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"Business & Human Rights in Tanzania" – Briefing 2018 Quarter 3: July - September

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This briefing presents an overview of present-day business and human rights issues and activities, as they prevail in four major economic sectors in Tanzania: resource extraction, agriculture, tourism and infrastructure

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This publication is part of the ‘Improving monitoring, research and dialogue on Business & Human Rights in Tanzania’ project  implemented by the Tanzanian Commission for Human Rights and GoodGovernance (CHRAGG), Business and Human Rights Tanzania (BHRT) and the International Peace Information Service (IPIS). This briefing is based on news and research published by Tanzanian and international media, journals and institutions. Its content does not necessarily reflect the views, opinions nor work of CHRAGG, BHRT or IPIS. 

 

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Editorial

With Tanzania’s economic landscape developing at a fast pace, relationships between the government, (foreign) investors, businesses, and local communities are constantly evolving.

Businesses investing and operating in Tanzania are uniquely placed to promote local growth and development, if they responsibly respect and support public interests such as health, safety, environment, labour rights and human rights in general. These conditions are however not always in place, as awareness on business and human rights remains limited in Tanzania. The annual report on human rights and business by the Legal and Human Rights Centre highlights the harm that businesses cause when they do not comply with labour laws and regulations (Ref. E1). These include the right to work, the right to freedom of association and the right to health. The report also indicates that over 70% of workers are unaware of their labour rights and duties (Ref. E1). It therefore recommends the government to strengthen regulation and monitoring of the business sector and to create more awareness amongst the population. 

The primary duty to protect citizens from corporate harm is vested in the state, as also indicated in the United Nations Guiding Principles (UNGP) on Business and Human Rights (Ref. E2). The state has the duty to protect its citizens through legal frameworks, policy interventions, initiatives and (re-)negotiating international business treaties such as Bilateral Investment Treaties (Ref. E3, E4). Tanzania has yet to develop a National Action Plan (NAP) on business and human rights. In preparation, a National Baseline Assessment (NBA) (Ref. E5) was developed and inaugurated in 2017. This report explains the status of the protection of human rights in the context of business activities in Tanzania. It also points out present weaknesses and gaps to address for the development of the NAP.

Other opportunities to respect the rights of workers and communities arise directly from industry initiatives. The Tanzanian Private Sector Foundation is discussing the possibility to establish a code of conduct to govern ethical behaviour in business operations (Ref. E6). Internal company strategies to remediate human rights’ grievances are also a powerful measure. This requires a real commitment to a fair, transparent and independent remediation process. Above all, this process should not exploit the great power imbalances that exist between victims who search redress and the corporate experts who implement the remediation process. An interesting case is North Mara Gold Mine, where Acacia Mining has set up an Operational Grievance Mechanism, but several actors question whether it meets any of these essential requirements (Ref. E7).

Investing in corporate social responsibility (CSR) is becoming increasingly important. CSR is the strategy whereby companies integrate social and environmental concerns, and the expectations and needs of a wider community in their business operations (Ref. E8).  CSR is not only a legal obligation in Tanzania’s extractive sector (Ref. E9), it is also a necessity for companies to have their activities accepted by the communities that surround their operations. For example, Acacia Mining’s educational and health projects near its Shinyanga mines show the positive impact of business’ CSR efforts (Ref. E10). Delays in community water projects (Ref. E11) or misappropriation of CSR funds (Ref. E12) in Tarime, on the other hand, are some of the issues that exist. CSR and the so-called ‘social license to operate’ (SLO) is often a significant challenge, as a study into the extent and impact of SLO in the Tanzanian petroleum and mining sectors confirms (Ref. E13). However helpful CSR contributions are, these can never replace the corporate responsibility to respect human rights, as set out under the UN Guiding Principles (Ref. E2).

 

The following overview lists news from mid-June until mid-September 2018:

 

Resource extraction 

The amendment to the mining laws in July 2017 indicates that the Tanzanian government continues to strengthen the regulation of the extractive sector (Ref. R1). The regulations seek to ensure that Tanzania benefits more from its mineral resource wealth. Local content regulations, for instance, require businesses to hire Tanzanian companies, (sub-) contractors and employees, to use Tanzanian insurance, legal and financial services, etc. In compliance with local content regulations, Acacia Mining announced in September this year that it would relocate core business functions to Tanzania in 2019 (Ref. R2). Besides foreign mining companies (Ref. R3), the government now also calls on international oil and gas companies to contribute appropriately to the country’s development (Ref. R4).

In order to stop the illegal smuggling of Tanzanite gemstones (Ref. R5), the government commissioned the construction of a wall around key Tanzanite mines in Mirerani. Over the coming months the economic impact of this measure will become clearer (Ref. R6, R7, R8).

