagers adjacent to wildlife reserves seem to lack significant benefits from the resource.  https://www.nepsus.info/single-post/2018/10/30/A-Double-Edged-Sword-for-Development-A-Narrative-of-Wildlife-Crop-Damage

T8: Tourism pushed women out of Zanzibar’s public spaces, but now they are taking them back | The guardian | 13.10.2018

Traditionally, women and men in Stone Town have occupied separate spaces (Zanzibar is 99% Muslim), but many female-only spaces have been lost as tourism booms. Instead of women gathering to socialize and share their problems, the grassy gardens of the old Fort are filled with vendors hawking tourist trinkets. Across the city, economic and development led by tourism has usurped the spaces where women once gathered. Reclaim Women’s Space is working to change that. Employing female engineers and conservators, the project aims to study public spaces, take back those that have been overrun, and create entirely new ones. https://www.theguardian.com/cities/2018/oct/11/tourism-pushed-women-out-of-zanzibars-public-spaces-but-now-theyre-taking-them-back

References “Infrastructure”

I1: Briefing on Business & Human Rights in Tanzania. 2018 Quarter 3: July- September | BHRT, CHRAGG & IPIS | 22.11.2018.

This briefing presents an overview of present-day business and human rights issues and activities, as they prevail in four major economic sectors in Tanzania: resource extraction, agriculture, tourism and infrastructure. http://ipisresearch.be/publication/briefing-business-human-rights-tanzania-2018-quarter-3-july-september/?hilite=%27briefing%27&highlight=briefing

I2: Tanzania signs contract with Egypt to build controversial hydroelectric dam in UNESCO World Heritage site, Selous | WWF | 12.12.2018

WWF is deeply concerned by the decision of the governments of Tanzania and Egypt to sign a contract for the construction of Stiegler’s Gorge hydropower dam in the Selous Game Reserve, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, before a comprehensive Strategic Environmental Assessment is done as required by Tanzanian law for a project of this size. http://wwf.panda.org/wwf_news/press_releases/?340151/Tanzania-signs-contract-with-Egypt-to-build-controversial-hydroelectric-dam-in-UNESCO-World-Heritage-site-Selous

I3: No backing down on Stiegler’s | The Citizen | 27.01.2019

Implementation of the Stiegler’s Gorge power project will continue as planned despite renewed foreign pressure to convince the government to go back to the drawing board. A resolution was passed last Thursday by the German Parliament (the Bundestag) to convince the Tanzanian government to stop or slow down the project. Germany advises the government to seek alternative sources for power arguing that the implementation will seriously affect the ecosystem of the Selous Game Reserve. In June 2017, Tanzania and Germany signed an agreement for the implementation of the 18 million Euro Selous Ecosystem Conservation and Development Programme. According to conservationists the construction of a dam on the Rufiji River in the Selous Game Reserve, a Unesco World Heritage site, will destroy wildlife habitat. The Tanzanian government reiterated that it had conducted its own Environmental Impact Assessment, and stands on the positive effects the project would have. https://www.thecitizen.co.tz/News/No-backing-down-on-Stiegler-s–govt-vows/1840340-4953202-3aeas6/index.html

I4: Tanzania’s Big Decision –  the mega-dam and its negative impacts, or an energy alternative? | the Citizen | 26.09.2018

Preparation has started in Tanzania on the Stiegler’s Gorge Dam. It is important to stress the trade-offs that should be recognised by the government in choosing to build the dam. If the Stiegler’s Gorge Dam is built Tanzania could have large amounts of electricity, but the dam will also have undeniable, significant negative impacts on some citizens and on globally outstanding environments. The dam will block sediment and water. Therefore, it will fundamentally change three important downstream economies and ecologies, endangering the core area of the Selous Reserve (a UN World Heritage Site), the livelihoods of the Warufiji and the environmentally-rich delta. On the other hand, electricity is important for Tanzania’s planned industrialisation and efforts to reduce poverty. The Tanzanian government therefore faces a series of questions about the economic effectiveness and socio-environmental sustainability of the Stiegler’s Gorge Dam.  https://www.thecitizen.co.tz/magazine/politicalreforms/Tanzania-s-big-decision–The-mega-dam-and-its-negative-impacts/1843776-4778472-kls0jiz/index.html

I5: Rufiji hydropower project deal signed at State House | Daily News | 12.12.2018

President John Magufuli has witnessed the signing of contract to construct Rufiji Hydropower plant project at State House in Dar es Salaam early Wednesday. The project is expected to produce more than 2100MW of electricity compared to the current 1560 MW produced from various sources. The project worth 2.9bn USD equivalent to 6.5trn/- and will be implemented in the next 36 months by the Egyptian Arab Contractors Company. President Magufuli noted that the project is friendly to environment conservation since it will reduce deforestation rate for domestic charcoal and firewood consumption in the country. https://dailynews.co.tz/news/2018-12-125c10f00705a1b.aspx

