International Peace Information ServiceNL | EN
Wekelijkse briefings Download PDF



IPIS' News
IPIS’ Latest Publications
Arms Trade and Security in the Great Lakes Region
Refugee and IDP Reports
Justice and Tribunals
Natural Resources in the Great Lakes Region
Extractive Companies, Energy, Trade and Foreign Investment
Regulation, Compliance and Corporate Social Responsibility

IPIS Recent publications


In North Kivu, not much has changed in the military situation between the Congolese army and the M23 rebel movement. The US, EU and France expressed their concern over the situation, and their full support to the Congolese government in fighting the rebels. According to the first official death tolls since the beginning of the mutiny in April, at least 200 mutineers and 40 soldiers have been killed. The Prime Minister visited the region, saying the war will be ended with military means, without negotiations. Almost two weeks after the BBC first revealed the support given by Rwanda to M23, the Congolese government said that an estimated 200-300 rebels have been trained in Rwanda, and accused its neighbour of "passivity" in dealing with the situation. As before, Rwanda denies all accusations categorically.
A new UN report draws the attention to the atrocities committed against children by the Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA), while LRA fighters showed up again in the Garamba National Park in northeastern DRC, where they had their headquarters until December 2008.
The SIPRI Yearbook 2012 assesses the current state of armament and disarmament and contains a chronology of events during the year 2011 in the area of security and arms control.
At a regional conference in Accra, Ghana, 34 African countries adopted an Action Plan with the ultimate aim of a cluster munitions-free Africa.
A new Amnesty International report states that Congolese security forces and armed groups alike are able to commit serious human rights violations because of the ease of which weapons and ammunition are available.
Kazakh ‘Eurasian Natural Resources Corporation’ (ENRC), one of the largest mining groups listed on the London Stock Exchange, is urged by Global Witness to address corruption concerns over its rapid acquisition of mining assets in the DRC and the role of its controversial business partner, the Israeli co-investor Dan Gertler.
Microchip producer Intel aims at manufacturing the world’s first microprocessor validated as conflict-free for gold, tin, tungsten, and tantalum.


IPIS' News

New website and briefing 
IPIS has now launched an improved and more user-friendly and website and briefing. If you wish to give us feedback or encounter any problems, we would appreciate your comments so that we can improve our website and briefings.
Please email

IPIS’ Latest Publications

Etat des lieux du développement socio-économique dans les zones minières au Nord-Kivu (territoires de Walikale et Masisi) | March 2012 | ASSODIP | IPIS (editorial advice)
At a moment when the attention of both the national and international communities is focused on the reorganisation of the mining sector in the east of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the local civil society organisation ASSODIP considered it opportune to carry out a study of the impact of mining exploitation on the socio-economic development in North Kivu’s Walikale and Masisi territories. These territories are among the richest in mineral resources of eastern DRC, with the exploitation and trade in minerals adding greatly to public revenues. Nonetheless, the concrete situations as presented in this paper sufficiently show that the development of the local mining communities has never been taken into due account.

Assessment of existing practices regarding end-user certification | February 2012 | UNODA | IPIS
Already, in 2002, the Security Council called upon States to establish an effective national end-user certificate system and to study the feasibility, as appropriate, of developing such a system at the regional and global levels, as well as information exchange and verification mechanisms. This study assesses existing practices regarding end-user certification in a wide range of countries. It examines concepts, documents and procedures relating to the regulation of end use and end users of conventional arms. It also endeavours to identify political and practical obstacles to the development of an international framework for authentication, reconciliation and standardization of end-user certificates. Finally, it proposes practical guidelines to assist States in the development of a reliable system of end-user certification.
Transparancy and Accountability. Monitoring and Reporting Methods Under An Arms Trade Treaty | February 2012 | TransArms R | IPIS
Without an understanding of the existing practices of States regarding their commonly agreed standards for the monitoring and reporting of their international transfers of conventional arms, it will be very difficult to draft many of the basic provisions of the Treaty to ensure compliance and enforcement. This report therefore seeks to clarify and discuss existing terminology and reporting practices for State regulation of international transfers of goods and services and for international transfers of conventional arms. It is hoped that this will also help contribute to the development of common international standards for monitoring and reporting international transfers of conventional arms. Standardization of statistical requirements and reporting methods is of paramount importance for the ATT to be effective.



Arms Trade and Security in the Great Lakes Region

Recent news on conflict, security and arms trade across the Great Lakes Region. 