Despite improvements on CSR and company mediation efforts (see Ref. E7, E10), important challenges remain for the extractive sector. Unsafe working conditions lead to lethal accidents (Ref. R9, R10) and insufficient environmental standards lead to contamination of water, soil, vegetation and human health (Ref. R11).

 

Agriculture

Agriculture remains the backbone of the economy in Tanzania. More than 80 per cent of the population is engaged in agriculture, predominantly as smallholder farmers. As such, the sector supports the livelihoods of the majority of Tanzanians and is the major force of economic growth and poverty reduction.

Government decisions to boost agricultural development through big agribusinesses have resulted in conflicts over land between smallholder farmers, pastoralists and large-scale commercial farms (Ref. A1). The lack of reliable markets for products such as dairy (Ref. A2) and the difficulties that farmers have in securing loans for their farming activities (Ref. A3), also lead to great insecurity. Women farmers experience additional hurdles. Gender-based violence, including sexual harassment and verbal and physical violence, is a reoccurring issue, e.g. in market places (Ref. A4). Besides this, women have even less access to loans than men (Ref. A5), as a recent study illustrates. Honouring commitments to gender equality and granting land rights to women farmers will be crucial to end discrimination and create equal economic opportunities (Ref. A6).

In August this year, the government has devised strategies to transform land use in the agricultural and fishery sector (Ref. A7). These should help solve disputes over land. Capacity building programmes by the Tanzania Agricultural Development Bank (Ref. A8) and awareness campaigns by the National Social Security Fund (Ref. A9) should help to ensure that smallholder farmers who organise themselves in groups get access to loans. The installation of official coffee auctions (Ref. A10) and measures against illegal fishing, which depletes fish stocks and endangers the fish industries of Lake Victoria (Ref. A11), are recent examples of how the government intends to create a more stable market and fair income for farmers and fishermen.

 

Tourism

Land is a frequent source of conflict associated with the growing tourism industry in Tanzania. As tourism grows and areas of conservation expand, access to lands becomes restricted for local communities. Protracted land disputes, hence, exist between conservation area authorities and communities surrounding national parks or reserves. One of these land disputes exists in the Serengeti National Park (SNP), one of Tanzania’s prime tourist destinations. Over the past year, Maasai people have been relocated from their ancestral lands in the SNP after the land was changed into hunting grounds for high-end tourists (Ref. T1). However, a recent report by the Oakland Institute (see Ref. T1) purports that rights of Maasai people were violated in the cause of this process, and redress is needed.

The government tries to remedy the land disputes by involving regional and district leaders in conflict resolution and by implementing land use management programmes (Ref. T2). Legally and practically reconciling conflicting land rights remains however a challenge (Ref. T3).

 

Infrastructure

One of Tanzania’s prestigious infrastructure projects is the construction of the Stiegler’s Gorge hydropower plant along the Rufiji River within the Selous Game Reserve. The government is determined to go through with this project “come what may”, as it is convinced that the project will do no harm (Ref. I1, I2). Critics of the project include environmentalists and conservationists who have been quoted several times that the project would adversely impact the Reserve’s wildlife ecosystem. To verify this, they keep demanding that all necessary environmental impact assessments (Ref. I3) are carried out before the start of the construction.

While large construction projects bring crucial infrastructure to Tanzania, they often create limited opportunities for local communities and companies. In July, the Engineers Registration Board therefore called for local content obligations (Ref. I4), similar to those established in the extractive sector. These measures should promote employment for Tanzanian construction workers and businesses, and hence, make sure that Tanzania benefits more from the infrastructure projects and business opportunities that are transforming the country.

 

 

Reading list

 

References “Editorial”

Ref. E1: Human Rights and Business Report 2017 | Legal and Human Rights Centre | 16.08.2018

The human rights and business report, assesses corporate compliance with labour laws and standards, corporate responsibility to respect human rights, state duty to protect human rights and remedy for violation of human rights in the business sector in Tanzania Mainland for the year 2017. It focusses on: labour standards and practices; land acquisition for investment; tax obligations of companies and other businesses; issues of discrimination in the business sector; corporate social responsibility; corporate environmental responsibility; corporate respect for human rights; and performance of regulatory authorities in the business sector as part of the State’s duty to protect human rights. The report provides an assessment of these key issues in the business sector and shows how they impact, whether negatively or positively, labour, environmental, land and human rights. The report also touches on the issue of awareness of rights, laws and duties in the business sector among workers, employers and community members. http://www.humanrights.or.tz/reports/human-rights-and-business-report-2017

 

Ref. E2: Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights: Implementing the United Nations ‘Protect, Respect and Remedy’ Framework | Office of the High Commission on Human Rights (OHCHR) | 2011.