I6: Stiegler’s Gorge Project was okayed – NEMC Boss | The Citizen | 13.03.2019

The National Environmental Management Council (NEMC) gave the thumbs up to the development of the project according to the director general Mz Samwel Gwamaka. He said “being the institution responsible for management of our environment, we ensured all environment and social impact assessments were made before this project was allowed to progress. Its implementation will not harm the environment”. He dismissed views that due diligence on environmental effects was not done, following critics’ claim that the government ignored professional advice and pushed the plan to roll out the project. NEMC officials, he said, will make frequent visits to the project to ensure environmental compliance, noting that the project has great significance to Tanzania’s economic growth. https://www.thecitizen.co.tz/News/Stiegler-s-Gorge-project-was-okayed–Nemc-boss-/1840340-5023002-9vurf0/index.html

I7: Voices from Tanzania – Case studies on Business and Human Rights, Study 1: Human rights issues to watch in the construction of the Tanzania section of East African Crude Oil Pipeline project | Governance Links Tanzania | 03.2019

This first volume presents five studies on pertinent corporate human rights issues in Tanzania as conducted by Tanzanian CSOs. They present different aspects of how business operations can impact human rights, including labour rights, the right to health, security, free speech, property and adequate living standards. In Study 1, Governance Links Tanzania takes a critical look at the human rights issues to watch in the construction of the East African Crude Oil Pipeline (EACOP). Considering the magnitude and trajectory of the and the number of (inter-) national stakeholders involved, this project provides an interesting case to raise awareness on corporate human rights issues to consider in large infrastructure projects. http://ipisresearch.be/publication/voices-tanzania-case-studies-business-human-rights-vol-1/

I8: Impact Assessment for EA Oil Pipeline nears completion | the Citizen | 14.11.2018

The Environmental Social Impact Assessment (ESIA) report for the East Africa Crude Oil Pipeline (EACOP) is in the final stages and will be completed by next month. The completion and approval of the report will give the green light to start of the implementation of the project, which links Hoima in Uganda to Tanga Port in Tanzania. Total East Africa B.V expounded that the firm has embarked on various mitigation measures to minimise possible environmental hazards, to be caused by the pipeline. Given the plans to construct the pipeline, civil society organisations in Uganda and Tanzania yesterday convened a multi-stakeholder meeting. Among others, the participants met to give updates on progress on the pipeline development, environmental social impact assessments, resettlement frameworks, commercial arrangements and other aspects related to the pipeline roll-out. https://www.thecitizen.co.tz/News/-Impact-assessment-for-EA-oil-pipeline-nears-completion/1840340-4851022-ubxjpy/index.html

I9: Land Acquisition Act 1967 CAP 118 (RE 2002) | United Republic of Tanzania.

In the “Land Acquisition Act”, the legal framework for the compulsory acquisition of land for public purposes such as infrastructure development or natural resource exploration is described. See e.g. https://tanzanialaws.com/principal-legislation/land-acquisition-act

I10: Govt allocates over 30.8Bn/- to construct airport | Daily News | 10.10.2018

The State has allocated over 30.8bn/- for the construction of modern Sumbawanga Airport in Rukwa Region that has to take off with immediate effect. Regional Tanroads Engineer, Eng Masuka Mkina said a total of 96 residents whose plots would be affected by the construction have been compensated and issued them with a one-month notice to demolish their houses. https://dailynews.co.tz/news/2018-10-105bbda1f3d8912.aspx

I11: High compensation costs to delay Arush water project | the Citizen | 03.12.2018

High compensation costs may delay completion of a massive water supply project for Arusha city currently under implementation. The project is financed by the African Development Bank (AfDB) through a $ 233.9million (approximately Sh520 billion) soft loan. The director general of Arusha Urban Water Supply Authority (Auwsa) Ruth Koya did not say how much has been spent on compensation to people whose structures had to be demolished, but affirmed the costs have always been high in Arusha. The project is being implemented either in the densely populated suburbs of Arusha or the rugged terrains of the Mt Meru slopes, also posing engineering challenges. https://www.thecitizen.co.tz/News/-High-compensation-costs-to-delay-Arusha-water-project/1840340-4878768-152qhb2z/index.html

I12: Government intent on ending land row between Rahco, SBL | The Citizen | 18.3.2019

The Deputy Minister for Industries and Trade Stella Manyanya has reassured the Serengeti Breweries investors that an amicable solution will be found to a land problem pitying it with the railways authority. The two organizations have been on a dispute since 2017 when Rahco marked over 90 houses at Pasua area — including the SBL depot — for demolition because they have been constructed in the railway reserve. However, the owners of the houses claim that they did not invade the area, disclosing that the Mosh Municipal Council allocated the plots to them between 2005 and 2010 after the municipality changed the land use plan. They claimed that the process of changing the use of the land, which was in 1960’s earmarked for industrial use, was blessed by the Ministry of Land. https://www.thecitizen.co.tz/News/-Government-intent-on-ending-land-row-between-Rahco–SBL/1840340-5030214-format-xhtml-h5qbbh/index.html