SIPRI Yearbook 2012
SIPRI Yearbook 2012. Armaments, Disarmament and International Security | 5th June | SIPRI
The 'Big Six' Arms Exporters | 11th June | Amnesty International | allAfrica
SIPRI Yearbook 2012 is a compendium of data and analysis in the areas of Security and conflicts, Military spending and armaments, Non-proliferation, arms control and disarmament.
Africa to ban cluster munitions
Africa to Ban Cluster Bombs - Regional Meeting Concludes With Strong Action Plan | 6th June | The Accra Daily Mail | allAfrica
Africa takes the Lead in Universalising the Convention on Cluster Munitions | 7th June | Institute for Security Studies
African states reinforced their ownership of the Convention on Cluster Munitions (CCM) at a regional conference on the Universalisation of the CCM on 28–30 May 2012 in Accra, Ghana. The CCM is the most significant international disarmament treaty since the 1997 Anti-Personnel Mine Ban Convention.
LRA – UN report on violence against children
New UN report highlights Lord’s Resistance Army atrocities against children | 6th June | UN News Centre
La LRA, un des pires auteurs de crimes contre les enfants, selon un rapport de l'ONU | 6th June | UN News Centre
LRA still among the gravest perpetrators of violations against children | 6th June | UN Office of the SRSG for Children and Armed Conflict | Reliefweb
Rapport du Secrétaire général sur la situation des enfants victimes de l’Armée de résistance du Seigneur et le conflit armé (S/2012/365) | 7th June | UN Security Council | Reliefweb
Conférence de presse sur le rapport du Secrétaire général relatif à la situation des enfants victimes de l’Armée de résistance du Seigneur (LRA) | 7th June | UN Office of the SRSG for Children and Armed Conflict | Reliefweb
UN reports on Ugandan warlord's crimes against children | 7th June | Reuters
Joseph Kony kidnapped 591 children in past three years, UN report reveals | 7th June | The Guardian
Malgré la traque, Joseph Kony continue d'enlever des enfants | 7th June | Le Monde
The LRA’s Abduction of Children: An Interview with Radhika Coomaraswamy | 11th June | International Peace Institute | Reliefweb
The Ugandan rebel group known as the Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA) remains among the most persistent perpetrators of grave violations against children, says a new United Nations report. Between July 2009 and February 2012 they abducted at least 591 children in the DRC, the Central African Republic and South Sudan.
LRA - US resolution to support hunt for Joseph Kony
Royce Hails Passage of Kony Resolution Out of U.S. Foreign Affairs Committee | 7th June | IMF | allAfrica
The House Foreign Affairs Committee unanimously passed H. Res. 583, a resolution expressing support for U.S. efforts to assist African forces in the hunt for Joseph Kony, the sadistic leader of the Lord's Resistance Army.
UN Annual Report on Children and Armed Conflict
Children and armed conflict: Report of the Secretary-General (A/66/782–S/2012/261) | 11th June | UN General Assembly, UN Security Council | Reliefweb
52 Parties on Secretary-General's List of Shame on Children and Armed Conflict | 11th June | UN Office of the SRSG for Children and Armed Conflict | Reliefweb
The UN Secretary-General issued his annual report on children and armed conflict to the Security Council which gives an overview of the situation of girls and boys in conflict zones and measures taken for their protection. The report includes a list of parties who recruit and use children, kill and maim, commit sexual violence or attack schools and hospitals; the so-called “list of shame.”
Amnesty International on the Arms Trade Treaty
Campaigners call time on global arms trade ahead of historic treaty talks | 11th June | Amnesty International
For decades the irresponsible and poorly regulated international arms trade has contributed to death, injuries, torture and other serious human rights abuses - including sexual violence - affecting a million or more people every year. In July, all the world's governments will meet at the United Nations in New York, for a month of negotiations to agree a global Arms Trade Treaty (ATT) - the first of its kind.
Paper Swiss Peace on negotiating with armed groups
A time to fight, and a time to talk? Negotiability of armed groups | 11th June | Swiss Peace | Human Security Gateway
This working paper develops a framework to analyze the circumstances under which non-state armed groups recognize a conflict as negotiable. The concept of negotiability disaggregates ripeness theory to focus on the perspective of one party.
DRC/Rwanda – presumed support by Rwanda to Congolese M23 rebels
Darkening the DRC: the long, deep shadow of Rwanda | 6th June | Daily Maverick
Tiny Rwanda should be inconsequential to the affairs of the DRC, one of Africa’s biggest countries. Yet when Rwanda chooses to exert its malign influence from the unstable eastern border, the whole country shudders with the impact. Now is no exception.
Situation in Eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo | 6th June | US Department of State
Les USA et l’EU préoccupés par la situation de guerre dans l’Est de la RDC | 7th June | Radio Okapi
The United States is concerned by the continued mutiny of officers and soldiers formerly integrated into the armed forces of the DRC and now operating in North Kivu province as an armed group under the name M23, and by recent reports of outside support to M23.
Military stalemate, diplomatic positioning | 6th June | Congo Siasa
U-Turn: Time for U.S., U.K. to Change Rwanda Policy | 6th June | The Enough Project
Evidence is mounting that Rwanda is supporting the new rebellion in eastern Congo, the M23, with recruits, weapons, and ammunition. Following interviews with 23 recent alleged Rwandan recruits and several other eyewitnesses, Human Rights Watch reported on Monday in intricate, horrifying detail how Rwanda has been allegedly recruiting, abducting, and helping train between 200-300 of its own nationals to fight with the M23 since February. Children had been pulled out of movie theaters, and defectors had their heads bashed in with hammers, according to the report.
Crisis in Eastern DRC - Ethnic Massacres Take Back Seat to Speculation On Rwandan Role | 7th June | African Arguments | allAfrica
Mutinerie dans les Kivu : l’opposition dénonce une agression rwandaise | 8th June | Radio Okapi
The Congolese opposition considers the mutiny in the East to be an aggression of Rwanda. According to them, all the wars that arise in that part of the country are provoked by Rwanda “with the aim of conquering the DRC”.
Soutien du Rwanda à la rébellion - les avis divergent | 8th June | Radio Netherlands Worldwide | allAfrica
Who fights for whom | 8th June | Africa Confidential
Mutinous factions along the border are exploited by both governments, and Hutu-Tutsi quarrels live on. No one watching the fighting in eastern Congo-Kinshasa was surprised when the United Nations reported in May that Rwanda was directly involved.
E.Congo mutiny rakes over regional, ethnic wounds | 8th June | Reuters
When Faustin joined a recruitment drive in his village in Rwanda, he thought he was headed for a stint in the Rwandan army.
While the DRC Burns, the West Plays Roulette | 8th June | The New Times | allAfrica
“It is really very sad to see how the whole misery visited on our troubled neighbour, the DRC, is being treated by the entire collection of Western organisations. Instead of focusing their effort on identifying the source of the problem and addressing themselves to it, they are turning it into a farcical, and irrelevant, attack on Rwanda.”
Kinshasa confirme la présence des Rwandais au sein du M23 | 10th June | Radio Okapi
Le pays met en cause le Rwanda dans la mutinerie à l'Est | 10th June | RFI | allAfrica
Congo says hundreds of rebels trained in Rwanda | 10th June | Reuters
Nord Kivu : des infiltrés rwandais devant Matata Ponyo | 11th June | Le Phare | Digital Congo
Indignation et colère du gouvernement contre le Rwanda pour son implication vérifiée dans la guerre relancée au Kivu |11th June | Le Potentiel | Digital Congo
Communication du gouvernement sur la situation sécuritaire au Kivu | 11th June | Le Potentiel | allAfrica
DRC's government said on Saturday hundreds of rebels fighting its army in the east have been trained in Rwanda and Kinshasa accused its neighbour of "passivity" in dealing with the situation.
Rwanda: Govt Dismisses DRC Accusations | 11th June | The New Times | allAfrica
The Minister of Foreign Affairs, and Government Spokesperson, Louise Mushikiwabo, has said Rwanda has no interests in meddling in the internal affairs of the DRC.
Situation dans l'Est - L'UE redoute la détérioration de la coopération Kigali et Kinshasa | 11th June | Le Potentiel | allAfrica
The European Union fears a deterioration in relations between Rwanda and the DRC.
Guerre dans le Kivu - Le Rwanda dos au mur | 11th June | Le Potentiel | allAfrica
Le pays veut combattre la rébellion et favoriser le dialogue avec le Rwanda | 11th June | RFI | allAfrica
“We have to continue to fight the mutineers, and at the same time look for a diplomatic solution”, the DRC’s prime minister said at the end of his tour in North Kivu.
Who Benefits From the Conflict in DRC? | 12th June | The New Times | allAfrica