This is the United Nations (UN) framework that indicates the roles and responsibilities of governments and businesses with regard to preventing and addressing corporate human rights harms. It is based around three pillars: (Pillar I) The state duty to protect human rights; (Pillar II) The corporate responsibility to respect human rights; (Pillar III) The access to remedy. The UN Guiding Principles (UNGP) are internationally agreed principles; however, they are voluntary principles and are not legally binding. https://www.ohchr.org/Documents/Publications/GuidingPrinciplesBusinessHR_EN.pdf

Ref. E3: Dar faces legal suit at international tribunals over tax, investment policies | The East African | 21.07.2018

Tanzania risks a legal suit at international tribunals over its recent investment and tax policies, which parties to Bilateral Investment Treaty (BIT) deem to be anti-business. Tanzania is among signatories to the BIT with developed countries which offers companies special protection through a dispute settlement mechanism that allows them to sue for compensation when new regulations or policies threaten their profits. On the other hand, civil society organisations are pushing for the review of the BIT. They want a rewording of the treaty to make it explicit that the intended investment promotion and protection will be pursued to the extent that it supports local development and not at the expense of key domestic development goals and public interest such as health, environment, human-rights, consumer protection, anti-corruption, consumer rights and the promotion of internationally recognised rights such as labour rights. http://www.theeastafrican.co.ke/business/Tanzania-faces-legal-suit-over-tax-investment-policies/2560-4674336-b3mss5z/index.html

 

Ref. E4: Tanzania ends investment treaty with Netherlands | The East African | 06.10.2018

Tanzania has terminated its Bilateral Investment Agreement (BIT) with the Netherlands that East African and Dutch civil society had said was biased against the country. Attorney General Dr Adelardus Kilangi gave the Dutch government notice of intent to terminate the treaty hours before the October 1 deadline. The BIT provisions allow investors to sue states, hence limiting government ability to regulate investments in the public’s interest. Nor is the agreement coherent with legal reforms that the country has recently adopted. http://www.theeastafrican.co.ke/business/Tanzania-ends-investment-treaty-with-Netherlands/2560-4794614-3ywb8l/index.html

 

Ref. E5: National Baseline Assessment (NBA) of current implementation of business and human rights frameworks in the United Republic of Tanzania | CHRAGG, DIHR & SOMO | November 2017

The Human Rights Action Plan (2013-2017) of the Tanzanian Government tasked the Commission for Human Rights and Good Governance (CHRAGG) with developing a National Baseline Study on Business and Human Rights (NBA) and to support the development of a National Action Plan (NAP) on Business and Human Rights. The NBA provides a comprehensive account of the status of protection of human rights with regard to business activities in Tanzania. The NBA examines the steps that the Government has taken to implement the United Nations Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights (UNGPs) – in particular Pillar I: the State duty to protect, and Pillar III: access to remedy. The NBA outlines the strengths and weaknesses in the Government’s approach to business and human rights and makes recommendations to address any gaps identified.
Link to full report in English:  https://www.humanrights.dk/sites/humanrights.dk/files/media/dokumenter/projects_docs/tanzania_bhr_nba_final_nov2017.pdf

 

Ref. E6: Private sector seeks to mend fences with government | The Citizen | 24.08.2018

Members of the business community meet in Dar es Salaam next week to discuss ethical issues that touch upon their trustworthiness in the eyes of government officials. There’s a growing tendency in the government to associate members of the business community with unethical behavior patterns, including corruption, tax evasion and false invoicing. Tanzania Private Sector Foundation (TPSF), who organizes the meeting, wants to use the meeting to discuss the possibility of establishing a code of conduct intended to govern the private sector. http://www.thecitizen.co.tz/News/Private-sector-seeks-to-mend-fences-with-government/1840340-4726542-953u9bz/index.html

 

Ref. E7: Victims of North Mara Gold Mine Violence find no justice in new compensation scheme | MiningWatch Canada | 04.09.2018

Grievous violence continues to be inflicted on local men and women by private mine security and police guarding Barrick Gold’s North Mara gold mine in northwestern Tanzania. There have been no criminal prosecutions, and the grievance process set up by the company to provide compensation to the victims is deeply inadequate, finds the new report. “Lack of adequate prior information about the process, lack of expert or legal support, inability to read documents produced by the mine regarding the impact they have suffered and the remedy the mine feels they deserve, if any, and lack of time and resources to find help in reviewing these documents are but some of the ways the mine’s process is deepening the harm suffered by these unfortunate villagers.” The extraordinary power imbalance between the largely illiterate villagers and the mine’s legal and investigative team that implements the system remains unaddressed. https://miningwatch.ca/news/2018/9/4/tanzania-victims-north-mara-gold-mine-violence-find-no-justice-new-compensation-scheme