Amnesty International report on arms
DR Congo: Arms supplies fuelling unlawful killings and rape | 12th June | Amnesty International
Political leaders must act immediately and halt arms supplies to the DRC where they continue to fuel unlawful killings, rape, looting and abductions, Amnesty International said in a new report published today. The report, ‘If you resist, we’ll shoot you’, highlights how Congolese security forces and armed groups alike are able to commit serious human rights violations because of the ease of which weapons and ammunition are available.
UN Secretary-General report on MONUSCO
Report of the Secretary-General on the United Nations Organization Stabilization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (S/2012/355) | 6th June | UN Security Council | Reliefweb
The report covers developments that occurred between the issuance of the SG’s report of 26 January (S/2012/65) and 10 May 2012.
MONUSCO weekly press conference on security situation
Les foyers de tension persistent au Nord-Kivu | 7th June | Le Potentiel | allAfrica
Les menaces des groupes armés persistent à Kalehe | 8th June | Le Potentiel | allAfrica
Leila Zerrougui annonce l’appui de la Monusco aux FARDC | 8th June | Radio Okapi
Nord-Kivu : Matata Ponyo apprécie le partenariat entre les FARDC et les forces de la Monusco | 11th June | Radio Okapi
The Deputy Special Representative of the United Nations in the DRC, Leila Zerrougui, announced the full support of MONUSCO to the Congolese army (FARDC) to neutralise the armed groups active in North Kivu.
Statement DRC government on security situation in East
Communication du gouvernement sur la situation sécuritaire au Kivu | 11th June | Le Potentiel | allAfrica

Ex-CNDP mutiny: M23
Situation in Eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo | 6th June | US Department of State
L’Union européenne condamne sans réserve les séditions des mutins congolais à l’Est de la RDC | 6th June | Digital Congo
Les USA et l’EU préoccupés par la situation de guerre dans l’Est de la RDC | 7th June | Radio Okapi
Guerre dans l'est - Les condamnations de la France | 9th June | Le Potentiel | allAfrica
L’ambassadeur américain, James Entwistle, encourage la RDC à combattre le M23 | 12th June | Radio Okapi
The United States, the EU and France are concerned about the continued mutiny of officers and soldiers formerly integrated into the armed forces of the DRC and now operating in North Kivu province as an armed group under the name M23, and express their support to the DRC in combating it.
Congo army claims 200 mutineers killed since April | 6th June | AFP | Reliefweb
Affrontements au Nord-Kivu, diffusion du premier bilan officiel | 7th June | Missionary International Service News Agency (MISNA) | Reliefweb
At least 200 mutineers have been killed in the eastern DRC since fighting broke out in April, an army report released Wednesday said. The first official death toll released by Kinshasa also said 40 troops from the FARDC regular army have been killed in the clashes.
Military stalemate, diplomatic positioning | 6th June | Congo Siasa
Despite official indications by the Congolese government, the military situation on the ground against the M23 rebellion has not changed much. Several days ago, the government launched another push up the mountains against the rebellion. According to the government spokesman, they took several hills and victory appeared to be within reach. On Monday, the armed forces commander Gen Didier Etumba gave a presentation to a ministerial meeting in which he said that they had killed 200, wounded 250 and prompted 374 others to surrender.
DR Congo: Where logic ends? | 6th June | BBC News
A mutiny by soldiers in the eastern DR Congo has turned into an international dispute, with allegations that Rwanda is supporting the rebels. The BBC's Gabriel Gatehouse reports from a lawless region where politics, history and nature create a dangerous mix.
DRC: Within Days of Crushing Ntaganda Rebellion | 6th June | Voice of America
The DRC government says it is close to ending a rebellion by soldiers loyal to Bosco Ntaganda, a militia leader wanted by the International Criminal Court.
La MONUSCO se déploie à Rutshuru, zone de combats, pour protéger les populations | 7th June | RFI | allAfrica
In an operation called “Strong Flank”, MONUSCO is deploying troops to Rutshuru, a town with 393,000 inhabitants, to protect the population from the figthing between the Congolese army and the M23 rebel movement.
RDC: Matata Ponyo à Goma pour évaluer la situation sécuritaire au Nord-Kivu | 7th June | Radio Okapi
New fighting in DR Congo as PM visits | 7th June | AFP | Reliefweb
Est RDC: nouveaux combats armée/mutins lors d'une visite du Premier ministre | 7th June | AFP | Reliefweb
Mutineers and army loyalists clashed again in the jungles of eastern DRC on Thursday, just as the prime minister, Augustin Matata Ponyo, visited to assess the region's security. An AFP reporter could hear the blasts from Bunagana.
RDC : Mutinerie aux Kivu, Matata Ponyo exclut les négociations | 8th June | Radio Okapi
Nord-Kivu: le ministre de la Défense promet de combattre le M23 à Rutshuru | 8th June | Radio Okapi
Matata Ponyo annonce l’option de son gouvernement de « mettre militairement fin à la guerre » à l’Est du pays | 9th June | Le Potentiel | Digital Congo
DRC Government Rules Out Talks With Rebels | 11th June | Voice of America
The DRC’s government has ruled out negotiations with the M23 rebel group and “will end the war in North Kivu militarily”.
Les députés veulent faire de la Francophonie une vitrine des violences de l’Est de la RDC | 9th June | Radio Okapi
The members of parliament have recommended to the Minister of Foreign Affairs to seize the occasion of the 14th Francophony Summit organised in Kinshasa to make known to the world the atrocities of the war in the East of the country.

Armed men kill army officer near Goma
Nord-Kivu: des hommes armés abattent un officier militaire à Kesengese | 7th June | Radio Okapi
Armed men have killed in an ambush the commander of the 1st battalion of the 802nd regiment of the FARDC based in Mugunga.
FDLR and Mayi-Mayi violence in Kalehe (South Kivu)
Les menaces des groupes armés persistent à Kalehe | 8th June | Le Potentiel | allAfrica
According to MONUSCO, the Congolese army suffered two attacks from the Mayi-Mayi group Rahiya Mutomboki in Mwabembe (South Kivu).
La coalition Nyatura-FDLR prend en otage 35 personnes à Lumbishi | 11th June | Radio Okapi
Mayi-Mayi militiamen of Rahiya Mutomboki attacked the Mayi-Mayi Kirikicho in Kalehe territory (South Kivu). Immediately an ethnic coalition between the armed group Nyatura and the FDLR was created to oppose them.
FDLR and Mayi-Mayi violence in Masisi (North Kivu)
Nord-Kivu: les FDLR incendient 4 villages à Upamando I et II | 6th June | Radio Okapi
Rebels of the Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Rwanda (FDLR), joined with the Nyadura militia, have burned down four villages in Masisi territory.
Les rebelles des Forces démocratiques pour la libération du Rwanda (FDLR) alliés à la milice Nyadura ont incendié quatre villages mardi 5 juin dans les groupements Upamando I et II à 80 km au Sud de Minova-centre dans le territoire de Masisi (Nord Kivu). Selon des sources locales, la situation sécuritaire demeure précaire dans le groupement Upamando I et II où des populations se déplacent vers les villages voisins dit sécurisés.
DRC: Scores killed as Mai-Mai target Kinyarwanda speakers | 12th June | IRIN
More than 100 people have been killed and thousands displaced in ethnically motivated massacres in northeastern DRC since mid-May, according to government officials.
Mayi-Mayi and ADF/Nalu violence in Oïcha and Butembo (North Kivu)
Beni : un militaire congolais et un élève tués par des rebelles ougandais à Oïcha | 7th June | Radio Okapi
A Congolese soldier and a schoolboy were killed in an attack by the Ugandan rebels of ADF/Nalu in the town of Oïcha.
Nord-Kivu: les FARDC tuent 8 Maï-Maï à Butembo | 7th June | Radio Okapi
According to local sources, a coalition of Mayi-Mayi Tchandenga and ADF-Nalu attacked a military camp in Butembo. Eight militiamen were killed.
FARDC restore pillaged belongings in Walikale (North Kivu)
Les FARDC restituent aux civils leurs biens pillés à Walikale | 11th June | Radio Okapi
During a cerimony in Walikale town, the FARDC restored the goods of civilians robbed by the armed group Nduma Defense of Congo (NDC/Cheka).

LRA attacks park guards (Province Orientale)
LRA rebels attack DR Congo wildlife park guards | 7th June | AFP | Reliefweb
Guards in the northeastern Garamba National Park were attacked by Lord's Resistance Army (LRA) rebels who are an increasing threat to the reserve, its South African managers said Thursday.

FARDC accused of rape of Pygmee women in Bafwasende (Province Orientale)
Province Orientale: des militaires accusés de viol sur des femmes pygmées à Bafwasende | 12th June | Radio Okapi
According to local sources, FARDC deployed to hunt after poachers in Bafwasende territory have raped five Pygmee women, aged between 14 and 17.
Mayi-Mayi enrol minors in Ubundu (Province Orientale)
Ubundu : la société civile dénonce l’enrôlement de mineurs par les combattants Maï-Maï | 6th June | Radio Okapi
The civil society of Ubundu territory denounces the enrolment of minors by Mayi-Mayi combatants of two opposing tribes.
FRPI militia in Ituri (Province Orientale)
Province orientale - Le FRPI consolide ses positions au sud-ouest de Bogoro | 11th June | Le Potentiel | allAfrica
The ‘Ituri Front for Patriotic Resistance’ (FRPI) is consolidating its positions in Irumu territory.

FARDC extorting population in Katanga
Katanga: des FARDC accusées de rançonner la population à Lwabo | 7th June | Radio Okapi
A captain, a lieutenant and two soldiers of the Congolese army have erected a roadblock in Lwabo (South Katanga), where they extort travelers on the road between Kamina and Kolwezi.

Kinshasa Seminar on army reform
Le Président Joseph Kabila rappelle aux éléments des Forces Armées de la République Démocratique du Congo le caractère républicain de l’armée | 7th June | Digital Congo
South Africa continues to train Congolese combat units
L’Afrique du sud disposée à poursuivre la formation des unités de combats en RDC | 6th June | Digital Congo
FARDC - Pretoria poursuit la formation des unités d'élite de combats | 7th June | Le Potentiel | allAfrica
South Africa has contributed to the training of three battalions of the Rapid Intervention Forces in Likasi (Katanga).

Analysis of eastern DRC conflicts since 1995
International dimensions of the conflict in Eastern Congo | 6th June | Pambazuka News
The profits and riches to be gained from exploitation of Eastern Congo's natural resources continue to propel violence, pillage and the suffering of the Congolese people.



Russia delivers last Su-30s to Uganda | 7th June | Flightglobal
Uganda has received its last of six Sukhoi Su-30MK2 two-seat multirole fighters, according to Russian media reports.
Uganda: the wrong transition? | 7th June | Pambazuka News
Long before the ICC, or even Invisible Children, made Kony an Internet sensation, local activists were shouting themselves hoarse trying to get the world to understand the broader context of the conflict in the north – President Museveni’s stranglehold on the country for almost three decades.


Former chief of secret services allegedly killed summarily
Un chef rebelle, ex-responsable des services secrets, a été exécuté | 8th June | RFI | allAfrica
L’ancien chef des services secrets, Jean-Petit Nduwimana, aurait été tué | 8th June |
Reportedly an ex-chief of Burundi’s secret services, considered by Bujumbura to be one of the main leaders of a new rebellion, arrested in the DRC a month ago, has been “executed summarily recently”.
Mines Advisory Group Programme update
MAG Burundi Programme Update May 2012 | 11th June | Mines Advisory Group | Reliefweb
Reporting Period: 01 May 2012 – 31 May 2012.