 

Ref. E8: What is CSR? |UN Industrial Development Organisation (UNIDO)

Corporate Social Responsibility is a management concept whereby companies integrate social and environmental concerns in their business operations and interactions with their stakeholders. CSR is generally understood as being the way through which a company achieves a balance of economic, environmental and social imperatives, while at the same time addressing the expectations of shareholders and stakeholders. https://www.unido.org/our-focus/advancing-economic-competitiveness/competitive-trade-capacities-and-corporate-responsibility/corporate-social-responsibility-market-integration/what-csr

 

Ref. E9: The Mining Act (2010) as Amended (2017) |United Republic of Tanzania; The Petroleum Act (2015) |United Republic of Tanzania

Section 105 (1&2) of the Mineral Act (2010) as Amended (2017) directs the investor to have a strategic plan on its corporate social responsibility (CSR). The Petroleum Act (2015) sets out various obligations for the recruitment and training of Tanzanians and the provision of corporate social responsibility programs.

 

Ref. E10: Acacia hailed for supporting community projects | Daily News | 29.08.2018

Charles Kabeho has hailed Acacia Mining’s Buzwagi and Bulyanhulu mines for their support to community projects. Of several social projects completed by the mines this year are two new girls’ dormitory blocks constructed by Buzwagi Gold Mine at Mwendakulima Secondary School in Kahama. Besides the new school dormitory blocks is the execution of phase two construction of Bugarama Health Centre that will be upgraded to a district level hospital. Also Mr Kabeho recognised a landmark water project in the Kakola Village, Msalala District that was completed by Acacia in March. https://dailynews.co.tz/news/2018-08-295b8660e050781.aspx

 

Ref. E11: Acacia on the spot over Sh700m water project | The Citizen | 07.09.2018

President John Magufuli has pledged to send Water and Irrigation minister Makame Mbarawa to discuss with Acacia Mining on the execution of a Sh700 million water project at Nyamongo in Tarime, Mara. According to Nyamongo residents, the project has been implemented at a snail’s pace. http://www.thecitizen.co.tz/News/Acacia-on-the-spot-over-Sh700m-water-project/1840340-4748398-10opcr2z/index.html

 

Ref. E12: 35bn/- meant for Tarime villages diverted for private use | Daily News | 12.07.2018

Heads are expected to roll in Tarime after 35bn/- meant to benefit five villages near North Mara Gold Mine disappeared into thin air. the Tarime District Commissioner (DC), Mr Glorious Luoga, ordered immediate arrest of all individuals believed to have misappropriated the money paid by the gold mine to a local private company, Ken’ganya Enterprises Limited, instead of the said villages. “This is the money that should have gone to the villages to support development activities” https://dailynews.co.tz/news/2018-07-125b470914e7d77.aspx

 

Ref. E13: The Social License to Operate in Tanzania: Case Studies of the Petroleum and Mining Sectors | UONGOZI Institute | 2017

A social licence to operate (SLO), i.e. having the activities of a company accepted by the community in which the operations are to take place, is becoming a key issue for various stakeholders in the extractive sector. Merely obtaining formal licences to operate and meeting regulatory requirements is no longer a guarantee for operations to run smoothly. In this paper, the existence of SLO is assessed in 2 of Tanzania’s leading extractive sectors (mining and petroleum) by seeking perceptions of community members and local officials in the areas around various large-scale mining operations. First of all, findings from the study indicate that SLO appears as a challenge in the petroleum sector, but even more significantly so in the mining sector. Secondly, one of the most significant impacts has been the displacement of citizens in order for multinational companies to undertake large-scale mining operations. Thirdly, complaints about unfulfilled promises and unfair compensation payments by mining companies were ubiquitous. Lastly, while companies had implemented several community projects (under their Corporate Social Responsibility programs), these have not been sufficient in light of the issues caused by the extractive activities. http://uongozi.or.tz/wp-content/uploads/2017/11/SLO-Report.pdf

 

 

 

References “Resource extraction”

 

Ref. R1: Briefing note: Local Content Regulations following amendments to the Tanzanian Mining Act, 2010| Clyde & Co | 17.01.2018

This briefing provides the highlights of the Local Content Regulations (the Regulations) issued recently. The Regulations follow the amendments of the Mining Act, 2010 through the Written Laws (Misc. Amendments) Act, Act No. 7 of 2017 which introduced the local content requirements. Twenty key provisions are discussed, including ‘Ownership by indigenous Tanzanian company’, ‘Provision of services by a Foreign Company’ and ‘Minimal local content requirements and local content reporting’.  https://www.clydeco.com/insight/article/briefing-note-local-content-regulations