Central African Republic
Central African Republic at ‘crucial’ juncture, UN envoy tells Security Council | 6th June | UN News Centre
La Représentante spéciale du Secrétaire général souligne qu’il est essentiel de bâtir sur la « dynamique de paix » initiée dans le pays | 6th June | UN Security Council | Reliefweb
Central African Republic at critical juncture, world community must help it build on momentum of recent political, security progress, Security Council told | 6th June | UN Security Council | Reliefweb
The top United Nations envoy to the CAR today stressed the need for the country to continue building on the momentum recently created on the political, security and disarmament fronts.
Report of the Secretary-General on the situation in the Central African Republic and on the activities of the United Nations Integrated Peacebuilding Office in that country (S/2012/374) | 7th June | UN Security Council | Reliefweb
Le Conseil de sécurité inquiet du climat politique et sécuritaire en République centrafricaine | 7th June | UN News Centre
South Sudan – Sudan
UN is asked to push for arrest of Sudan's Bashir | 6th June | Reuters
Sudan Talks Bog Down in Map Dispute | 6th June | Voice of America
Amnesty urges UN to protect Sudan civilians | 7th June | Al Jazeera
Nightmare scenario looms in South Sudan, aid groups warn | 7th June | CNN
Sudan: Country, South Sudan End First Security Meeting Without Agreement | 7th June | Sudan Tribune | allAfrica
South Sudan’s Jonglei Finds Calm but Root Causes of Bitter Violence Persist | 7th June | The Enough Project
Finances, Not Fighting, Force Sudans to the Negotiating Table | 7th June | Daily Maverick | allAfrica
UN deeply concerned about armed raids in Sudan state | 8th June | Reuters
The United Nations is deeply concerned about reports of armed groups raiding and looting markets in Sudan's North Kordofan state, forcing civilians to flee and marking a possible escalation of violence in borderlands.
Sudan, S.Sudan break off talks, no deal in sight | 8th June | Reuters
Rival Sudans fail to agree on disputed border | 8th June | Al Jazeera
Talks On Abyei Administration Have No Positive Outcome As Well | 8th June | Sudan Tribune | allAfrica
Negotiations Strive for a Consensus | 9th June | ISS | allAfrica
Sudan, S. Sudan to resume talks later this month: official | 9th June | Reuters
Country Rejects Presence of 150 Sudanese Troops in Abyei | 9th June | Sudan Tribune | allAfrica
South Sudan to Seek International Arbitration Over Disputes Borders - Salva Kiir | 11th June | SudanTribune | allAfrica


Refugee and IDP Reports

Non-comprehensive overview and selected articles on the status of refugees in the Great Lakes Region


OCHA reports
OCHA Annual Report 2011 | 6th June | UNOCHA | Reliefweb
Situation humanitaire en République Démocratique du Congo - Note d’information hebdomadaire à la presse, 06 juin 2012 | 6th June | UNOCHA | Reliefweb
Bulletin d'information humanitaire - Province du Sud-Kivu - 06 juin 2012 | 7th June | UNOCHA | Reliefweb
Action humanitaire en République Démocratique du Congo - Bulletin hebdomadaire du 8 juin 2012 | 11th June | UNOCHA | Reliefweb
La situation humanitaire du Nord-Kivu reste critique, selon Ocha | 11th June | Radio Okapi
Repercussions of the Conflict in the North & South Kivu | 7th June | MSF | allAfrica
The population of the Kivu provinces in the east of the DRC is fighting an incessant war of survival, not only against the bullets flying in the latest peak of this long-running conflict but also against the vacuum of infrastructure and health resources. In an environment sodden with fear and instability, people are suffering the repercussions that come from living in the middle of this maelstrom.
"My Mother...Could Not Flee": Conflict's Impact on Civilians in Eastern DRC | 7th June | MSF | Reliefweb
Civilians in North and South Kivu provinces in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) are struggling to survive in an environment in which violence and fear are omnipresent but basic infrastructure and medical resources are all but non-existent.
Bishops from Bukavu
Mutinerie aux Kivu : des évêques déplorent «la misère sordide des populations» | 7th June | Radio Okapi
More funding key as UN agency assists civilians fleeing violence in DR Congo | 8th June | UN News Centre
Le PAM redouble d'efforts pour venir en aide aux déplacés de l'est de la RDC | 8th June | UN News Centre
The WFP today stressed the need for sufficient resources as it strives to meet the needs of a growing number of people displaced by violence in eastern DRC
Critical voices on MONUSCO failing to protect civilians
The UN's Incompetence in DRC | 7th June | The New Times | allAfrica
Open Letter to the United Nations Security Council on the Situation in the Democratic Republic of Congo | 11th June | International Crisis Group
History is again repeating itself in the east of the DRC. There is a risk of serious escalation of violence and the United Nations Stabilization Mission in the Congo (MONUSCO) is failing in its core mandate of stabilisation and protection of civilians. This month's renewal of MONUSCO presents a vital opportunity for the Security Council to review its strategy in the DRC.
Hervé Ladsous à Louise Mushikiwabo: « La Monusco fait son maximum pour protéger les civils dans l’Est de la RDC » | 12th June | Radio Okapi
IDPs in Masisi (North Kivu)
Début de l’assistance humanitaire aux déplacés de Minova et Bucanca | 10th June | Radio Okapi
Nord-Kivu : des déplacés fuient les exactions des FDLR à Ufamandu | 12th June | Radio Okapi
IDPs in Bafwasende (Province Orientale)
Province Orientale: plus de 600 ménages vivent difficilement à Bafwanduo | 12th June | Radio Okapi
IDPs in Dungu (Province Orientale)
Dungu : 12 enfants victimes de la LRA accueillis dans un centre d’accueil catholique | 12th June | Radio Okapi


Dismantled Refugee Camps Leave Children Homeless | 11th June | Radio Netherlands Worldwide | allAfrica
Local authorities in the northern Ugandan town of Gulu, which is just recovering from the 21-year-old Joseph Kony-led insurgency, are facing the new challenge of housing children who have been left homeless since the camps for displaced people have been closed.