 

Ref. R2: Acacia moves to implement local content requirements with core business functions back in Dar | Daily News | 19.09.2018

In a bid to implement a local content clause in the amended mining Act, Acacia Mining Group has continued with plans to transition key business functions to support of its local operations, key business functions such as supply chain, sales and payroll will be based in Dar es Salaam or whether it makes business sense at each operating mine in the lake zone

 

Ref. R3: Jacob, T. & Pedersen R.H. New resource nationalism? Continuity and change in Tanzania’s extractive industries | The Extractive Industries and Society (5) | 2018

In May 2017, Tanzania’s President John Magufuli declared ‘economic warfare’ on foreign mining companies, which he accused of draining the country’s mineral wealth. Magufuli’s attempt to exercise greater control over extractive industries culminated in the passing of three pieces of legislation in July 2017. Combined, the new acts aim to regain the loss of the country’s sovereignty over its resources, first and foremost by opening the renegotiation of existing contracts and removing firms’ access to international arbitration. Such actions have renewed the debate on resource nationalism, with some political commentators referring to ‘a new resource nationalism’, supposedly marking a break with the previous administration. By analysing changes in extractive governance in recent years, this article argues that, whereas some new features related to the current President’s personality and populist style may explain some of the new nationalism, the continuities from previous ad- ministration are more pronounced. This can be seen in the repeated calls for a tougher fiscal take, involvement of state-owned enterprises and presidents’ direct involvement in deal-making, all of which were already well un- derway under the previous administration. More likely, the recent legislation reflects a broader shift of thinking in the ruling party, spurred by increasingly competitive elections since 2010. Link to research paper via:  https://www.diis.dk/en/research/resource-nationalism-on-the-rise-in-tanzania-president-magufuli

 

Ref. R4: Tanzania’s Magufuli on warpath with oil companies | The East African | 08.09.2018

Tanzania’s liquefied natural gas project suffered another setback this week after President John Magufuli accused the international oil and gas companies of seeking huge profits at the expense of the country’s development. President Magufuli spoke in Musoma on Wednesday in the wake of the collapse of the host government’s negotiations with the international companies, which has left the $30 billion project in limbo. http://www.theeastafrican.co.ke/business/Magufuli-on-warpath-with-oil-companies/2560-4750068-9qxqcjz/index.html

 

Ref. R5: Tanzanite thieves must be stopped | Daily News | 10.07.2018

Construction of a concrete wall to hem in the tanzanite mining blocks at Mirerani in Simanjiro district is complete. The wall has only one gate that will serve as the entry and exit point. This will help control potential smugglers and thieves. President John Magufuli directed Tanzania People’s Defence Forces (TPDF) to build the wall around tanzanite blocks A to D at Mirerani and install high-tech equipment to monitor mining activities, so the government can earn proper revenue in terms of royalties. The president also directed that trading in tanzanite gemstones should now be conducted in Simanjiro only in order to promote trade and development in the area. https://dailynews.co.tz/news/2018-07-105b447ab1a7139.aspx

 

Ref. R6: Mirerani Residents Request Entry into Tanzanite Enclosure | The Citizen | 21.07.2018

Residents of Mirerani Town in Simanjiro District have requested the government to allow them to pass through the main gate of the tanzanite enclosure wall so they could go to carry out their mining activities. Following the completion of the wall, the residents including brokers, owners of mines, mineral buyers, women selling fruits and greens, have been prevented from entering without a gate pass. They are currently facing economic hardship due to this measure, as they are depending on the mines to earn a living. http://www.thecitizen.co.tz/News/Mirerani-residents-request-entry-into-Tanzanite-enclosure/1840340-4674862-15sb4fg/index.html

 

Ref. R7: Madalali wa tanzanite walalamikia hasara [Tanzanite brokers complain about loss] | Nipashe | 04.09.2018

Tanzanite mining brokers from small towns in Mirerani complained about the assessors who estimate their minerals at higher prices differently from its reality. At the Tanzanite Stock Exchange session Mirerani brokers complained that the estimate is causing them to suffer because the price set is higher which leads them to fail to sell their minerals easy.