Congolese refugees
Congolese Refugee Relocation Set for Monday | 6th June | The New Times | allAfrica
Refugees from the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) are scheduled to be moved from the Rubavu-based Nkamira Transit Centre to the new Kigeme Camp in Nyamagabe.
Number of Congolese Refugees Transit Camp Passes 10,000 | 8th June | UNHCR | allAfrica
Relocation of DRC Refugees Begins Today | 10th June | The New Times | allAfrica
The exercise to transport Congolese refugees from Nkamira refugee Transit camp Rubavu District, Western Province, to a new site in Kigeme, Nyamagabe District, Southern Province, is slated to begin today.
Midmar Buys Land for Refugees' Settlement | 10th June | The New Times | allAfrica
Residents of Kigeme cell in Gasaka sector Nyamagabe district have been bought off by MIDMAR so that the site is used for hosting incoming Congolese refugees in Kigeme camps.
Congolese Refugees Begin to Relocate | 12th June | The New Times | allAfrica
The first convoy of trucks transporting over 140 Congolese refugees arrived at Kigeme camp in Nyamagabe District late on Sunday.
Protecting refugee children from the DRC | 7th June | Save the Children | Reliefweb
Just over a month ago, refugees from the DRC began crossing the border in to Rwanda. They were fleeing fighting between rebel militias and government forces in North Kivu Province.
Numbers have continued to increase and by last week (early June), around 11,000 refugees were being accommodated temporarily at the Nkamira Transit Centre, some 25 km from the DRC border. Officially, the Centre can hold 2,600 people. Nearly 85% of these refugees are women and children.
CERF provides $3 million in life-saving support for Congolese refugees in Rwanda | 11th June | OCHA | Reliefweb
Thousands of people have been forced to flee their homes and remain internally displaced, or have sought refuge in neighbouring Rwanda and Uganda, as a result of intense fighting between Congolese Government forces and armed groups in the DRC.


Justice and Tribunals 

Non-comprehensive overview and selected articles on major trials and tribunals for crimes committed in the Great Lakes Region


ICC – Lubanga trial
Trial Chamber I Issues First Trial Judgment of the ICC - Analysis of Sexual Violence in the Judgment | 6th June | Lubanga Trial Website | allAfrica
The following commentary first ran in a Special Issue of the Legal Eye on the ICC, a regular eLetter produced by the Women's Initiatives for Gender Justice, an international women's human rights organization that advocates for gender justice through the International Criminal Court (ICC) and works with women most affected by the conflict situations under investigation by the ICC.
This Special Issue is the first in a series of four Special Issues reporting on the first trial Judgment handed down by Trial Chamber I in the case against Thomas Lubanga Dyilo on March 14, 2012. The views and opinions expressed here do not necessarily reflect the views and opinions of the Open Society Justice Initiative. To read the full version of the first Special Issue Legal Eye eLetter, click here.
Kinshasa – trial against Ituri militia
Le procès des ex-miliciens du FPJC reprend ce mardi à Kinshasa | 12th June | Radio Okapi



UN genocide tribunal transfers former Rwandan official to national authorities | 7th June | UN News Centre
ICTR Refers Last Detainee to the Country | 9th June | The New Times | allAfrica
The United Nations tribunal trying key suspects implicated in the 1994 genocide in Rwanda, has transferred to Rwandan authorities the case of Bernard Munyagishari, a former Government official charged with crimes against humanity.
Mr. Munyagishari is accused of recruiting, training and leading Interahamwe militiamen in mass killings and rapes of Tutsi women in the Gisenyi prefecture and beyond between April and July 1994 – and his transfer to Rwanda is the fifth by the UN International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR).


Natural Resources in the Great Lakes Region

Recent news on issues relating to natural resource extraction and governance in the Great Lakes Region.


Sudan nets $603m in gold exports to April 1 | 12th June | Reuters | Mineweb
Sudan has exported about 13.2 tonnes of gold in the year to April 1, netting it about $603 million in a push to build up the minerals industry to make up for lost oil revenues, the mining ministry said on Monday.


Extractive Companies, Energy, Trade and Foreign Investment

Recent news on national and international extractive and energy companies and investment in the Great Lakes Region

An African Investment Boom | 9th June | Other Voices | Barron’s
Africa is thriving, with foreign direct investment—much of it from China—expected to reach $150 billion in 2015. But corruption remains a huge problem.
NYF Africa : des stratégies pour profiter des ressources énergétiques en Afrique | 11th June |
Economists and energy experts have been labouring at the New York Forum Africa over strategies to allow development and a massive distribution of energy on the continent.