 

Ref. R8: Tanzanite smuggling persists despite new wall: Tanzania Mining Commission | The Citizen | 17.07.2018

The Tanzania Mining Commission (TMC) has uncovered rampant smuggling of the tanzanite gemstone from the Mererani mines despite the construction of a protective wall around the prime mining area as directed by the government. However, the Manyara Regional Miners Association (Marema) chairman, Mr Sadick Mnenei, attributed the decline in royalties to a decline in operating capital. “Capital for small-scale miners has decreased significantly due to the decline in money circulation,” Mr Mnenei said. http://www.thecitizen.co.tz/News/1840340-4667024-1lii6az/index.html

 

Ref. R9: Miner dies after experiencing difficult breathing in Arusha | Daily News | 02.07.2018

A ruby miner has died and another is admitted to hospital after experiencing difficult breathing while in a mine. Arusha Regional Police Commander Ramadhani Ng’anzi called upon miners to abide by mining rules and regulations whenever they were engaged in mining activities. The miners suffered the fate after reportedly ignoring technical precautions of not entering the mine within 48 hours after blasting and drilling to break rocks for excavation. https://dailynews.co.tz/news/2018-07-025b3a10ffd8559.aspx

 

Ref. R10: One killed, three injured after mines caves in | The Citizen |13.09.2018

Kahama, a gold Miner has died and other 3 injured after Mwabomba Mine In Kahama District, Shinyanga Region where they worked caved in. One of the 3 miners has been rushed to Bugando Referral Hospital in Mwanza for further treatment

 

Ref. R11: NEMC Implements JPM’s Order on North Mara Mine | Daily News | 14.09.2018

Experts from the National Environment Management Council (NEMC) are analysing samples collected from water bodies, farms, wild plants and sand suspected to be contaminated by effluents from Acacia North Mara mine. If seepage will be found to be harmful to living organisms, owners of the mine will be advised on what to do in order to have safe mining operations in the area. The original certificates issued to the mine are being reviewed as well to ascertain validity and conformity to the law and regulations, andt the council will take action if it will be ascertained that the law has been violated. https://dailynews.co.tz/news/2018-09-145b9b5c3689cbf.aspx

 

 

 

References “Agriculture”

 

Ref. A1: “There isn’t any”: Tanzania’s land myth and the brave New Alliance | African Arguments | 16.05.2018

Tanzania claims to have abundant unused land to attract investors. But as tensions over resources grow, farmers, pastoralists and experts beg to differ. Land that has been cultivated by Tanzanians for generations, is now owned by large-scale commercial farms that use imported hybrid seeds and over-produce. This scenario plays out in regions across the country where big agribusinesses have arrived on the scene. Many of their entrances to the country have been facilitated by an ambitious international initiative called the New Alliance for Food Security and Nutrition. In 2009, the Tanzanian government earmarked a third of the country, labelled The Southern Agricultural Growth Corridor of Tanzania (SAGCOT) for agricultural development. Although they may not own titles to it, smallholder farmers and pastoralists have been using much of this land for centuries. They say that they have seen much of this property seized, leading to rising conflicts between the two groups over the land that remains. The clashes between pastoralists and farmers are a clear indicator that there is no free land available for SAGCOT, New Alliance or otherwise. http://africanarguments.org/2018/05/15/there-isnt-any-tanzanias-land-myth-and-the-brave-new-alliance/

Ref. A2: Rungwe dairy farmers express despair in face of shortage of market |The Guardian | 03.08.2018

Dairy farmers in Rungwe Mbeya Region are crying foul over what they term as lack of market for their milk.

 

Ref. A3: Wakulima wataka mikopo ya kilimo iboreshwe [Farmers asked for agricultural loans improvements] | Mtanzania | 10.08.2018

The Cashew Nut farmers in Mtwara have asked the NMB bank to improve access to loans in order to help them in taking care of their farms. This was spoken during a one-day workshop organized by NMB bank together with business representatives, processors and business club chairmen.

 

Ref. A4: Anti GBV campaign heats up in Dar es Salaam market places | Daily News | 24.08.2018

UN Women, has promised to continue supporting Tanzania in the fight against gender-based violence (GBV) in market places after being satisfied with the progress of the just ended ‘Mpe- Riziki Si Matusi’ campaign in Dar es Salaam. The campaign helped in reducing GBV acts by over 80 per cent in the markets. Before the campaign implementation, GBV rate was 96.77 percent in market places. Both sexual and cash corruption, verbal and physical violence including sexual harassment and insults were among serious barriers women face in markets. https://dailynews.co.tz/news/2018-08-245b7fc0308ea69.aspx

 

Ref. A5: Study reveals why it is tough for women to access loans | The Citizen | 06.09.2018

Lack of trust, tough requirements and lack of collateral have been singled out as being among factors that deny women entrepreneurs access to loans from banks and financial institutions in Tanzania. The interviewed women also complained about various types of inappropriate behaviour by loan officers as two mentioned that loan officers asked for sexual favours in exchange for access to loans. The study on accessibility of loans by female entrepreneurs published by Belgium-based Catholic University of Leuven shows that apart from unattractive borrowing terms and default risk, many women argued that application processes were long and costly. http://www.thecitizen.co.tz/News/Business/Study-reveals-why-it-is-tough-for-women-to-access-loans/1840414-4746814-s8iehez/index.html