ENRC (Katanga)
Cracks open over ENRC's Congo deals as chairman fails to endorse partner | 7th June | The Guardian
Mehmet Dalman avoids 'leading question' on controversial businessman Dan Gertler, from whom the mining group has bought interests in the DRC.
FTSE 100 mining company ENRC must openly address Congo corruption concerns | 11th June | Global Witness
Mining group ENRC urged to reveal details of controversial Congo deals | 12th June | The Guardian
Congo spectre hangs over ENRC as investors meet | 12th June | Reuters
Questions over London-listed miner ENRC’s Congo deals | 12th June | The Bureau of Investigative Journalism
Eurasian Natural Resources Corporation (ENRC), one of the largest mining groups listed on London’s stock exchange, must publicly address concerns over corruption risks associated with its rapid acquisition of mining assets in the Democratic Republic of Congo, said Global Witness in a memo to ENRC’s shareholders published today.
ENRC pledges transparency as governance haunts AGM | 12th June | Reuters | Mining Weekly
Kazakh miner ENRC promised shareholders a simpler and more transparent structure and said on Tuesday it is considering options to boost its lagging valuation, from joint ventures to sales and even spinning off its international growth assets.
But the new chairman of the UK-listed miner – trying to shake off a reputation tainted by deals in Congo that continue to raise governance concerns – warned after its shareholder meeting that change would not happen overnight, despite continued calls for more clarity on the minority owners of some of its operations.
Mawson West (Katanga)
Mawson West Announces US$30 Million Debt Financing | 7th June | Marketwire
Perth, Australia and Toronto, Ontario - Mawson West Ltd. announces that it has received from RMB Resources Limited of Sydney, Australia a credit-approved debt financing commitment to provide a US$30 million working capital facility to partly finance development of the cut-back of the Dikulushi copper-silver mine, the development of the Kapulo open pit copper mine and for related corporate purposes.
Tin smelter in Katanga
MSC to invest in DR Congo smelter | 6th June | ITRI
Malaysia Smelting Corporation (MSC) has agreed to take a 40% stake in Africa Smelting Corporation (ASC), which is currently controlled by Mining Mineral Resources (MMR). ASC is building a new 3,500 tpy tin smelter in Lubumbashi in the Katanga province of DR Congo.
Copper/cobalt (Katanga)
Alexander Mining plc-First Cobalt and Copper Metal Produced From Commissioning of AmmLeach® Copper/Cobalt Demonstration Pilot Plant | 7th June | Marketwire
Alexander Mining plc - Successful commissioning of AmmLeach® copper/cobalt plant in South Africa has produced its first copper and cobalt cathode metal.
First AmmLeach® plant in the world with two circuits through to copper and cobalt cathode metal, compared with majority of DRC cobalt currently produced as a concentrate requiring further processing outside the DRC.
The DRC currently supplies over half of the world's annual cobalt mine production (98,000t), which has a current global value of around US$2.8 billion per annum. Alexander believes that its AmmLeach® process offers a clear competitive advantage for the production of cobalt through to metal cathode in the DRC, as well as offering a way to treat high-acid-consuming carbonate copper ores in the DRC that hitherto have been uneconomic to treat.
Gold in Ituri (Province Orientale)
Mwana seeks partnership in Ituri region | 6th June | Africa Mining Intelligence
Although it set out recently to resume work on the Bindura nickel mine in Zimbabwe, the Mwana Africa group headed by Kalaa Mpinga has no intention of neglecting its gold assets in the Ituri region in Congo-K.
IFC mulls pooling railway lines for miners | 6th June | Africa Mining Intelligence
The International Finance Corp is setting up a program to promote the joint use of railways by mining companies in west and central Africa. The overarching aim is to break down the isolation of the continent’s last world-class iron ore mines and bring their goods to market.
New stab at reviving Sosider? | 6th June | Africa Mining Intelligence
Le gouvernement scrute une nouvelle tentative de relance de la SOSIDER | 6th June | Le Potentiel | allAfrica
A new episode has arisen in the long saga concerning efforts to revive the Société Sidérurgique de Maluku (Sosider). In late May, Congo-K’s new industry and SMEs minister, Remy Musungayi, discussed the project with a visiting delegation from the International Finance Corp.
Le ministre des hydrocarbures promet son appui au plan de développement de Perenco | 11th June | Le Potentiel | allAfrica
The government has promised its full support to Perenco for the development of its oil activities, particularly in Bas-Congo province.
Hydropower – Tshopo (Kisangani)
Kisangani - La Belgique apporte son aide à la fiabilisation de la centrale de la Tshopo | 8th June | Le Potentiel | allAfrica
Kisangani: la Snel reçoit un don de 12 cabines électriques préfabriquées | 11th June | Radio Okapi
Dans un mémo au Premier ministre, Titres forestiers : RRN et Greenepeace contre le non respect du moratoire | 6th June | Digital Congo
Greenpeace Africa and the ‘Réseau ressources naturelles’ (RRN) denounce the deceit by foreign operators who are logging in the Congolese forests under the guise of artisanal exploitation.
Trade & customs DRC/Uganda
Aru : les importateurs s’installent en Ouganda pour échapper à la douane congolaise | 7th June | Radio Okapi
Trade & customs DRC/Burundi
Grands Lacs : les frontières ouvertes 24h/24 entre la RDC et le Burundi | 12th June | Radio Okapi



Energy Probe Splits MPs | 6th June | The Observer (Kampala) | allAfrica
A bitter split has developed among MPs investigating the energy sector, after they failed to agree on a report of their findings.
Govt Targets Diaspora Money for Oil | 7th June | The Observer (Kampala) | allAfrica
Plans to tap resources from Ugandans living abroad gained momentum this week, with the United Nations Development Programme calling for proposals for a feasibility study for establishing an international Diaspora bond.



Turks investing in gold mining
Rwanda woos Turkish investors | 11th June | The Independent (Kampala)
Rwanda is gradually winning the hearts of Turkish investors with some already having registered their businesses in the country, while a growing number of others are showing interests in various sectors of the economy. They are interested in investing in key sectors such as housing, hospitality, energy, Information Communication Technology (ICT), construction, mining and education. At least two companies have already registered in Rwanda. The two companies include one that seeks to establish a Turkish school in Kigali, while another one identified as ORTRADAGU is interested in gold exploration. It has already received approval for gold exploration.
Energy prioritised in national budget
Budget - Energy to Top Rwangombwa's Priorities | 11th June | Rwanda Focus | allAfrica
As finance minister John Rwangombwa heads to Parliament on Thursday to present the national budget proposals for 2012/2013 financial year, the question most people are asking is: which sectors will get a bigger slice of the cake? Initial signs point to energy and other poverty reduction interventions.


Regulation, Compliance and Corporate Social Responsibility

Non-comprehensive overview and selected articles on legal and reputational issues relating to businesses operating in the Great Lakes Region 

Kimberley Process
Remarks to the Kimberley Process Intersessional Natural Resources Governance | 6th June | U.S. Department of State
Kimberley Process Rift Expected to Deepen Over Reform Calls | 7th June | SW Radio Africa | allAfrica
Differences that have sometimes led to flaring tempers among government members of the international diamond trade watchdog the Kimberley Process are now expected to deepen, over pressure on the group to reform.
Call on EU for company ownership transparency
Organisations representing over 1000 civil society groups call on the EU to force companies to reveal their true ownership | 6th June | Global Witness
Organisations representing over 1000 civil society groups have written to the EU calling on it to establish a new standard for company ownership transparency. NGO coalitions including Publish What You Pay, the UN Convention against Corruption civil society coalition and the Task Force on Financial Integrity and Economic Development, are asking for a new standard that companies have to publicly disclose their ultimate, or beneficial, owner. 



Intel plans first conflict-free microprocessors
Intel Plans Conflict-Free Tantalum Microprocessors | 7th June | Resource Investing News | Business Insider
Intel has set the goal of manufacturing the world’s first microprocessor validated as conflict free for gold, tin, tungsten, and tantalum by the end of 2013. In efforts to achieve this objective, the company has set a shorter-term goal of demonstrating that its microprocessors are verified as conflict free for tantalum in 2012. When sourced from the DRC, the four minerals listed above are considered conflict minerals due to the extreme human rights abuses and violence that take place where they are mined, and the fact that proceeds from these mines have been used to bankroll violent groups.
New Mining Division in Kalemie (Katanga) for mineral traceability
Lubumbashi - Un nouveau chef de division des mines installée à Kalemie |10th June | Radio Okapi
Une nouvelle division des mines a été installée à Kalemie au nord du Katanga cette semaine, a confirmé, samedi 9 juin, le ministre provincial des mines, Mumba Gama. Elle a pour mission d'encadrer la production minière, lutter contre l'exportation frauduleuse de la cassitérite, du coltan et de l'or et lutter pour une bonne traçabilité de ces minerais.
Criticism against Enough Project’s plea for Dodd-Frank
Enough is enough, Enough! | 7th June | Kivu Mining


IPIS Recent Publications

Upstream Pilot Implementation of the OECD Due Diligence Guidance for Responsible Supply Chains of Minerals from Conflict-Affected and High-Risk Areas  Baseline Report on the Supplement on Tin, Tantalum, and Tungsten | November 2011 | OECD | IPIS
IPIS executed the research for and writing of this OECD report. The present baseline report is the first in a cycle of three reports on the implementation by upstream companies of the Supplement on Tin, Tantalum and Tungsten of the OECD Due Diligence Guidance for Responsible Supply Chains of Minerals from Conflict-Affected and High-Risk Areas (hereafter “the Guidance”). The objective of this report is to understand where upstream companies currently stand with the implementation of due diligence.