 

Ref. A6: Why Women Farmers Need Land Rights | The Citizen | 30.07.2018

Tanzania is among developing nations where gender inequality denies women the right to access land for economic production. Access to potentially-productive land is crucial to combating discrimination against females. According to a 2017 case study titled Women’s Access to Land in Tanzania: The Case of the Makete District by Kerbina Moyo, the majority of village women are illiterate regarding their entitlements, and lack the capacity to fight for their rights. When women are denied access, they are disadvantaged, economically powerless. In addition, women are vulnerable to extreme poverty because they’re denied access to credit from financial institutions for not holding land title deeds as collateral. The director general of the ‘National Land Use Planning Commission’ (NLUPC), Dr Stephen Nindi, has committed his Commission to collaborate with other stakeholders to address land conflicts. Commenting on the issuance of ‘Certificates of Customary Right of Occupancy’ (CCROs) to villagers countrywide by his office, Dr Nindi asserted that at least 50 per cent of the CCROs in Mvomero District in Morogoro Region were issued to women. http://www.thecitizen.co.tz/News/-Why-women-farmers-need-land-rights/1840340-4688056-k3lssv/index.html

 

Ref. A7: New Strategies set to transform two sectors | Daily News | 02.08.2018

Livestock and Fisheries Development Minister, Mr Luhaga Mpina, has outlined fifteen strategies to transform agricultural and fishery sectors in the country. They include strategies for the collection of increased revenue from both sectors, as well as strategies for land use. “The strategies will also help to address disputes between pastoralists and farmers and other land users”, he observed. https://dailynews.co.tz/news/2018-08-025b62e4cce2916.aspx 

 

Ref. A8: TADB empowers farmers |The Citizen – national news | 06.08.2018

The Tanzania Agriculture Development Bank (TADB) is working on a comprehensive capacity building programme that is deliberately designed to ensure that at least 500,000 smallholder farmers form groups in order to access soft loans.

 

Ref. A9: Farmers poised to benefit from NSSF loans | Daily News | 09.08.2018

Farmers and entrepreneurs have been advised to form groups so that they can easily access loans issued by the National Social Security Fund (NSSF), thanks to the much publicized campaign dubbed “It’s your Time “. “It is not easy to monitor and control loans issued to individuals, that is why in our campaign we encourage farmers and entrepreneurs to join in registered groups to enjoy the loans facility offered by our fund” she said. Under the ‘Its Your Time’ campaign, the NSSF intends to reach farmers and entrepreneurs through awareness platforms where they will also be educated on the need to register with NSSF. https://dailynews.co.tz/news/2018-08-095b6beffb801d4.aspx

Ref. A10: Tanzania insists on Coffee Auction to stop smuggling | The East African | 23.07.2018

Coffee farmers and co-operatives in Tanzania will, starting this month, sell their produce only through the annual coffee auctions to benefit from the growing global coffee market and to stop the rampant coffee smuggling to neighbouring countries by individual growers. Growers are required to sell their produce only through farmers’ co-operatives. The selling of coffee directly from farms has been banned. Agriculture Minister Charles Tizeba said that the annual coffee auctions are properly planned to ensure that farmers are paid at market price for their crop. Middlemen in Tanzania have been blamed for the low prices and late payments, forcing farmers to seek alternative markets. http://www.theeastafrican.co.ke/business/Tanzania-coffee-auction-stop-smuggling/2560-4677128-14k8rhf/index.html

 

Ref. A11: JPM ups illegal fishing fight | Daily News | 05.09.2018

President John Magufuli has stressed preservation of fish in Lake Victoria and warned against illegal fishing and use of banned equipment, which is responsible for depleting fish stocks in the largest fresh-water body in Africa. Dr Magufuli as well took issues with collapse of fish industries in Mwanza, pointing that there were about 11 industries which provided millions of jobs to people, but the factories have since been closed, partly due to decreasing stock of fish.  https://dailynews.co.tz/news/2018-09-055b8f79a35b9e0.aspx

 

 

 

References “Tourism”

Ref. T1: Maasai evicted from their lands to make space for trophy tourism in the Serengeti | Lifegate | 09.08.2018