Violence against women in Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. Whose responsibility? Whose complicity? | November 2011 | ITUC | IPIS

IPIS contributed the research for and writing of this ITUC report. Summary: Eastern DRC has been ravaged by war and violence since the mid-1990s. Civilians carry the greatest burden of the conflict. Women and girls are especially vulnerable to such attacks.. Hundreds of women and girls get sexually violated in their homes and at their workplace. Fuelled and motivated by Congo’s minerals, rebel and army forces are inclined to maintain an insecure environment that ensures the continuation of the status quo. Congo’s conflict minerals go through a convoluted, yet manageable and traceable, supply chain and end up in industrialised consumer products. The introduction of transparency and governance into the mining sector is advancing, but still much has to be done.

Bisie. A one-year snapshot of the DRC’s principal cassiterite mine | November 2011 | IPIS

Much has happened in the mining sector of Eastern DRC over the last year. President Kabila imposed a ban on all mining activities last fall, during which production fell considerably. As soon as the suspension was lifted in the spring of this year, the major global electronic companies stopped buying minerals from the region, provoking a de facto embargo on Congo’s minerals with detrimental effects on the sector. At the same time, the Congolese government has taken major steps to restructure its army in the east of the country. These different decisions in the mining and security sectors have affected the nature and volume of minerals production and export and have reconfigured the security situation in the region. The consequences of these actions are discussed and illustrated with the use of the most important and well-known cassiterite mine in North Kivu called Bisie.

“Véhicules civils militarisables” and the EU arms embargo on Sudan | September 2011 | IPIS | TA-R | ASER

In this case study we will focus on the use of European manufactured trucks in the Darfur region, and more specifically what the defence industry calls “véhicules civils militarisables” - commercial vehicles that can be militarized. All armed actors in the conflict require vehicles to transport combatants through the vast Darfur deserts. Japanese Toyota (Landcruisers) pick-up trucks are the most common vehicles that are spotted in the region. Usually they are mounted with machineguns, and as such compose an important assault instrument. Furthermore, a wide array of military trucks or civilian trucks modified for military purposes are being used in Darfur, e.g. anti-aircraft guns are mounted on a variety of trucks to function as support and/or attack vehicles. Some of these trucks are European models, assembled by a local company: GIAD Automotive Industry Company.

Conflict motives in Kenya’s North Rift region | September 2011 | IPIS intern series

Kenya's North Rift Region continues to suffer from violent conflict in which a series of actors are involved. Armed groups perform widespread and devastating raids against neighbouring communities. The strength of these warrior groups varies regionally and from case to case. Security operations are often characterised by their disproportionate brutality. Power figures are known to instigate violence or organise and finance armed militias. Uasin Gishu and Trans-Nzoia bore the brunt of the post-election violence in 2007 and 2008. The violence mainly pitted Kalenjin warrior groups against Kikuyu communities in a struggle over political injustices and power but also over economic discrepancies and feelings of ethnic antagonism.

Kenya’s role in the trade of gold from Eastern DRC | August 2011 | IPIS | Justice et paix

On 11 September 2010, the Congolese Ministry of Mines put out a statement in which it announced President Kabila’s decision to suspend all exploitation and export of minerals from the provinces of North Kivu, South Kivu and Maniema. The aim of the mining ban was to break the link between mining and armed conflict in eastern DRC. This paper shows, however, that, even during the period of the embargo, Congolese minerals continued to find their way to the world market. The Kenyan capital of Nairobi appears to have served as an important hub for regional and international gold traders eyeing the mineral riches of eastern DRC.

The Arms Flyers - Commercial Aviation, Human Rights, and the Business of War and Arms | July 2011 | IPIS | Ta-R

In the last decades, the “business of war” has attracted thousands of civilian transport and logistics companies, especially in the aviation sector. State and non-State actors engaged in armed conflicts or in military operations that require substantial logistic support have increasingly resorted to the services of civilian transport operators to fulfil their transport and logistics needs. This report firstly presents a series of cases - that illustrate and document the continuous involvement of aviation companies in the business of war. The report then offers an analysis of international and national laws on the transport of weapons by air and a discussion of air safety regulations as enacted in the US and in Europe. The report also deals with the fundamentally flawed research that has sought to use air safety initiatives as a weapon in the fight against arms trafficking by air and has thus unfortunately constituted much of the basis for European Union projects to fight arms trafficking by air. An analysis of the present situation in air cargo markets and its influence on the logistics of wars and humanitarian operations concludes the report.

From Kanga to Kitenge: exploring patterns of cultural change in the Kigoma region | May 2011 | IPIS

The article discusses the current changes occurring in Kigoma, one of the poorest regions of Tanzania. For decades, the far-western corner and the point of convergence between Tanzania, Burundi and the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) is seen as peripheral within its national state. However, the steady move away from socialism to liberalism and the relative stability in the Great Lakes Region together with the associated reduction of refugee flows led to the gradual revaluation of Kigoma as a strategically important (business) centre. The case of women's wear is used to explore whether and how recent national, regional and global social and economic changes affected Kigoma's cultural set-up.

Guide to Current Mining Reform Initiatives in Eastern DRC | April 2011 | IPIS

US legislation has brought on a variety of initiatives aiming at mining reform in EDRC. This paper describes the basic elements of these initiatives, their genesis, the current state of affairs, the inkages between the initiatives and the main challenges they face. Further, the paper briefly evaluates the initiatives while focussing on the steps ahead. 
To see the sources of IPIS' briefings, please click here.
To subscribe/unsubscribe, please click here

©2014 IPIS vzw - Italiëlei 98a - Antwerpen