Indigenous Maasai people have been ordered to leave their homeland in Tanzania’s Serengeti Park for it to be turned into a hunting ground for tourists, a report highlights. Maasai people from four villages in Loliondo, on the outskirts of the Serengeti National Park in Tanzania, famous for the annual wildebeest migration, are being evicted from territories they’ve occupied for thousands of years, according to an investigation by think tank the Oakland Institute, in a case of land grabbing. The Maasai represent one of the largest known pastoral groups worldwide, with about one million people roaming across southern Kenya and northern Tanzania, but “hundreds of homes have been burned and tens of thousands of people driven from ancestral lands in recent years to benefit high-end tourists,” the report highlights. https://www.lifegate.com/people/news/maasai-evicted-serengeti

Link to the Oakland Institute report: https://www.oaklandinstitute.org/sites/oaklandinstitute.org/files/tanzania_maasai_final_web.pdf

 

Ref. T2: Minister issues order on land disputes resolution | The Citizen | 17.08.2018

Natural Resources and Tourism deputy minister Japhet Hasunga has directed staff at the ministry and other institutions falling under his docket to involve regional and district leaders when resolving disputes between villagers and game reserves. “All staff of this ministry are not allowed to go to protected areas and try to resolve conflicts involving neighbouring communities without devising clear plans with regional and district leaders,” he said. The government also launched the implementation of the land management programme in the villages bordering the conservation areas (in Manyara, Dodoma, Mara, Arusha and Simiyu regions), which aims to end protracted land conflicts between conservationists and surrounding communities. http://www.thecitizen.co.tz/News/Minister-issues-order-on-land-disputes-resolution/1840340-4716066-12sya9wz/index.html

 

Ref. T3: Why Strengthening Land Rights Strengthens Development | The Namibian | 24.08.2018

The World Bank group is now working with developing countries to improve their land tenure systems and expand the coverage of legally recognised and registered rights. New projects are now being prepared, e.g., in Tanzania to provide customary settlements with communal titles that will ensure legal recognition of their common holdings, thereby strengthening the protection and management of these assets. For large groups of people (especially the poor and politically marginalised), land tenure rights are insecure. Strong, properly enforced land rights can boost growth, reduce poverty, strengthen human capital, promote economic fairness (including gender equity), and support social progress. https://www.namibian.com.na/70746/read/Why-Strengthening-Land-Rights-Strengthens-Development 

 

 

 

References “Infrastructure”

 

Ref. I1: MPs engage in heated debate over 2,100MW Stiegler’s Gorge power project | The Citizen | 23.05.2018

Deputy minister Kangi Lugola told Parliament that the government will roll out the project “come what may”. Those resisting the project will be jailed. MPs differed over the implementation of the Stiegler’s Gorge hydropower project at the Selous Game Reserve. There is growing opposition from environmentalists who fear a negative impact on the Game Reserve. The government said that an environmental impact assessment will be carried out before the rollout. Questions were raised why the Stiegler’s Gorge project can go ahead without EIA, as the government normally discouraged human activities in the area. “The environment exists to serve human beings and not the opposite”, one MP said. http://www.thecitizen.co.tz/News/MPs-engage-in-heated-debate-over-2-100MW/1840340-4575704-aq7kx0z/index.html

 

Ref. I2: Magufuli responds to critics of Stiegler’s Gorge Project | The Citizen | 31.07.2018

President John Magufuli has reiterated his governments stance to implement the controversial Stiegler’s Gorge hydro-electricity generation project inside the Selous Game Reserve (SGR) along the Rufiji River Basin. Critic of the project include environmentalists and conservationists who have been several times quoted as saying the project would adversely impact wildlife ecosystem. “Only 3.5 per cent of the total area in the reserve will be used for hydro-electric power generation. However, wildlife will get enough drinking water compared to the past,” he said. http://www.thecitizen.co.tz/News/-Magufuli-responds-to-critics-of-Stiegler-s-George-project/1840340-4689730-fqyjtmz/index.html

 

Ref. I3: An environmental impact assessment is a study that evaluates the likely environmental impacts of a proposed project, taking into account the socio-economic, cultural and human-health impacts, both beneficial and adverse.
See e.g. https://www.cbd.int/impact/whatis.shtml

 

Ref. I4: How locals lose out to foreign players in mega projects | The Citizen | 30.07.2018

The absence of an appropriate local content policy (LPC) regarding implementation of mega construction projects causes local operators to lose almost every which way to their foreign competitors in the construction business. Currently, Tanzania’s LPC only applies to oil and gas exploitation, and stakeholders are already calling for it to be extended to other sectors of the economy in general, and construction in particular. “We need a policy that encourages empowerment of young engineers by participating in domestic projects. This will be a major relief,” the Engineers Registration Board (ERB) boss argues. http://www.thecitizen.co.tz/News/How-locals-lose-out-to-foreign-olayers-in-mega-projects/1840340-4687998-qfvyegz/index.html